A History of Jewish-Muslim Relations

A History of Jewish-Muslim Relations: From the Origins to the Present Day

Abdelwahab Meddeb
Benjamin Stora
Jane Marie Todd
Michael B. Smith
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 1152
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  • Book Info
    A History of Jewish-Muslim Relations
    Book Description:

    This is the first encyclopedic guide to the history of relations between Jews and Muslims around the world from the birth of Islam to today. Richly illustrated and beautifully produced, the book features more than 150 authoritative and accessible articles by an international team of leading experts in history, politics, literature, anthropology, and philosophy. Organized thematically and chronologically, this indispensable reference provides critical facts and balanced context for greater historical understanding and a more informed dialogue between Jews and Muslims.

    Part I covers the medieval period; Part II, the early modern period through the nineteenth century, in the Ottoman Empire, Africa, Asia, and Europe; Part III, the twentieth century, including the exile of Jews from the Muslim world, Jews and Muslims in Israel, and Jewish-Muslim politics; and Part IV, intersections between Jewish and Muslim origins, philosophy, scholarship, art, ritual, and beliefs. The main articles address major topics such as the Jews of Arabia at the origin of Islam; special profiles cover important individuals and places; and excerpts from primary sources provide contemporary views on historical events.

    Contributors include Mark R. Cohen, Alain Dieckhoff, Michael Laskier, Vera Moreen, Gordon D. Newby, Marina Rustow, Daniel Schroeter, Kirsten Schulze, Mark Tessler, John Tolan, Gilles Veinstein, and many more.

    Covers the history of relations between Jews and Muslims around the world from the birth of Islam to todayWritten by an international team of leading scholarsFeatures in-depth articles on social, political, and cultural historyIncludes profiles of important people (Eliyahu Capsali, Joseph Nasi, Mohammed V, Martin Buber, Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin, Edward Said, Messali Hadj, Mahmoud Darwish) and places (Jerusalem, Alexandria, Baghdad)Presents passages from essential documents of each historical period, such as the Cairo Geniza, Al-Sira, and Judeo-Persian illuminated manuscriptsRichly illustrated with more than 250 images, including maps and color photographsIncludes extensive cross-references, bibliographies, and an index

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-4913-0
    Subjects: History, Religion

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-6)
  2. Foreword
    (pp. 7-8)
    Jean Mouttapa and Anne-Sophie Jouanneau

    This book came into being in response to a threefold need: scholarly, political, and pedagogical.

    In the first place, we noticed a gap in international historiography. Although many studies have been published in various countries on the fate of the Jewish communities in one Islamic context or another, far fewer attempts have been made to provide a comprehensive view of the history of the Jews in the Islamic world. The most recent and most remarkable of these is an enormous enterprise, published in six volumes by Brill in 2010, theEncyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World.But there was...

  3. Editorial Committee
    (pp. 9-12)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 13-24)
    Abdelwahab Meddeb and Benjamin Stora

    “I grew up in a traditional religious household in the section of Tunis near al-Zaytuna Mosque, a hive of Qurʾanic activity. My grandfather and my father, ulema andmudarri, promulgated their doctrinal authority from their pulpit at the Great Mosque, built in the mid-ninth century. Itsmihrabwas redone in the Hispano-Moorish style by an Andalusian architect expelled from Spain in 1609, along with the rest of the Moriscos. Like so many others, he found refuge and a new home in Tunis. My father’s colleagues met at our home for seminars to study the hadith and thetafsīr. From my...

  5. Transcriptions
    (pp. 25-25)
  6. Part I: The Middle Ages
    • Prologue
      • The “Golden Age” of Jewish-Muslim Relations: Myth and Reality
        (pp. 28-38)
        Mark R. Cohen

        In the nineteenth century there was nearly universal consensus that Jews in the Islamic Middle Ages—taking al-Andalus, or Muslim Spain, as the model—lived in a “Golden Age” of Jewish-Muslim harmony,¹ an interfaith utopia of tolerance andconvivencia.² It was thought that Jews mingled freely and comfortably with Muslims, immersed in Arabic-Islamic culture, including the language, poetry, philosophy, science, medicine, and the study of Scripture—a society, furthermore, in which Jews could and many did ascend to the pinnacles of political power in Muslim government. This idealized picture went beyond Spain to encompass the entire Muslim world, from Baghdad...

    • Chapter I The Emergence of Islam
      • The Jews of Arabia at the Birth of Islam
        (pp. 39-57)
        Gordon D. Newby

        Jews at the time of Muhammad and the rise of Islam had a long history in Arabia and were well integrated into both urban and rural environments as urban craftsmen, traders, farmers, and bedouin. Most Arab clans and tribes had Jewish members representing all facets of Arabian life.

        The origins of the Arabian Jewish communities are shrouded in legend, but there were strong connections between Arabian Jewish communities and Jews in Persia and in Palestine. Arabian Jews were rabbinic in that they were organized into congregations headed by rabbis, and they were in touch, at least limitedly, with the Babylonian...

      • Islamic Policy toward Jews from the Prophet Muhammad to the Pact of ‘Umar
        (pp. 58-74)
        Mark R. Cohen

        The first encounter between Jews and Muslims dates back to the very beginnings of Islam. This essay discusses the foundations of the Muslim-Jewish relationship. The ambivalent attitude toward the Jews of Medina in the Qur’an, and the Prophet Muhammad’s aggressive assault on some of the Jewish tribes, reflect the gulf between his expectations for their acceptance of his message and their rejection. At the same time, Muhammad guaranteed nonviolence toward the “People of the Book” (Jews and Christians) in return for payment of tribute and humbleness. Muhammad’s so-called Constitution of Medina incorporated Jews either as part of the Islamicumma...

    • Chapter II In Islamic Lands
      • Jews and Muslims in the Eastern Islamic World
        (pp. 75-110)
        Marina Rustow

        The Islamic world housed the majority of the world’s Jews for most of the medieval period, and the Jewish communities of the Islamic world were responsible for many of the institutions, texts, and practices that would define Judaism well into the modern era. Islamic rule remade the very conditions—intellectual, demographic, economic—in which Jewish communities lived, and created a civilization that enabled them to thrive. But just as much of medieval Jewish history is about Jews under Islamic rule, so, too, is much of the history of the early Islamic world about non-Muslims.

        In 632 C.E., when armies under...

      • The Jews of al-Andalus
        (pp. 111-135)
        Mercedes García-Arenal

        The Jewish communities of al-Andalus—the part of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule—were particularly illustrious between the reign of the Umayyad caliph of Cordova ‘Abd al- Rahman III (912–961) and the Almohad takeover after 1140. No other medieval Jewish community had so many high-ranking personalities in the political and economic spheres; no other produced a literary culture of such breadth, revealing an intellectual life shared with the Muslims. That blossoming was all the more unexpected in that the Jews of Hispania had lived in great social and legal insecurity during the time of the Visigoths, when they...

