Citizenship, Borders, and Human Needs

Citizenship, Borders, and Human Needs

Edited by Rogers M. Smith
Copyright Date: 2011
Pages: 504
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    Citizenship, Borders, and Human Needs
    Book Description:

    From anxiety about Muslim immigrants in Western Europe to concerns about undocumented workers and cross-border security threats in the United States, disputes over immigration have proliferated and intensified in recent years. These debates are among the most contentious facing constitutional democracies, and they show little sign of fading away. Edited and with an introduction by political scientist Rogers M. Smith, Citizenship, Borders, and Human Needs brings together essays by leading international scholars from a wide range of disciplines to explore the economic, cultural, political, and normative aspects of comparative immigration policies. In the first section, contributors go beyond familiar explanations of immigration's economic effects to explore whose needs are truly helped and harmed by current migration patterns. The concerns of receiving countries include but are not limited to their economic interests, and several essays weigh different models of managing cultural identity and conflict in democracies with large immigrant populations. Other essays consider the implications of immigration for politics and citizenship. In many nations, large-scale immigration challenges existing political institutions, which must struggle to foster political inclusion and accommodate changing ways of belonging to the polity. The volume concludes with contrasting reflections on the normative standards that should guide immigration policies in modern constitutional democracies. Citizenship, Borders, and Human Needs develops connections between thoughtful scholarship and public policy, thereby advancing public debate on these complex and divisive issues. Though most attention in the collection is devoted to the dilemmas facing immigrant-receiving countries in the West, the volume also explores policies and outcomes in immigrant-sending countries, as well as the situation of developing nations-such as India-that are net receivers of migrants.

    eISBN: 978-0-8122-0466-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Introduction
    (pp. 1-12)
    Rogers M. Smith

    As Demetrios Papademetriou points out in the overview of modern migration trends with which this volume begins, as a percentage of the world’s population, there are not actually more immigrants today than there were at the start of any decade since 1960. And even though the countries of North America and Europe are host to some 110 million immigrants and receive several million more each year, it is Asia—for economic, demographic, social, and other reasons—that is likely to be the largest receiver of immigrants in the decades to come. In light of those facts, perhaps we should expect...

  4. Chapter 1 International Migration: Global Trends and Issues
    (pp. 13-36)
    Demetrios G. Papademetriou

    For nearly two decades now, capital and the market for goods, services, and workers of many types have woven an ever more intricate web of global economic and, increasingly, social interdependence.¹ In the past few years, however, globalization seems to be on the defensive as governments and publics alike across the globe have begun to reexamine some of the phenomenon’s tenets and to look more carefully at its effects.

    No component of this introspection has fared more poorly than the labor market effects of deeper interdependence—effects that had long been posited to be strongly positive across the board. Evidence...

    • Chapter 2 Rural Migration and Economic Development with Reference to Mexico and the United States
      (pp. 39-55)
      Antonio Yúnez-Naude

      In the age of globalization, migration movements across national borders are increasing the flows of people to more and more distant places. International labor migration arises when people look for better living conditions. It is a structural phenomenon resulting from economic asymmetries, networks, and the growing interdependence among countries.

      According to the International Organization for Migration, the number of international migrants (i.e., people residing in a country other than their country of origin) increased from an estimated seventy-six million in 1965 to 188 million in 2005. Female international migration has grown in recent years to the point where about half...

    • Chapter 3 Global Migrations and Economic Need
      (pp. 56-91)
      Saskia Sassen

      Across the centuries, the international division of labor has included a variety of translocal circuits for the mobility of labor and capital.¹ These circuits have varied considerably across time and space, shaped at least partly by the specific constitution of labor and capital. Many older circuits continue to exist today. But there are often new dynamics that feed them. And there are new types of circuits as well. One outcome is the emergence of novel global geographies that cut across the old North-South divide. They are constituted through a variety of familiar processes: the increasingly globalized operations of firms and...

