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Hosts and Guests

Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism

Copyright Date: 1989
Edition: 2
Pages: 352
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  • Book Info
    Hosts and Guests
    Book Description:

    Tourism-one of the world's largest industries-has long been appreciated for its economic benefits, but in this volume tourism receives a unique systematic scrutiny as a medium for cultural exchange. Modern developments in technology and industry, together with masterful advertising, have created temporarily leisured people with the desire and the means to travel. They often in turn effect profound cultural change in the places they visit, and the contributors to this work all attend to the impact these "guests" have on their "hosts." In contrast to the dramatic economic transformations, the social repercussions of tourism are subtle and often recognized only by the indigenous peoples themselves and by the anthropologists who have studied them before and after the introduction of tourism. The case studies in Hosts and Guests examine the five types of tourism-historical, cultural, ethnic, environmental, and recreational-and their impact on diverse societies over a broad geographical range

    eISBN: 978-0-8122-0801-6
    Subjects: Anthropology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
    (pp. ix-xii)
    (pp. 1-18)

    Tourism is difficult to define because business travelers and convention-goers can combine conferences with tourist-type activities; but, in general, a tourist is a temporarily leisured person who voluntarily visits a place away from home for the purpose of experiencing a change. The motivations for individuals to travel are many and varied, but the foundation of tourism rests on three key elements (all must be operative) which form an equation:

    Tourism = leisure time + discretionary income + positive local sanctions

    In the Western world and especially in the U.S., the amount of leisure time available to an individual has, in...


    • 1 Tourism: The Sacred Journey
      (pp. 21-36)

      The anthropology of tourism, though novel in itself, rests upon sound anthropological foundations and has predecessors in previous research on rituals and ceremonials, human play, and cross-cultural aesthetics. Modern tourism exemplifies that part of the range of human behavior Berlyne calls “human exploratory behavior,” which includes much expressive culture such as ceremonials, the arts, sports, and folklore; as diversions from the ordinary, they make life worth living. Tourism as defined in the introduction does not universally exist but is functionally and symbolically equivalent to other institutions that humans use to embellish and add meaning to their lives. In its special...

    • 2 Tourism as a Form of Imperialism
      (pp. 37-52)

      A concern with tourism by anthropologists would seem to be related to a general interest in culture contact and sociocultural change that has animated so much of our sociocultural inquiry in recent years. The tourist, like the trader, the employer, the conqueror, the governor, the educator, or the missionary, is seen as the agent of contact between cultures and, directly or indirectly, the cause of change particularly in the less developed regions of the world.

      Recent analyses of culture contact have suggested that an understanding of the immediate contact situation may not be enough to fully comprehend it. Some reference...


    • 3 Eskimo Tourism: Micro-Models and Marginal Men
      (pp. 55-82)

      Fascination with the Far North and especially with the Eskimos whose culture enabled them to survive despite the duress of Arctic cold, has lured many individuals to adventure there. In the Alaskan Arctic, the focus of this study, the first visitors were nineteenth-century explorers including Bering, Beechey, and Kotzebue (Oswalt 1979). Their journals, when printed on hand-set presses, stirred the imagination of many school boys. Financially unable to become a ship owner or captain, they signed on as sailors in the hundreds of whaling crews that penetrated the Bering Straits and western Arctic Ocean for a half-century, beginning as early...

    • 4 Gender Roles in Indigenous Tourism: Kuna Mola, Kuna Yala, and Cultural Survival
      (pp. 83-104)

      Travel accounts about the Kuna of Panama portray an isolated ethnic group accessible to tourists. “‘Intruders,’ Cuna Natives Mingle in San Bias” (Denver Post, February 1, 1981) headlines a United States newspaper’s travel section. “Panama’s Primitive San Blas Islands: Indians Manage to Hold onto Pre-Colombian Lifestyle Amid Cruise Ships” (Hartford Courant, November 13, 1983); “Crossroads In Panama” (accompanied by a photo of “Cuna woman pounding grain in the San Bias Islands,” L. Sloane, New York Times, February 15, 1987) are captions for other Kuna tourism features. Just how extensive is this tourism and what role do the Kuna have in...

    • 5 Tourism in Tonga Revisited: Continued Troubled Times?
      (pp. 105-118)

      The following is a revision of a chapter published in 1977. Fieldwork for the earlier chapter was conducted in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga in 1970 and 1971. Since then, I have not been back to Tonga but have followed Tongan matters through published works (including Tongan government documents) and contacts with individuals in Tonga or individuals who have been to Tonga. For archival research, I have turned to the excellent resources of the Library of the University of Hawaii and the university librarian, Renee Heyum.

      The Kingdom of Tonga lies in the heart of fabled Polynesia, approximately 550 miles...

    • 6 Towards a Theoretical Analysis of Tourism: Economic Dualism and Cultural Involution in Bali
      (pp. 119-138)

      Prior to World War II, Dutch ships brought passengers to Bali for a five-day tour of the island made famous in Europe when orchestras from Bali performed at the Paris Colonial Exposition in 1932. Artists, ethnographers, and other visitors spread the image of the exquisite aesthetic attainments of the Balinese. Following the Indonesian Revolution in 1945, President Sukarno used Bali as a retreat, and often entertained foreign dignitaries at his palatial home there. However, poor roads, small airfields, shallow harbors, and a permeating instability of both economic and political institutions in Indonesia inhibited tourism until 1969, when a more liberal...