      • The Conversion of Jews to Islam
        (pp. 136-144)
        Mohammed Hatimi

        The Islamic scholarly literature granted little place to the conversion of the Jews to Islam. Although Christians did so more often for many reasons, many Jews did convert and contributed toward shaping Muslim civilization. The absence of Jewish converts in the collective memory is linked in many cases to Islamic resentment at not having been successful in gathering the Jews, despite the fact that, early on, Muhammad had hoped to find in them an ally on which to build the new religion he was professing. It is therefore the refusal to convert that became a major theme in the Arabic...

    • Chapter III In Christendom
      • The Legal Status of the Jews and Muslims in the Christian States
        (pp. 145-155)
        John Tolan

        In the Muslim societies of the Middle Ages, Jews and Christians had the status ofdhimmīs, protected but at the same time inferior. In the Christian kingdoms of the Middle Ages, Jews and sometimes Muslims lived under similar conditions with respect to the Christians. But their status became increasingly precarious in many European countries. Minorities were subjected to violence and expulsions. For example, the Jews were expelled from France in 1182, again in 1306, and once more in 1394; from England in 1290; from Spain in 1492; and from Portugal in 1497. The Muslims were expelled from Sicily in the...

      • Jews and Muslims in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
        (pp. 156-161)
        Yehoshua Frenkel

        The Middle East at the closing quarter of the eleventh century was a rich multiethnic and multireligious mosaic. The Jewish population of the Eastern Mediterranean constituted one of the ancient components of this variegated society. The conquest by the Franks, that is, the Crusaders, did not change this reality; in the first decade of the Latins’ rule, the Jews suffered heavily from the violence of the newcomers. This was also the fate of the Muslim communities in cities along the seacoast and in Jerusalem.

        Yet, with the passing of time, the Franks adopted a sociopolitical policy that did not differ...

  7. Part II: The Modern World
    • Prologue:
      • Jews and Muslims in Ottoman Territory before the Expulsion from Spain
        (pp. 164-170)
        Gilles Veinstein

        Ottoman Jewry, in the centuries preceding the large emigration of Sephardic Jews to Turkey that transformed it, already existed in communities (Romaniote, Ashkenazi, Italiote, Karaite, etc.) composed of the populations of conquered territories or of exiled European Jews. By 1453, most of these Ottoman Jews, either on their own initiative or by force, had moved to the new capital conquered by Mehmed II. The sultan recognized the usefulness of Jewish contributions to his fledgling state, and was particularly appreciative, for his personal use, of the able physicians, whom he on occasion made his advisers. A supreme representative was needed to...

    • Chapter I In Ottoman Territory, Fifteenth to Nineteenth Centuries
      • Jews and Muslims in the Ottoman Empire
        (pp. 171-202)
        Gilles Veinstein

        The great movement of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal, taken up by several Italian states at the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth centuries, had important consequences for Ottoman Jewry, which would be the major recipient of these exiles. The Sephardic component, which was layered onto older, preexisting strata of Jewish populations, and would in turn be superseded by other arrivals, was henceforth dominant in population and cultural influence, in keeping with a brilliant, carefully preserved heritage. The favorable reception of Jews by Sultan Bayezid II is not a myth, even if...

      • The Jews of Palestine
        (pp. 203-210)
        Yaron Ben Naeh

        After the defeat of the Mamluks at Marj Dabiq in August 1516, the Ottomans occupied a Palestine that was subdivided into districts (sandjaks), which were part of the Bilad al-Sham (historical Syria). This was essentially an agricultural region, with a small number of urban centers. This territory, once a passage between Egypt and Syria, became a remote and impoverished province; its only interest to the central power consisted in its relative religious importance, given the presence of sacred places—Jerusalem in particular—as well as the proximity of the route to the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, via Transjordan.


      • The Jews in Jerusalem and Hebron during the Ottoman Era
        (pp. 211-222)
        Nazmi Al-Jubeh

        We must await the period of the Mamluks—at the beginning of the fourteenth century—to see the Jews resettle in large numbers in Jerusalem and Hebron. The demography remained stable during the lengthy period from 1250 to 1516, at the end of which Jerusalem fell into the hands of the Ottomans. It is in the vast empire they formed in the sixteenth century that we find the largest Jewish communities of the era. The Ottoman Porte did not resist Jewish immigration to Jerusalem and Hebron from France, Spain, Portugal, Hungary, Germany, and Italy, as well as immigrants from Ottoman...

    • Chapter II Northern Africa
      • In Emergent Morocco
        (pp. 223-238)
        Emily Benichou Gottreich

        Morocco as a protonational entity came into existence in the period stretching from the late fifteenth to the early nineteenth century. During this period its borders became fixed, its cities emerged as world capitals, and its defining political ideologies and institutions, including sharifism, maraboutism, theabīd al-būkhāri, and themakhzen(to name just a few), grew firmly entrenched. Meanwhile, Moroccan Jewish identity, despite its purported timelessness, likewise cohered into its recognizable form as a result of the new geopolitical and spiritual realities. The protonational identities forged during this period would be increasingly challenged by European intervention in the coming centuries,...

    • Chapter III Asia and the Middle East
      • The Jews in Iran
        (pp. 239-247)
        Vera Basch Moreen

        The long and complex history of the Jews in Iran dates as far back as 586 B.C.E., when Nebuchadnezzar exiled thousands of Jews from Judea to Babylonia. The late medieval and premodern period of this sojourn, dating approximately between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries, occurred during formative centuries in Iranian history, characterized primarily by the struggle to define and consolidate the borders and character of the future state of Iran. Part of the Abbasid caliphate until the rise of the Buyid dynasty (945–1055 C.E.), vand a substantial kingdom in the realm of the Mongols and their descendants (1258–1388),...

      • Jews of Yemen
        (pp. 248-257)
        Yosef Tobi

        According to their own tradition and according to new archaeological findings, Jews lived in the country later known as Yemen at least since the seventh century B.C.E. It seems that trade was the main incentive of Israelites to immigrate to that country. Their position was so strong that around 370 C.E., the major political power in Yemen, the Kingdom of Himyar, adopted Judaism, until the Ethiopian Christians took control of the country and destroyed the Jewish state. Since 629 the country was governed by Islam and the Jews became subject to Muslim discriminatory rules ofdhimmīand were forced to...

      • Jews and Muslims in Central Asia
        (pp. 258-268)
        Catherine Poujol

        The history of the Jews in Central Asia (in Bukhara in particular) and their relation to the Muslim majority in the oases of Turkistan from the second half of the nineteenth century until 1917 is an often neglected field of research.¹Yet it is one of the fundamental keys to an understanding of the breaks and continuities that mark that region of the world, visited by the colonial and then the Soviet tempests, in which the local Jews were both witnesses and protagonists. The Jews of Bukhara present the peculiarity of having crossed the centuries in a generally peaceful cohabitation with...

