Divided Nations and European Integration

Divided Nations and European Integration

Tristan James Mabry
John McGarry
Margaret Moore
Brendan O’Leary
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 408
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    Divided Nations and European Integration
    Book Description:

    For ethnic minorities in Europe separated by state borders-such as Basques in France and Spain or Hungarians who reside in Slovakia and Romania-the European Union has offered the hope of reconnection or at least of rendering the divisions less obstructive. Conationals on different sides of European borders may look forward to increased political engagement, including new norms to support the sharing of sovereignty, enhanced international cooperation, more porous borders, and invigorated protections for minority rights. Under the pan-European umbrella, it has been claimed that those belonging to divided nations would no longer have to depend solely on the goodwill of the governments of their states to have their collective rights respected. Yet for many divided nations, the promise of the European Union and other pan-European institutions remains unfulfilled. Divided Nations and European Integration examines the impact of the expansion of European institutions and the ways the EU acts as a confederal association of member states, rather than a fully multinational federation of peoples. A wide range of detailed case studies consider national communities long within the borders of the European Union, such as the Irish and Basques; communities that have more recently joined, such as the Hungarians; and communities that are not yet members but are on its borders or in its "near abroad," such as the Albanians, Croats, Serbs, and Kurds. This authoritative volume provides cautionary but valuable insights to students of European institutions, nations and nationalism, regional integration, conflict resolution, and minority rights. Contributors: Tozun Bahcheli, Zoe Bray, Alexandra Channer, Zsuzsa Cserg?, Marsaili Fraser, James M. Goldgeier, Michael Keating, Tristan James Mabry, John McGarry, Margaret Moore, Sid Noel, Brendan O'Leary, David Romano, Etain Tannam, Stefan Wolff.

    eISBN: 978-0-8122-0827-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. 1-32)
    John McGarry and Brendan O’Leary

    The subject of this book is the development of nations and national homelands divided by sovereign borders within and around the current and prospective frontier of the European Union (EU). No one should assume any inexorable march of the EU, though the short-run and longer-run incorporations of Iceland and Norway respectively are not difficult to foresee. We have avoided the EU’s North African hinterland because we see little likelihood that anywhere from Western Sahara to Egypt will join the EU in the next decades, but we include Balkan spaces and Eurasian borderlands to which the EU might expand in this...

  4. CHAPTER 1 Divided Nations and Challenges to Statist and Global Theories of Justice
    (pp. 33-54)
    Margaret Moore

    This chapter examines the conceptual resources and limitations of two dominant traditions in political theory regarding cases of nationally mobilized groups that straddle borders. The first tradition encompasses fairly traditional, state-centric, and liberal-democratic justice theories, of which John Rawls’s Theory of Justice (1971) is a leading example. The second tradition involves more recent theories of global justice, such as those advanced by Thomas Pogge (2002) and Simon Caney (2005).

    Although there is not space here for a full exposition of this point, one of the reasons why both types of justice theory are limited is that both focus on individual...

  5. CHAPTER 2 Forked Tongues: The Language Politics of Divided Nations
    (pp. 55-88)
    Tristan James Mabry

    As Europe entered the twenty-first century, a number of regional observers found that the social and political integration of the European Union (EU) signaled the demise of the state in the very part of the world where this institutional entity first evolved out of medieval muck. They claimed that a major change was in the offing: for those peoples who lacked the protection of their own nation-states, such as the Basques or the Sámi, or minorities stranded on the other side of their fatherland’s border, for example Hungarians in Romania or Russians in Baltic states, it was reasonable to expect...

  6. CHAPTER 3 Kin-State Activism in Hungary, Romania, and Russia: The Politics of Ethnic Demography
    (pp. 89-126)
    Zsuzsa Csergő and James M. Goldgeier

    Although kin-state nationalism is neither new nor specific to Europe, the postcommunist world in Central and Eastern Europe provides particularly fertile grounds for this kind of national competition. Modern state-building in this region unfolded under conditions created by Great Power politics that engendered dramatic shifts in territorial borders and a political landscape of weak multinational states with “external minorities.” As André Liebich writes, “West European political and linguistic boundary changes over the centuries have been moderate compared to those in East Central Europe …. The implications of these historical processes are significant, for both majorities and minorities in East Central...

  7. CHAPTER 4 European Integration and the Basque Country in France and Spain
    (pp. 127-156)
    Zoe Bray and Michael Keating

    European history has included the emergence of states and nations, some of which coincide almost perfectly while others do not: both are constructions, circumstantial, rarely complete and often contested. In this chapter we deconstruct what is understood as the Basque nation in order to reflect on the Basque Country’s situation as a territory divided between France and Spain and across different regional entities, in the context of European integration. The Basque Country has never been a single political unit but has been subject to three general nation-building projects: the Spanish, the French, and the Basque. While these represent three distinct...