    • 7 Tourism in Toraja (Sulawesi, Indonesia)
      (pp. 139-168)

      Indonesia is the largest of the Southeast Asian states, but prior to World War II, tourism was largely confined to Dutch colonials and to occasional elite travelers who principally visited the island of Bali, noted for its ceremonial pageantry. The regime of the late President Sukarno (1945–66), with its anti-Western, often xenophobic policies, effectively discouraged tourism. Under the aegis of the “new Order” that came to power in 1966, tourism accelerated more rapidly in Indonesia than in any neighboring Pacific area country. Annual visits increased from a total of 20,000 in 1966 to 86,000 in 1968, and to 129,000...


    • 8 Culture by the Pound: An Anthropological Perspective on Tourism as Cultural Commoditization
      (pp. 171-186)

      Tourism is now more than the travelers’ game. A few years ago, we could lament the lack of serious research on tourism, but now, like the tourists themselves, social researchers are flocking to tourist centers. This is necessary since tourism is the largest scale movement of goods, services, and people that humanity has perhaps ever seen (Greenwood 1972). Economists and planners have been tracing the outlines of this industry and its peculiarities, and many anthropologists and sociologists have begun to chart the social effects of tourism on communities.

      The literature generally points out that tourism provides a considerable stimulus to...

    • 9 Changing Perceptions of Tourism and Tourists in a Catalan Resort Town
      (pp. 187-200)

      The majority of anthropological studies on tourism examine some aspect of the impact—social, cultural, or economic—that tourists or the tourist industry have on host communities and regions. This approach is rooted in the traditions of the discipline and can be paraphrased as community (or culture) reacting to external influences: the focus is on the community and community members and on how they cope, or fail to cope, with agencies and forces over which they exercise little control, but which may be tolerated inasmuch as they yield some measure of economic benefit.

      The theoretical models that are brought to...


    • [PART IV Introduction]
      (pp. 201-202)

      Humans everywhere seek status symbols to reaffirm their identity, and some Western tourists count countries as evidence of their widened experience. For others, the ownership of boats and second homes as forms of recreation are important. John Peck and Alice Lepie in chapter 10 examine the impact of dominantly American tourism upon three American communities and suggest a typology of power, payoff, and tradeoff to assess the differential effects of recreational tourism.

      Souvenirs, derived from the Latin subvenire, “to come to mind,” are an important symbolic adjunct to the tourist industry, providing the tourist with something tangible to take home...

    • 10 Tourism and Development in Three North Carolina Coastal Towns
      (pp. 203-222)

      As part of a regional planning project, in 1973 we undertook a study of the impact of recreational tourism on three coastal communities of North Carolina. A preliminary reconnaissance trip indicated the need to develop a framework or model around which we could quickly organize the data, given the complexities of the topic and the stipulated time-lines. As the model (Table 1) emerged, we recognized that it was a potential methodology that could be used to establish a topology of touristic development. Our hypothesis was that both the rate (magnitude and speed) of development and the amount of community involvement...

    • 11 The Impact of Tourism on the Arts and Crafts of the Indians of the Southwestern United States
      (pp. 223-236)

      The role of tourism in altering segments of a traditional culture has not fully been examined. This study examines the impact of tourism upon the arts and crafts of the Indians of the American Southwest. Diffusion has been one of the major mechanisms of cultural change, but in assessing the role of diffusion the anthropologist has most often looked at the impact of trade, migration, war, and missionary contact. The tourist has been ignored as a potential source of new ideas that could alter or disrupt segments of a traditional culture.

      The peoples of the Southwest have been exposed to...

    • 12 Creating Antiques for Fun and Profit: Encounters Between Iranian Jewish Merchants and Touring Coreligionists
      (pp. 237-246)

      Antiques collecting as a form of ethnic art is a tangential tourist activity, usually confined to knowledgeable and well-to-do travelers and to geographically restricted areas with ancient traditions, such as Iran. Increased tourism heightens demand for a limited, dwindling product and may lead to the creation of spurious antiques. In Iran, tourism is an important industry for Persian Jews who own many of the upper-category hotels and at least one of the active and highly regarded travel agencies, specializing in handling foreign visitors. This involvement as well as the antique trade, including the “fake art” made and marketed to tourists,...

    • 13 The Polynesian Cultural Center: A Multi-Ethnic Model of Seven Pacific Cultures
      (pp. 247-262)

      The Polynesian Cultural Center (PCC) is located in the community of Laie on the Northshore-Windward coast of the island of Oahu, forty miles (an hour’s drive) from the prime Hawaiian tourist target of Waikiki. In the past ten years the PCC has emerged as the second most popular visitor attraction in the state (surpassed only by the U.S.S. Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor) with a paid gate attendance in excess of one million guests per year.

      The “typical” visitor to the Center generally spends the better part of a vacation day at the facility, beginning with a chartered bus trip...


    • 14 Touristic Studies in Anthropological Perspective
      (pp. 265-280)

      Since its beginning little more than a decade ago, the study of tourism by anthropologists has been characterized largely by serendipity. This, however, is not an irony, for many of the now traditional and established interests of anthropologists derive from fortuitous observations or accidental “discoveries” while researching other or unrelated topics or problems. For the last ten years, anthropologists have gone to study other things or other people and almost everywhere have discovered tourists.

      Why then have anthropologists only recently found tourism of scholarly interest? The answer, I think, lies in the observation that the study of tourism finally has...

    (pp. 281-330)
  11. INDEX
    (pp. 331-341)