    • Chapter IV Relations with the European World
      • Judaism and the Religious Denominational Community in the Near East
        (pp. 269-283)
        Henry Laurens

        Jews enjoyed a protected status in the Ottoman Empire . In the capital as in the provinces, extending from Algeria to the Caucasus at the Danube , they played an important role in finance. But the rise of Christians in the East, beginning in the eighteenth century, proved detrimental to the Ottoman Jews. The modernization of society in the nineteenth century overtook the established institutionalized religious communities (millet in Turkish). This system, which set rules for the emancipation of non-Muslims in the Empire, was born simultaneously from the internal evolution of Ottoman society and European intervention. The Ottoman Jews, although...

  8. Part III: The Present
    • Prologues
      • The Crémieux Decree
        (pp. 286-291)
        Benjamin Stora

        In the late nineteenth century, the fate of the Jews of Algeria, inscribed within the vast history of Mediterranean Judaism, hinged on the relations between Jews and Muslims during the colonial period of the Maghreb, a situation that had consequences in the following century. When the first French soldiers landed in the bay of Sidi Ferruch, the Jews of Algeria constituted an organized “nation,” ormillet, of the Ottoman administration. In 1830 the Jewish community of Algeria was 25,000 strong, and most of its members were poor. The reactions of the Jews to colonial development varied a great deal by...

      • The Invention of the Holy Land
        (pp. 292-296)
        Elias Sanbar

        It was certainly not in the nineteenth century that Palestine added to its name the epithet “the Holy Land.” This title of nobility—burdensome and costly for the people of an area henceforth permanently targeted for conquests—had already been applied to it for centuries. It designates the crucible of the two monotheisms, Judaism and Christianity. Later, Islam, for which Palestine was to become the Muslim Holy Land, was added to the two others—three sanctities existing in the same place.

        For Palestine, this did not mean a new status but a radical transformation of the very concept that we...

    • Chapter I The Beginnings of the Separation
      • From Coexistence to the Rise of Antagonisms
        (pp. 297-319)
        Michel Abitbol

        Long before the French occupation of Algeria in 1830, the eruption of Europe into the Levant and the Maghreb alienated the Jews from their Muslim neighbors. It thoroughly transformed their relationship, which, essentially religious in nature, became one of political and social antagonism. This trend increased with the extension of European colonization, the rise of nationalism, and the expansion of Zionism in Palestine. The Jews were not well viewed by a population violently shaken in its convictions by foreign occupation and modernization, and the years 1870–1948 were hardly propitious—except in Iraq—for their integration. As a general rule,...

      • The Balfour Declaration and Its Implications
        (pp. 320-328)
        Denis Charbit

        Three paragraphs, twenty lines, one hundred twenty-eight words: never in the annals of European diplomacy would so short a text have such great consequences for the political future of a region of the world. Thanks to this declaration, the name Arthur James Balfour (1848–1930) has been passed down to posterity. Neither his philosophical essays, his leadership in the British conservative party, his management of the affairs of Ireland as secretary of state, nor his legislative work in the field of education as deputy of the House of Commons has left an imperishable trace. He was prime minister from January...

      • “The Arabs” as a Category of British Discourse in Palestine
        (pp. 329-339)
        Nadine Picaudou

        During the Mandate period, in an attempt to reconcile various interests, the British political discourse commonly had recourse to the category “Arabs” to designate Muslim or Christian Palestinians. Various pseudoethnic or pseudopsychological distinctions, such as the figure of the fellah or the Bedouin, were also pressed into service. These designations, both bearers of colonial categories and heirs to the nomenclature of national minorities of the Ottoman reforms, influenced the fate of relations between Jews and Muslims in the ensuing years. They also furnished ideological material from which the Zionist discourse would make decisive borrowings. In a context no longer consonant...

      • Zionism and the Arab Question
        (pp. 340-348)
        Denis Charbit

        In 1920, the British government obtained authorization from the League of Nations to administer a mandate over Palestine in order to foster the development of a Jewish national home by virtue of the Balfour Declaration, which it had promulgated three years earlier. The convergence between its strategic interests and the furtherance of historical justice for the Jewish people of the Bible, scattered and persecuted through the centuries, would be disrupted by an element that, excluded from the arrangement, would stridently voice its opposition: the Arab population of Palestine. Jewish and Muslim communities thus became actors not just in the religious...

    • Chapter II Confronting Nazism
      • The Diverse Reactions to Nazism by Leaders in the Muslim Countries
        (pp. 349-374)
        Michel Abitbol

        Nazi anti-Semitism is alien to Muslim cultures. That said, it would be an offense to history to overlook the fact that during World War II a number of authorities in Islamic territories hoped for the victory of the Axis powers. Apart from a few isolated cases we will discuss, these positions were not reached out of ideological sympathy with Nazism, the substance of which was generally unknown to the population. Rather, these authorities hoped that the defeat of France and England at the hands of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy would precipitate the end of Western colonialism, which the two...

    • Chapter III The Great Rupture in the Middle East
      • Al-Nakba: A Few Keys to Reading a Catastrophe
        (pp. 375-383)
        Elias Sanbar

        Al-Nakba, or “the Catastrophe,” is what the Palestinians call the expulsion from their ancestral land in 1948, which created the problem of refugees and its corollary issue, al-‘Awda, the “battle for the return to Palestine.” As the moment of origin of the conflict, al-Nakba remains the most complex and the most emotionally charged of all the issues now being addressed by the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. The right of return is demanded as a fundamental right of displaced persons, but the Israelis see it as a negation of their future legitimacy and existence. That right is most often demanded, and also...

      • From the Judeo-Palestinian Conflict to the Arab-Israeli Wars
        (pp. 384-392)
        Denis Charbit

        The Arab-Israeli conflict has lasted a long time: nearly seventy years, if one considers its beginning the outbreak of the war of independence in 1947, which the Palestinians call al-Nakba. And if one situates its origin just after World War I, when the political interests of the two communities found themselves facing off in a mimetic rivalry, whose object of dispute was the same land, it is, so to speak, a hundred-year war. Israeli collective psychology forged a representation of the enemy that was consistent with the collective mobilization of society the state required. Over the course of the conflict,...

      • Israel in the Face of Its Victories
        (pp. 393-402)
        Denis Charbit

        The Six-Day War of 1967 ought to have been the crowning achievement of the pan-Arab strategy of reconquest: despite their differences of regime, leadership, and diplomatic orientation, and the rivalries between one state and another, a coalition linking Egypt, Syria, and Jordan galvanized the crowds. The response of Israeli public opinion tended toward panic in the face of that increasing tension, that unprecedented anti-Zionist and anti-Semitic provocation, after eleven years of implicit peaceful coexistence. But the top advisers favored a preemptive war (which consisted, in this case, in anticipating the enemy attack by a few weeks, or even a few...

      • The Mobilization of Religion in the Israeli-Arab Conflict
        (pp. 403-414)
        Alain Dieckhoff

        The conflict in the Middle East that, with varying intensity, has torn the region apart for a hundred years is not fundamentally religious but rather political. The Jews oppose not the Muslims but the Arabs (a minority of whom are Christian), and the two sides fight over a land on which they both aspire to realize their national projects. Nevertheless, religion plays a role in that struggle, shifting with the times but undeniable. How could it be otherwise? The dispute concerns the Holy Land, a place to which all three monotheisms are attached. The Jews are combating Muslims, and a...