  8. CHAPTER 5 Albanians Divided by Borders: Loyal to State or Nation?
    (pp. 157-189)
    Alexandra Channer

    “If you look down there [pointing into the valley], you can see the border. It cuts straight across the valley and up the other side into those mountains. That’s Albania. I remember standing here every evening when I was 11 years old with my father and just gazing at Albania. We couldn’t point then because it was too dangerous. We just looked. I came to this spot every day just to look.” The longing expressed by this Albanian above the Macedonian-Albanian border in July 2007 illustrates the fascination that the state of Albania holds for Albanians left outside its border...

  9. CHAPTER 6 The Kurds and EU Enlargement: In Search of Restraints on State Power
    (pp. 190-209)
    David Romano

    Turkey’s Kurdish minority numbers around fifteen million, or around 20 percent of the country’s total population of seventy-two million.¹ Kurds in Turkey hold a wide variety of political opinions, and some do not even self-identify as Kurds. However, it appears that most Kurds in Turkey look upon the possibility of Turkish accession to the European Union (EU) with a great deal of enthusiasm.² They hope that EU protections for individual minority rights, particularly cultural and linguistic rights, will force Ankara to grant its Kurdish minority a level of freedom denied since the creation of the Turkish Republic in the 1920s....

  10. CHAPTER 7 European Integration and Postwar Political Relations between Croatia and the Bosnian Croats and Serbia and the Bosnian Serbs
    (pp. 210-250)
    Marsaili Fraser

    In Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereafter Bosnia) sizable populations of Serbs and Croats maintain active ties with their neighboring titular nation-states. These relationships are markedly different from other examples of crossborder “kin” relations in Europe, where “external minorities” separated from “kin-states” are typically subject to the nationalizing policies of their “hoststates.”¹ No single ethnic group forms a majority in Bosnia: Bosniaks (or Bosnian Muslims) are estimated to compose around 48 percent of the population, Serbs 37 percent, and Croats 14 percent.² Bosnia declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992, marking the start of a devastating three-year war;...

  11. CHAPTER 8 The Divided Irish
    (pp. 251-275)
    Etain Tannam

    Northern Ireland is now an example of a successful resolution to the problem of divided nations, although disputes continue as to why it has had a successful peace process and a stable political settlement (for example, see Taylor 2009). In this chapter the contribution of European integration to conflict resolution in the region is examined, beginning with a discussion of the partition of Ireland and its consequences. Partition divided not just the Irish national community but also the British national community in Ireland, although the southern segment of the British community subsequently became integrated into Ireland.¹

    For this reason the...

  12. CHAPTER 9 Germany and German Minorities in Europe
    (pp. 276-312)
    Stefan Wolff

    Before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany, Germans constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far, a position today occupied by Russians. After 1990 seventeen million citizens of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) accounted for more than 20 percent of the enlarged population in reunited Germany. Nonetheless large numbers of ethnic Germans across Central, Eastern, and Western Europe are still resident outside the borders of the expanded Federal Republic, a legacy of history and conflict that remains a factor in European politics.

    Occupying a problematic position in the geopolitical center of Europe (the so-called Mittellage),...

  13. CHAPTER 10 Ties That No Longer Bind: Greece, Turkey, and the Fading Allure of Ethnic Kinship in Cyprus
    (pp. 313-340)
    Tozun Bahcheli and Sid Noel

    Since the mid-twentieth century the “Cyprus problem” has loomed large as a source of tension and mutual recrimination between Greece and Turkey, dominating their strategic and diplomatic calculations and at times leading them to the brink of war. At the heart of the matter lies an unresolved and perhaps irresolvable conflict of ethnonational identities and interests between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, a conflict influenced on many levels by the strong bonds of ethnic kinship that historically have tied each of these communities to their respective motherlands. The two sets of bonds are similar in certain respects—each reflecting socio-psychological...

  14. CONCLUSION: The Exaggerated Impact of European Integration on the Politics of Divided Nations
    (pp. 341-392)
    John McGarry and Brendan O’Leary

    To assess European integration’s impact on the politics of divided nations, we here divide our colleagues’ findings in the previous chapters into two categories. Their evaluations of the effects of European integration on state borders are discussed first. One understanding of European integration, held by many ardent Europhiles, is that it has promoted respect for state borders and undermined irredentism and unilateral varieties of kin-state nationalism (Schimmelfennig and Sedelmeier 2009; Vachudová 2005). European integration, as reported in our Introduction, has been held to have facilitated cooperation among states, including over communities dissected by state borders. The institutions of the European...

  15. List of Contributors
    (pp. 393-396)
  16. INDEX
    (pp. 397-404)
    (pp. 405-405)
    The Editors