    • Chapter 4 The Immigration Paradox: Alien Workers and Distributive Justice
      (pp. 92-114)
      Howard F. Chang

      With the number of unauthorized immigrants living in the United States estimated to be about twelve million, accounting for 4 percent of our total population, and growing at a rate of more than half a million per year,¹ it seems apparent that we need immigration reform. The country, however, is bitterly divided over what we must do. For those who advocate comprehensive immigration reform, the changes in our immigration laws must include expanded opportunities for relatively unskilled alien workers to gain legal access to our labor markets.

      President George W. Bush proposed a large-scale guest worker program that would not...

    • Chapter 5 What Is an Economic Migrant? Europe’s New Borders and the Politics of Classification
      (pp. 115-132)
      Karolina Szmagalska-Follis

      After the United States–Mexico border, the second longest border between a poor and an affluent region is the eastern external boundary of the European Union.¹ This essay discusses the selective permeability of this border, drawing on a larger study of the emergence of a new border regime between Poland and Ukraine following the 2004 expansion of the European Union. In 2005–2006 I conducted twelve months months of field research in Poland and Ukraine, among border guards and immigration officials as well as in migrant communities and civil society organizations. As a participant-observer of cross-border human traffic, I gathered...

    • Chapter 6 Brokering Inclusion: Education, Language, and the Immigrant Middle Class
      (pp. 135-156)
      Mae M. Ngai

      Immigration poses challenges for several normative principles of democratic society. Liberalism’s assumptions of universal equality and inclusion are qualified by the question of community definition, the drawing and maintaining of boundaries that simultaneously include and exclude.¹ Within the modern nation-state the liberal, rights-bearing subject is the citizen; as Earl Warren famously wrote, “Citizenship is man’s [sic] basic right, because it is nothing less than the right to have rights.”² Thus even within the territorial boundaries of inclusion there exist persons—aliens—whose claims to political inclusion are limited, deferred, or altogether denied.³ Decisions to exclude immigrants or to diminish their...

    • Chapter 7 Immigration, Citizenship, and the Need for Integration
      (pp. 157-176)
      Christian Joppke

      One of the political needs created by immigration is that for integration. A classic mechanism of integration in the modern state is citizenship, understood as shared beliefs and identities that tie the members of society into a collectivity. This essay investigates what kind of citizenship identities European states display and further in their recent citizenship and integration campaigns concerning immigrants and ethnic minorities. I argue that citizenship identities are increasingly universalistic, which is paradoxical because what states have in common cannot possibly lend distinctness to them and bind immigrants to a particular state and not just any state.

      The question...

    • Chapter 8 Engendering Culture: Citizenship, Identity, and Belonging
      (pp. 177-191)
      Leti Volpp

      Academics writing about immigration, citizenship, and integration have in recent years been much preoccupied with the following question: How should Western liberal democracies respond to the cultural difference of immigrants, manifested through practices that stand in tension with liberal values, especially gender equality? A debate then ensues, which weighs the relative merits of the competing values of feminism and multiculturalism, group rights and individual rights, or universalism and relativism.¹ Especially in the post–September 11 world, popular discourse has sharply turned away from dallying over the weighing of these relative merits, in favor of the stark demand that immigrants abandon...

    • Chapter 9 Three Models of Civic Solidarity
      (pp. 192-208)
      Sarah Song

      The question of how to forge solidarity across diversity is a familiar one, but it is being pursued with renewed urgency in contemporary liberal democratic societies grappling with the challenges raised by large-scale immigration. There has been a retreat from multiculturalism policies in Britain and the Netherlands toward an emphasis on social cohesion in approaching the integration of ethnic and religious minorities. In the United States many have called for stricter immigration controls, in part on the grounds that immigration, especially immigration from Mexico, threatens to undermine the American way of life. The renewed emphasis on social unity reflects a...

    • Chapter 10 Immigration and Security in the United States
      (pp. 211-231)
      Christopher Rudolph

      The terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., in 2001 had a profound effect on how American national security is conceived and the ways that immigration may impact it. The 9/11 Commission Report outlined the ways that terrorists were able to take advantage of the American system of immigration and border control in order to carry out their mission.¹ All nineteen hijackers had visas to enter the United States. However, eight had passports that showed evidence of fraudulent manipulations, and another five had “suspicious indicators.” Some were known Al Qaeda operatives, yet somehow were either not included on government...