      • The Emigration of the Jews from the Arab World
        (pp. 415-435)
        Michael M. Laskier

        While Jewish communities had lived for centuries within various Muslim societies, for the majority of them the second half of the twentieth century was the theater, sometimes brutal, of their departure. Of the 750,000 Jews in Muslim countries, 550,000 were Maghrebi. In these countries, the Jews did not always participate in the same way in the various strains of Zionism, nor did they adopt the same positions on the aliyah, immigration to Israel. Similarly, the locations of the Jews shifted in accordance with the reconfiguration of maps within the framework of Arab nationalisms—even if, at first, the Jews identified...

      • The Case of Lebanon: Contemporary Issues of Adversity
        (pp. 436-444)
        Kirsten E. Schulze

        Jewish-Muslim relations in Lebanon before the twentieth century on the whole were characterized by amicability. Jews lived among Sunnis, Shi‘a, and Druze, and had well-functioning trade and communal relations with all of them. The nature of Jewish-Muslim relations, however, changed with the emergence of the Palestine conflict. The first strains in Sunni-Jewish relations appeared with the 1936–39 Arab Revolt. This set the pattern for sporadic violence against Lebanon’s Jews, which was motivated by solidarity with the Palestinians from the 1930s onward. The rise of pan-Arabism further underlined these sentiments, particularly among Sunni politicians. Shi‘a-Jewish relations did not become strained...

    • Chapter IV Spaces of Cohabitation
      • Muslim-Jewish Relations in Israel
        (pp. 445-451)
        Eliezer Ben-Rafael

        The Israeli Declaration of Independence promised that the State of Israel ensures complete social and political equality for its citizens, irrespective of religion, race, or sex, and guarantees freedom of religion. There is no declared official religion, and each religious community has jurisdiction over its internal affairs and matters of personal status.¹ All religious courts are recognized, autonomous, and supported by government budgets; accordingly, Israel funds more than one hundred mosques and their imams. The government also finances numerous extracurricular Islamic studies. Nevertheless, Israel’s definition as a Jewish state implies a privileged link to the faith attached to Jewishness, and...

      • The Arabs in Israel
        (pp. 452-457)
        Laurence Louër

        The State of Israel has an Arab minority that represents 20 percent of its total population, which is to say, 1,500,000 people. It is composed of the Palestinians who did not leave the territory of what became Israel in 1948, and of their descendants. The vast majority are Sunni Muslim: 84 percent, versus 8 percent Christian of various denominations and 8 percent Druze. At the institutional and legal levels, Arab citizens of Israel have never enjoyed recognition as a collective entity. To discourage any form of political action on the basis of a national Arab and Palestinian identity, the state...

      • Shari‘a Jurisdiction in Israel
        (pp. 458-470)
        Michael Karayanni

        Shari‘a courts are an integral part of the Israeli judiciary.¹ Indeed, Islamic law as applied by the shari‘a courts—and that can be applied at times even by the regular civil courts—is taken to be within the judicial notice of each and every Israeli judge. The jurisdiction accorded to shari‘a courts and issues governed by Islamic law are mainly within the domain of family law pertaining to local Muslim subjects.² Israel’s Jewish state officially recognizes these Muslim institutions. The judicial jurisdiction of shari‘a courts has been brought under statutory regulation in some areas, but in others, Israeli law limits...

      • Judeo-Arab Associations in Israel
        (pp. 471-478)
        Denis Charbit

        Within the context of a long-lasting Israeli-Arab conflict, and given the country’s identity as a “Jewish and democratic state,” Judeo-Arab associations play a crucial role in the struggle against inequality and prejudice. Since 1967, some have been involved in the defense of the Palestinians’ rights in the occupied territories. Perceived as an indispensable tool of democratic society, they are also the target of nationalist groups. Community networks are very dense in Israel. Inspired by practices of sociability tested in the Diaspora, and with the recent development of civil society and of the “third sector” to complement the political and economic...

      • In the Territories
        (pp. 479-489)
        Aude Signoles

        The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in 1967 led to day-to-day links between the dominating and the dominated societies at all levels, whether administrative, economic, or cultural. Conversely, and paradoxically, the period of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process that began with the signing of the Oslo Accords of September 13, 1993, was accompanied by a policy of separate living spaces for Israelis and Palestinians, initiated by Israel. This policy took several forms: the withdrawal of the Israeli army from certain areas of the occupied territories; the transfer of management of the occupied populations to a Palestinian...

      • Survival of the Jewish Community in Turkey
        (pp. 490-494)
        Nora Seni

        In 1923, the year Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s population, Republic of Turkey was created, there were 78,000 members of the Jewish community in Turkey. By the 2000s, the figure had fallen to 17,000. That demographic decline, which even now continues at a slower pace, stands in contrast to the rather prosperous situation of the Jewish population, whose institutions have experienced a clear revival since the late 1990s. That paradox is an expression of the complex relations between the Turkish nation and its Jewish community, and it demonstrates equally complex connections between history and memory. Despite the drop in its population, the...

      • Iranian Paradoxes
        (pp. 495-500)
        Katajun Amirpur

        Iran is a country that eludes any simple explanatory model. This is equally true for the relations that the state and the society maintain with the Jewish minority. Although the positions that President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has taken are violently anti-Zionist and openly negationist, Iran remains one of the only countries in the Muslim world to be inhabited by a substantial Jewish community, estimated at about 25,000. That remnant is most certainly linked to the antiquity of the Jewish settlement in Persia, which dates to the sixth century B.C.E., and to the Jews’ active social and cultural involvement and participation. As...

      • In the Shadow of the Republic: A Century of Coexistence and Conflict
        (pp. 501-520)
        Ethan B. Katz

        From their very inception, Jewish-Muslim relations in France were a triangular affair. That is, the French state and questions of national belonging within the republic were always at the heart of these relations. Three components of identity and status defined Jews’ and Muslims’ relations with one another and the French Republic: the place of each group in France’s colonial empire, Jews’ and Muslims’ positions as religious minorities in an officially secular France, and the complex attachments of members of both groups to transnational entities. Jews and Muslims consider one another from various angles: as, for instance, citizens and subjects, fellow...

    • Chapter V Tense Conversations
      • Muslim Arab Attitudes toward Israel and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Variable and Contingent
        (pp. 521-532)
        Mark Tessler and Alex Levy

        Many people in Western countries, or at least in the United States , believe that the attitudes of Muslim Arab publics toward Israel and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict are one-dimensional and unchanging, and, more specifically, that they are unreservedly and consistently hostile. Frequently associated with this belief is a judgment that antagonism toward Israel is rooted in Arab culture and, even more, in the doctrine and historical experience of Islam. Expressions of this view may readily be found in the writings and statements of many conservative and Christian fundamentalist personalities.¹

        While there is considerable antipathy toward Israel in the Arab world,...

      • Perceptions of the Holocaust in the Arab World: From Denial to Acknowledgment?
        (pp. 533-545)
        Esther Webman

        The collapse of the Soviet Bloc in the early 1990s and its impact on world affairs, including the Middle East; the emergence of the notion of a new world order; the signing of the Israeli-Palestinian Accords; and the 1994 Israeli-Jordanian peace agreement served as pretext for a revision of the traditional Arab approach toward the Jewish Holocaust among liberal Arab intellectuals. Criticizing the prevalent Arab perceptions of the Holocaust, they called for the unequivocal recognition of the suffering of the Jewish people, which eventually led to the recognition of the Palestinian tragedy by the Israelis and facilitated reconciliation and coexistence...

      • Muslim Anti-Semitism: Old or New?
        (pp. 546-558)
        Mark R. Cohen

        The anti-Semitism that is so widespread in the Muslim world today first came to the attention of Israelis and the Diaspora thanks to Yehoshafat Harkabi’s pathbreaking 1968 book,Arab Attitudes to Israel, published in both English and Hebrew.¹ He called itArabanti-Semitism, but today in the wake of Islamist anti-Semitism, and in light of its presence in Iran and other non-Arab Islamic countries, had he been revising his book, it is likely that Harkabi would have named itMuslim Attitudes toward Israel.

        Muslim anti-Semitism in Europe is of more recent vintage. The survey by the European Union Monitoring Centre...

    • Chapter VI Looking at the Other
      • Relations between Jews and Muslims in Hebrew Literature
        (pp. 559-565)
        Françoise Saquer-Sabin

        Modern Hebrew literature, which emerged in Central and Eastern Europe in the late eighteenth century, developed concomitantly with the emancipation and modernization of European Jewry. That literature took root in Palestine in the first third of the twentieth century. It both reflected and fueled the pioneer ideology that sprung up from Zionism and socialism. In other words, religion and tradition, vestiges of a rejected world, are absent from all the artistic and cultural expressions of that new identity construction. As a result, the representation of an Arab world, or of relations between Jews and Arabs in Palestine and Israel, was...

      • Jewish Figures in Modern Arabic Literature
        (pp. 566-572)
        Sobhi Boustani

        Contemporary Arab writers consider the Arab-Israeli conflict a major subject, but the Jewish figure in modern Arabic literature seems relatively limited. It is true that only an exhaustive analysis of that literature would be able to reveal all the elements of that figure, but such an approach is far beyond the means of a lone researcher. Nevertheless, the examination of a large body of work and a number of studies on the subject allow us to observe that the evolution of the Jewish figure in modern Arabic literature is closely linked to developments in the geopolitical situation in the Near...

      • Figures of the Israeli in Palestinian Literature
        (pp. 573-581)
        Kadhim Jihad Hassan

        Apart from its plurality, the image of the Israeli in Palestinian literature is noteworthy for its evolution in concert with historical events. In addition, the writers—the talented ones at least—approach and describe this image without any racist or discriminatory projections. Above all, they present a nuanced image, dependent on the level and nature of the relations between the two camps: between the Palestinians and the Israeli authority, for example, or between individuals in everyday life within mixed populations and mixed organizations, such as Maki, the political party that unites Jewish and Arab Communists. Immediately after the creation of...

      • Writing Difference in French-Language Maghrebi Literature
        (pp. 582-593)
        Beïda Chikhi

        In French-language Maghrebi literature, the relationship between Jews and Muslims is a question of particular resonance, in that the colonial past weighs heavily on contemporary history. Both Jewish and Muslim writers have achieved fame in the field, weaving, in the same language, connections based on places that, despite antagonisms, have sometimes shaped shared spaces. Since the conflictual alterity of the 1950s, that literature has evolved toward new dialogical expressions imposed by the rise of the different fundamentalisms, by way of the trials of nationalism in the 1960s and the international issues associated with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. These writers, whether stemming...

      • Looking at the Other: Israeli and Palestinian Cinemas
        (pp. 594-603)
        Yael Munk

        As a chronological survey of some key feature films in both Israeli and Palestinian cinemas, this article discusses the influence of nationalism on the representation of Jews and Muslims in each of these, and the ways these two national cinemas have attempted to invent in order to acknowledge the religious Other, beyond that of the nationalist labeling. Doing so, they reveal an alternative, and frequently subversive, way of conceiving the Other. Analysis of fi lmic representation offers a very effective way by which to interpret how a nation imagines itself. While early Israeli cinema related to Israelis as Jews, often...

  9. Part IV: Transversalities
    • Prologue
      • Recapitulating the Positives without Giving in to Myth
        (pp. 606-610)
        Abdelwahab Meddeb and Sylvie Anne Goldberg

        After more than fourteen centuries of living together, Jews and Muslims now find themselves in a historical context in which their relationship has profoundly changed. The Jewish presence in Islamic territories has been receding since the second half of the twentieth century, and the Jews are now almost completely absent. The majority (four-fifths) now live in North America or Israel. The fear, therefore, is that the imaginary Jew will replace the real Jew in Islamic representations. The effect of the separation between the two groups can be felt on the other side as well. Jewish consciousness is not free from...

    • Chapter I Founding Books, Mirror Images
      • Qurʾan and Torah: The Foundations of Intertextuality
        (pp. 611-627)
        Geneviève Gobillot

        For a long time, the historical precedence of the Bible vis-à-vis the Qurʾan polarized the question of their interrelationship, reducing it solely to influence and borrowing, or even, in the case of extreme polemics, to plagiarism and parody. And yet, a simple shift in perspective allows us to view the question in a completely different light. In fact, the Qurʾanic text elaborates a discourse on its own status as scripture and on its relation to previous revelations. By starting with what the Qurʾan says about scriptural context, we find a whole universe of thought opening up to us, one that...

      • Arabic Translations of the Hebrew Bible
        (pp. 628-639)
        Hanan Kamel Metwali

        The Hebrew Bible has been translated many times since antiquity, by both Jews and Christians. In the third century BCE, the Torah was rendered into Greek for the Hellenophone community of Alexandria : this was the famous version known as the Septuagint. The tradition of the Targum developed concurrently in the Jewish communities of the Middle East , whose vernacular language had been Aramaic in its various dialects since the Babylonian exile in the sixth century. The biblical text was translated into Aramaic and was recited verse by verse at the synagogue, alongside the liturgical reading of the Torah. The...

      • Hebrew Translations and Transcriptions of the Qurʾan
        (pp. 640-652)
        Aleida Paudice

        The extremely broad subject of the translation of the Qurʾan into Hebrew has not been studied in sufficient detail. Further study would undoubtedly shed valuable light on the relations between the Jews and Islam during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Little is known of the context that produced the Hebrew translations, nor their purpose. One of the reasons is, perhaps, the often ambiguous relationship between the Jews and Islam’s sacred text. This relationship speaks directly to issues of religious identity and ethnic belonging, as expressed in the theological and philosophical debate, and implies the acceptance of another conceptual...