    • Chapter 11 Citizenship’s New Subject: The Illegal Immigrant Voter
      (pp. 232-249)
      Kamal Sadiq

      Citizenship has a new subject: the illegal immigrant. Citizenship has traditionally covered a political space that included among its subjects the native-born citizen and the naturalized citizen. This political space has recently been extended to the dual citizen and the transnational citizen. Since modern citizenship denotes a legal relationship between the individual and the state, a bond sanctified by law, it creates subjects based on legal coverage.¹ At the very top of the citizenship stratum is the full citizen. Such a member of the political community has all the rights and protections of the state as well as attendant duties...

    • Chapter 12 “We the People” in an Age of Migration: Multiculturalism and Immigrants’ Political Integration in Comparative Perspective
      (pp. 250-272)
      Irene Bloemraad

      The past decade has seen the retreat, if not demise, of multiculturalism in numerous Western liberal democracies.¹ Among its flaws, critics especially attack multiculturalism’s apparent failure to integrate immigrants into host societies.² Some worry about socioeconomic exclusions. Multiculturalism is believed to encourage immigrants’ self-segregation and, in doing so, impedes their integration into mainstream social and economic structures. Others complain about civic and political integration. Immigrants’ cultures, values, and insular behaviors are perceived as antithetical to the liberal democratic creed that unites citizens in Western countries; foreign cultures should not be encouraged with multicultural recognition. Across the Western world, observers of...

    • Chapter 13 Associational Governance of Ethno-Religious Diversity in Europe: The Dutch Case
      (pp. 273-298)
      Veit Bader

      The focus on ethno-religious needs and claims in this chapter is clearly one-sided. It presents the danger of reproducing the increasingly predominant myth that the cultural dimension is the most important dimension in explaining and addressing so-called integration problems, rather than socioeconomic, legal, and political incorporation processes of immigrant majorities and the respective, often quite counterproductive, policies of incorporation. Readers should not misunderstand my excluding here the economic incorporation of immigrants as workers or employers (and the presence or absence of targeted policies to increase their chances as workers and/or entrepreneurs), along with my exclusion of housing and neighborhood problems...

    • Chapter 14 When and Why Should Liberal Democracies Restrict Immigration?
      (pp. 301-323)
      Stephen Macedo

      Have patterns of immigration to the United States in recent decades helped to undermine social justice? The increases in immigration that followed the 1965 immigration reforms roughly coincide with the waning of the liberal reformist energies associated with the New Deal and the Great Society. Many factors contributed to this ebbing of progressivism, and it seems very doubtful that immigration was foremost among them, but was it a significant contributor? Immigration—legal and illegal—shapes the labor market, the incentives faced by voters, and divisions and cleavages in society. Immigration helps determine which parties and policies will prevail in politics....

    • Chapter 15 Expatriatism: The Theory and Practice of Open Borders
      (pp. 324-342)
      Chandran Kukathas

      Every day, large numbers of people cross borders that separate one political jurisdiction from another. Most do so legally, though many break the law in changing jurisdictions. Many more do not cross borders, because they dare not break the law or cannot cross undetected—sometimes because they are denied permission to leave one jurisdiction, and other times because they are prohibited from entering another. Some cross borders fully aware that they are leaving one defined space and entering another, while others have no idea that anything has changed or that the imaginary lines that define distinct regions exist even in...

    • Chapter 16 Citizenship and Free Movement
      (pp. 343-376)
      Rainer Bauböck

      As a set of institutional norms and political beliefs liberal democracy has no serious contemporary rivals.¹ But, as many have noted, there are tensions between the two elements of this compound. One of these tensions concerns freedom of movement. For liberalism, this is a very important value, and political authorities that restrict free movement must have strong reasons to do so. From a democratic perspective, the strongest one is that states must have the power to control immigration in order to maintain the conditions for self-government and equal citizenship.

      Immigration controls are often defended by other reasons that aim at...

  9. Notes
    (pp. 377-462)
  10. List of Contributors
    (pp. 463-466)
  11. Index
    (pp. 467-492)