    • Chapter II Mirrored Languages
      • Hebrew, Arabic: A Comparative View
        (pp. 653-675)
        Lutz Edzard

        Modern linguistics groups a certain number of related languages under the name “Semitic languages.” The family comprises three main branches: East Semitic, represented by Akkadian or Assyro-Babylonian; South Semitic, represented by the Ethiopian languages (Geʿez, Amharic, Tigrinya, etc.), as well as by the South Arabic languages (which are not derived from Arabic); and Central Semitic, which has two subgroups—Arabic and the Semitic languages of the northwest. It is this last subgroup that includes Aramaic, Ugaritic, and the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew, but also Phoenician and Moabite.

        On the strength of this proximity, many parallels can be observed between...

      • Semitism: From a Linguistic Concept to a Racist Argument
        (pp. 676-682)
        Gabriel Bergounioux

        The term “Semite” gained scientific justification in the nineteenth century, in the opposition between a different family of languages and the one that comparative grammar had brought to light and circumscribed under the name “Indo-European.” This name, developed outside of the people it designated, and after it had been extended to an anthropological characterization in terms of races, was exploited in order to justify colonial domination by the European powers in the Mediterranean region. The exacerbation of nationalism and the biologization of politics led to its application against European Jewish communities at the very moment when the works of Saussure...

    • Chapter III Two Religions of the Law
      • Comparison between the Halakha and Shariʿa
        (pp. 683-700)
        Phillip Ackerman-Lieberman

        Despite many differences in detail, Judaism and Islam have much in common in their reliance on law as an organizing framework. Both legal systems turn to canonical textual sources (both scriptural and nonscriptural), as well as the interpretation of these texts, for the foundations of practice. Questions of legal method animated much early debate within each tradition; in Islamic law, distinctive legal schools persist to this day, which maintain such debate. Over time, narrative codes emerged in each tradition that established communal norms; these codes negotiated and at times vindicated local customary practice. As Judaism and Islam encountered modernity, both...

      • Rituals: Similarities, Influences, and Processes of Differentiation
        (pp. 701-712)
        Reuven Firestone

        Judaism and Islam are mutually recognized as genuine monotheisms. Despite this general recognition, Muslim and Jewish religious scholars have critiqued each others’ religion over the centuries by calling into question both the authenticity of the other’s scripture and the efficacy of its religious practice. This basic critique is quite similar on both sides, yet despite significant and sometimes severe disapproval, each party recognizes the essential theological and moral- ethical soundness of the other. This basic respect, though sometimes reluctant, does not apply equally to other religions, certainly not to the Oriental traditions, and for the most part, not even Christianity.¹...

      • Prayer in Judaism and Islam
        (pp. 713-719)
        Mohamed Hawary

        Prayer holds a central place in both Judaism and Islam. It is at once an eminently spiritual and a very codified rite that places the emphasis on the proclamation of divine unity and the glorification of God. It has its source in the Holy Scriptures and represents an important point of reference for the Jewish and Muslim communities and a factor of unity for believers throughout the world. As is often the case in the two religions, the proximity between the discourses and prescriptions is striking, though major differences also exist. For example, there are parallels in the phases of...

      • Shabbat and Friday in Judaism and Islam
        (pp. 720-725)
        Mohamed Hawary

        Both Islam and Judaism established a time of weekly rest for their faithful: for the Muslims, it is Friday; for the Jews, Shabbat, which also includes part of Friday, beginning after sunset and lasting until the next day when the stars come out. That proximity of the periods of rest is undoubtedly part of a more general kinship between the two religions and, to a lesser extent, between them and the other form of monotheism, Christianity, which chose Sunday as its day of rest. Beyond the similarities in their weekly calendars, however, these two religions of the Law have different...

      • Jewish and Muslim Charity in the Middle Ages: A Comparative Approach
        (pp. 726-736)
        Yaacov Lev

        Christianity, Judaism, and Islam consider the three “theological virtues” of faith, hope, and charity to be the foundational stones of their value systems. Contrary to what some may think, charity is as essential to Jewish and Islamic life as it is to the Christian worldview. Between pure generosity and social redistribution, it deeply structures traditional societies by defining the respective roles of the rich and the poor, the use of money, and the legitimacy of the institutions that have taken up the task to collect and redistribute it.

        The Jewish notion of charity is rooted in biblical teachings and conveyed...

    • Chapter IV Philosophy, Science, and Intellectual Movements
      • Jewish and Muslim Philosophy: Similarities and Differences
        (pp. 737-763)
        Steven Harvey

        Muslim and Jewish philosophers not only studied, interpreted, and commented upon the writings of Aristotle, but also played an important, indeed crucial, role in transferring his philosophy and science to the Christian West. Indeed, the emergence of Aristotle as the philosopher in thirteenth-century Scholastic philosophy is due in great measure to the Latin translations from Arabic of the writings of Avicenna, Averroes, Maimonides, and others. The Middle Ages was the golden age for both Muslim and Jewish philosophy. It was a period of significant contributions in science, as well as in the development of a rational explication of revealed religion....

      • The Andalusian Philosophical Milieu
        (pp. 764-777)
        Makram Abbès

        The Andalusian philosophical milieu of the Middle Ages holds the key to understanding the dual transmission of knowledge between East and West at that time. First, the centers of cultural life under the Abassids communicated their knowledge to Andalusia (tenth to twelfth centuries). Shortly thereafter, philosophical works from Andalusia were dispersed to the major intellectual centers of Christian Europe. Because of this dual movement of cultural transfer, Arabic Spain was the site of one of the most significant historical moments in terms of scientific exchanges and the development of ideas. Through a study of the relations between Jewish and Muslim...

      • The Karaites and Muʾtazilism
        (pp. 778-787)
        Yoram Erder

        In the time of thegeonim(directors of the Talmudic academies), Karaism was greatly influenced by the Muslim Muʾtazilite theological movement. The Karaites, though largely divided on many questions, adopted all the doctrinal fundaments of Muʾtazilism, both in the area of scriptural exegesis and in discussions of the essential theological themes for which the Muʾtazilites were the standard-bearers within Islam. Beginning in the eleventh century, the Karaites, who belonged to the group known as the Avelei Tsion (Mourners of Zion), having settled in Jerusalem, set out to compose theological texts constituting a genre in their own right. As a result,...

      • Judaism and Islam According to Ibn Kammuna
        (pp. 788-795)
        Geneviève Gobillot

        When Ibn Kammuna, a Jewish philosopher from Iraq, completed hisExamination of the Three Faithson Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, he was certainly aware that he had participated in the advance of humanity toward the better world of peace and brotherhood to which religious and sages have always said they aspired. How much more painful must his astonishment have been four years later, when, at the doors of his besieged house, a mob of his fellow citizens clamored for his death and the destruction of his book. Perhaps he felt that his efforts had definitively gone up in smoke, or...

      • From Arabic to Hebrew: The Reception of the Greco-Arab Sciences in Hebrew (Twelfth–Fifteenth Centuries)
        (pp. 796-815)
        Gad Freudenthal

        Science and philosophy did not develop spontaneously within Judaism. The intellectual activities of traditional Jewish cultures generally focused on the canonical texts of the tradition: the Bible, the Mishnah, the Talmud. Any other type of knowledge, that is, any knowledge not vested with the authority of the canonical texts and of revelation, was considered “foreign.” This point, fundamental for understanding Jewish intellectual history, was forcefully stated in 1933 by the great historian Julius Guttmann: “The history of Jewish philosophy is a history of the successive absorption of foreign ideas.”¹

        I will consider here the reception of science in the Hebrew-speaking...

      • Shiʿism and Judaism: A Relation Marked by Paradox
        (pp. 816-827)
        Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

        Both Shiʿism and Judaism are diverse faiths, and it is always tricky, not to say problematic, to speak of their relationship as if they were monolithic entities. Orientalists and specialists in both Islamic studies and Judaic studies differ greatly in their assessment of the Shiʿites’ position in relation to the Jews during the classical period of Islam. To cite only two major scholars, Ignaz Goldziher inVorlesungen über den Islam(1910), and Shlomo D. Goitein in Jews and Arabs (1955), both believe that the attitude of Shiʿism, unlike that of Sunnism, is strongly imbued with fanaticism and intolerance, which makes...

      • European Judaism and Islam: The Contribution of Jewish Orientalists
        (pp. 828-836)
        Michael L. Miller

        Jews played a central role in the development of Islamic studies in nineteenth-century Europe, particularly in Germany, France, and Hungary. In their youth, many of these scholars had received a traditional Jewish education, and their knowledge of Semitic languages (Hebrew and Aramaic) and rabbinic literature not only made Arabic and Islam more approachable but also enabled them to notice similarities between Judaism and Islam that were not as apparent to Christian orientalists like de Sacy, Umbreit, Fleischer, and Nöldeke. Jewish orientalists tended to be more favorably inclined toward Islam than their Christian counterparts, which often gave their research a less...

    • Chapter V Mysticism
      • Embodied Letter: Sufi and Kabbalistic Hermeneutics
        (pp. 837-855)
        Elliot R. Wolfson

        The complex and variegated, and at times conflictual and contentious, relationship of the three Abrahamic faiths, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, can be profitably understood by the Heideggerian notion ofZusammengehören, a term that denotes the belonging-together or the drawing-near of what persists in the difference of being the same.¹ To grasp the subtlety of this point, we must attend to Heidegger’s somewhat counterintuitive distinction between “the identical” (das Gleiche) and “the same” (das Selbe). In “Die Onto-Theo-Logische Verfassung der Metaphysik” (a lecture delivered on February 24, 1957, in Todtnauberg as part of a seminar on Hegel’sWissenschaft der Logik), he...

      • Respectful Rival: Abraham Maimonides on Islam
        (pp. 856-868)
        Elisha Russ-Fishbane

        Islam occupies a unique position in the medieval Jewish imagination. From the tenth through the thirteenth centuries, Islamic society was for many Jews the bastion of civilization and culture, in which Jews played a vital and transformative role.¹ Yet as members of a proud religious minority, many Jews regarded the religion of Islam with deep ambivalence. Jews at once repudiated Islam as a legitimate faith while singling it out from all others as an exponent of pure monotheism on par with its Jewish precursor. As such, Islam occupied a middle position in Jewish law, outside the divine covenant yet the...

      • Jews, Islamic Mysticism, and the Devil
        (pp. 869-890)
        Michael Barry

        Texts by Islam’s greatest mystics dealing with Jews, directly or through allusion, generally dismay—at least at first glance. Contrary to usual perceptions of medieval Sufism as somehow more “tolerant,” Jewish figures in actual Classical Sufi texts appear no less devilishly caricatural as any in medieval Christian literature or art. In fact, prevailing views of Jews in either dominant medieval culture—Christian or Islamic—appear luridly similar, with Jews depicted as spiritually blind creatures who rejected Divine Truth’s light as revealed through Jesus or Muhammad. Scorn and sarcasm characterize allegorical depictions of Jews by medieval Muslim poets and also manuscript...

    • Chapter VI Art and Literature
      • Biblical Prophets and Their Illustration in Islamic Art
        (pp. 891-901)
        Rachel Milstein

        The Muslims’ interest in the Bible is based on the Qurʾanic message that presents Muhammad as the “seal of the prophets,” that is to say, a natural continuation of the Jewish and Christian monotheism. In accord with this idea, the Qurʾan adopts the biblical historiography with certain of its theological and mythological aspects. Various biblical episodes appear in the Qurʾanic text, either as short references or as detailed stories, serving as archetypes for Muhammad himself.

        In the following centuries, when the growing population of Iranian converts to Islam introduced its own nonbiblical traditions, the Qurʾanic text was interpreted and enriched...

      • Images of Jews in Ottoman Court Manuscripts
        (pp. 902-910)
        Lale Uluç

        Illustrated Ottoman manuscripts produced at the court workshop (nakkaşhane) in Istanbul do not customarily include identifiable images of Jews. A notable exception, however, is an illustrated copy of theKitab-i Siyer-i Nebi(The Book of the Life of the Prophet) of Mustafa ibn Yusuf ibn Omar al-Maulavi al-Erzerumi, known as Darir the Blindman , produced at the Ottoman court studio and dated 1003 (1594–95).¹ Although the text had been written in Turkish some two hundred years earlier in Cairo at the behest of the Mamluk sultan,² the Ottoman court copy of 1594–95 is its earliest illustrated version. An...

      • Synagogues in the Islamic World
        (pp. 911-927)
        Dominique Jarrassé

        A specific Jewish culture developed as a result of integration into the Islamic countries, and its originality, as well as its proximity to Islamic civilization, found expression in the architecture of the synagogue. When the Europeans arrived, however, they tended to impel the Jews, not without resistance, to build synagogues on stylistic and monumental models borrowed from European architecture. Thus, a strictly internal and hidden place of worship, in keeping with the tradition of an Israelite temple, was transformed into a symbol of emancipation and integration into modern society. It would be insufficient, in studying the synagogues of a territory...

      • The Contribution of Jewish Architects to Egypt’s Architectural Modernity
        (pp. 928-933)
        Mercedes Volait

        Many architects of the Jewish faith, whether from families long settled on the banks of the Nile or part of the waves of immigrants who contributed to the formation of modern Egypt, have distinguished themselves in the field of architecture and in the protection of the heritage of Cairo and Alexandria. One of the most engaging figures was the Hungarian Max Herz (1856–1919), who, as chief architect on the Committee for the Conservation of Monuments of Arab Art, oversaw the fate of the historic monuments of Cairo for more than a quarter of a century. He also completed one...

      • James Sanua’s Ideological Contribution to Pan-Islamism
        (pp. 934-942)
        Eliane Ursula Ettmueller

        Born in Cairo in 1839, James Sanua was a playwright, teacher, satirical journalist, and one of the most active Freemasons in his native city until 1878, the year he added yet another occupation, that of publishing caricatures in magazines. He lived at a time generally considered the golden age of the Jewish community in Egypt. The Muslim, Christian, and Jewish residents of that semiautonomous Ottoman province of the Nile Valley, not content to convey their ideas and promote their political convictions in secret societies such as the Masonic lodges, also published reviews that favored equality and mutual respect. Here I...

      • Arabic Ars Poetica in Biblical Hebrew: Hebrew Poetry in Spain
        (pp. 943-954)
        Masha Itzhaki

        Hebrew poetry in Spain, which took root in Córdoba in the tenth century under the caliphate of ʿAbd al-Rahman III, stemmed from two extremely strong cultural influences: Classical Arabic poetry and the language of the Bible. Biblical Hebrew is the raw material for the Jewish poets of Andalusia, from which they deliberately draw the linguistic tools needed for their poems. From its first appearance, Andalusian Hebrew poetry used the full variety of themes and prosody of Arabic poetry, those of the pre-Islamic period, those of the Abbasid period, and those typical of al-Andalus.

        By virtue of its prosody, the development...

      • The Figure of the Jew in A Thousand and One Nights
        (pp. 955-961)
        Dominique Jullien

        The world of theArabian Nights, also known asA Thousand and One Nights, presents us with a rich mosaic of peoples. To the geographical variety of the tales, which take the reader on voyages from India to Italy, Africa to Iraq, and Persia to the Sunda Islands, must be added the cultural diversity of the medieval Muslim world, a fundamentally multiethnic world, as reflected in the tales. Contrary to the situation in Christian lands, in which the Jews represented the only religious minority in uniformly Christianized regions, the Jews of Islam were one religious minority among others. The Jews...

      • Judeo-Persian Literature
        (pp. 962-969)
        Vera Basch Moreen

        Jews have lived in Iran for almost three millennia and became profoundly acculturated to many aspects of Iranian life. This phenomenon is particularly manifest in the literary sphere, defined here broadly to include belles lettres, as well as nonbelletristic (i.e., historical, philosophical, and polemical) writings. Although Iranian Jews spoke many local dialects and some peculiar Jewish dialects, such as the hybrid lo- Torah[i] (Heb. + Pers. suffix of abstraction), meaning “non-Torahic” (a dialect that combines both Semitic [Hebrew and Aramaic] and Persian elements), their written, literary language was Judeo-Persian (Farsi in Hebrew script), which was close to thedari(Pers.,...

      • The Music of al-Andalus: Meeting Place of Three Cultures
        (pp. 970-984)
        Dwight Reynolds

        Among the many intellectual and artistic contributions with roots in medieval Islamic Spain, Andalusian music is probably the most widely known in the Arab world and the least well known in the West.¹ Andalusian music certainly merits attention in its own right as a rich tradition that has been transmitted orally for more than a thousand years and that continues to be performed in many regions of the Middle East, but it also merits special attention as the primary vehicle for the collective memory of, and nostalgia for, medieval Islamic Spain, which constitutes such powerful aspects of Arab and Sephardic...

    • Chapter VII Memory and History
      • The Jews of the Maghreb: Between Memory and History
        (pp. 985-1004)
        Abdelkrim Allagui

        Studies by Maghrebi academics on the Jews of the Maghreb during the modern and contemporary period belong to a relatively new field of research. An assessment of the state of scholarship on the Jewish minority reveals significant differences among the three countries of the Maghreb. Morocco and Tunisia are clearly a step ahead of Algeria. Since the 1980s, special interest in Judeo-Muslim relations has been apparent in Morocco, as illustrated, for example, by Mohamed Kenbib’s remarkable graduate thesis.¹ Several themes of research, such as Zionism, the Jewish press, local monographs, and the relations between the Moroccan nationalist parties and the...

      • Jewish Pilgrimages in Egypt
        (pp. 1005-1016)
        Suzan Youssef

        Cults of saints are a fundamental phenomenon in Egyptian popular culture. They attest to the preservation of a large share of archaic beliefs associated with magical and totemic practices and with agrarian mythologies. The cult of “saints” (awliyaʾfor Muslims,qaddissinfor Christians,siddiqinortsaddiqimfor Jews) manifests that continuity in everyday practices, most often orally but sometimes in written form. What is being played out is the relation between human beings and their environment but also the relation to their humanity itself, to the mental and symbolic universe reflected in language, religion, and art, all within an extreme...

      • Aspects of Family Life among Jews in Muslim Societies
        (pp. 1017-1024)
        Harvey E. Goldberg and Wasfi Kailani

        Family life, among Jews and Muslims, carried forward many cultural features that were widespread in the Middle East since antiquity. The specifics of each society also reflected the impact of the two religions as these evolved over time. The norms and practice of family life entailed ongoing adjustment among taken-for-granted lifestyles, explicit values, and canonized written sources. A systematic comparison between biblical and Qurʾanic prescriptions, or betweenfiqhandhalakha, would far exceed the boundaries of this article. We will thus limit ourselves to an anthropological outlook on the shared cultural values between Jews and Muslims concerning family life, as...

      • Citizenship, Gender, and Feminism in the Contemporary Arab Muslim and Jewish Worlds
        (pp. 1025-1041)
        Stéphanie Latte Abdallah and Valérie Pouzol

        The question of gender and women’s roles in the Arab Muslim and Jewish worlds is linked primarily to the multiplicity of social, economic, political, and geographical situations in which they have lived and continue to live in the contemporary period. Given the extreme diversity of groups and situations, we have chosen to focus our comparison on the collective and political formulations of religion inherent in gender issues and, in turn, in women’s activism. Women’s roles and the particular way they have been defined by religious affiliation, whether Muslim or Jewish, are bound to contexts that have dictated specific possibilities for...

      • “Muslim Body” versus “Jewish Body”: The Invention of a Division
        (pp. 1042-1051)
        Samir Ben-Layashi

        Two pioneering books, now considered classics of “body literature” in the field of Muslim or Jewish culture, opened the way for two generations of scholars. The first was Abdelwahab Bouhdiba’sLa sexualité en Islam(Sexuality in Islam),¹ the second, Daniel Boyarin’sCarnal Israel: Reading Sex in Talmudic Culture.² Bouhdiba’s and Boyarin’s originality lay in breaking away from traditions that came close to constituting models for thinking and writing and rewriting “Muslim” or “Jewish” bodies.

        In what I may venture to call the Islamic “human sciences,” it was almost impossible to write the “Muslim” body apart from commentary on the canonical...

      • Flavors and Memories of Shared Culinary Spaces in the Maghreb
        (pp. 1052-1062)
        Joëlle Bahloul

        Over the some twelve centuries that the Jews and the Muslims lived together in the Mediterranean world and the Near East, relations between the two communities were nowhere so dense and reciprocal as in the leisurely routines of everyday life. This rich relationship between two religious communities with a turbulent history has not been documented as meticulously as their hostile relations and their segregation. The colonial period in the Maghreb, which lasted until the 1950s, was emblematic of these everyday exchanges. In analyzing Judeo-Muslim cultural and social relationships as they were expressed in the Jewish diet and Jewish cuisine in...

  10. General Bibliography
    (pp. 1063-1100)
  11. Index of Names
    (pp. 1101-1122)
  12. Index of Places
    (pp. 1123-1134)
  13. Illustration Credits
    (pp. 1135-1138)
  14. Table of Contents
    (pp. 1139-1152)