Doing Good or Doing Better

Doing Good or Doing Better: Development Policies in a Globalising World

Monique Kremer
Peter van Lieshout
Robert Went
Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid
SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL FOR GOVERNMENT POLICY
Series: WRR Rapporten
Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 378
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt46n0g6
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  • Book Info
    Doing Good or Doing Better
    Book Description:

    The world is changing, and so is the unquestioning belief that development policies are always right. Instead of focusing on the rather limited notion of poverty, this book aims to deepen our understanding of the broad issue of development. What are the drivers of development? What new issues have arisen due to globalization? And what kind of policies contribute to development in a world that is changing rapidly? The articles in this book provide insight into the muddled trajectories of development on various continents and rethink the notion of development in a globalizing, interdependent world. Taken together, the still fuzzy contours of a paradigm shift emerge from the 'Washington Confusion'. Development can no longer be the ambitious, moral project based on a standard model of economic European or American modernization. 'Doing better' means being less moralistic, more modest and pragmatic, and taking seriously the path dependencies and social realities that exist in each country. This title is available in the OAPEN Library - http://www.oapen.org.

    eISBN: 978-90-485-0877-8
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-8)
  3. ABOUT THE AUTHORS
    (pp. 9-12)
  4. PREFACE
    (pp. 13-14)
    W.B.H.J. van de Donk
  5. 1 TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT POLICIES BASED ON LESSON LEARNING: AN INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 15-26)
    Monique Kremer, Peter van Lieshout and Robert Went

    Modern development policies started already 60 years ago. The establishment of the Bretton Woods institutions in 1944 and Truman’s inaugural address in 1949 were landmarks of a change of mind and approach. Prosperous countries in the North considered themselves good Samaritans by helping the countries in the South. In the following decades, West European countries tried to shift roles from being a colonizer to a supporter of development. When this new post-colonial relationship started, many Western countries expected it to be temporary. With a little help from their friends, the developing economies would ‘take off’ and become just as wealthy,...

  6. PART I RETHINKING DEVELOPMENT
    • 2 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY GLOBALIZATION, PARADIGM SHIFTS IN DEVELOPMENT
      (pp. 27-46)
      Jan Nederveen Pieterse

      According to a recent headline, “China says West’s lack of market oversight led to subprime crisis”. A senior Chinese banking regulator points out, “Western governments must strengthen their oversight of financial markets and improve cross-border regulatory cooperation if they are to avoid future global financial crises” (Anderlini 2008).

      The tables are turning. The North used to lecture and discipline the South. In the 21stcentury not only has much of the South escaped this discipline – and repaid its debts to the imf early – but some have started talking and acting back. These are not minor glitches. In the...

    • 3 DOES FOREIGN AID WORK?
      (pp. 47-80)
      Roger C. Riddell

      Foreign aid has been provided for more than 60 years. During this time, the number of aid donors and the overall amounts of aid given have steadily increased, notwithstanding short-term fluctuations in the total, and today aid comprises a multi-billion dollar ‘business’. The start of the 1990s witnessed a sharp downturn in aid volumes, and the accompanying discourse raised questions about aid’s very survival in the post-Cold War era. However, as had happened in earlier periods of downturn, there was not only an aid revival, the first decade of the 21stcentury remains on track to be the period of...

  7. PART II LEARNING FROM DEVELOPMENT HISTORIES
    • 4 UNDER-EXPLORED TREASURE TROVES OF DEVELOPMENT LESSONS: LESSONS FROM THE HISTORIES OF SMALL RICH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
      (pp. 81-106)
      Ha-Joon Chang

      The development orthodoxy of the last quarter century has espoused a free-market policy. It has argued for, among other things, free trade, deregulation of foreign direct investment (fdi), privatization of state-owned enterprises (soes), and strong protection of intellectual property rights (iprs) as key policies that are needed for developing countries to grow and develop their economies.

      In the promotion of these ‘good policies’ by the orthodoxy, the history of today’s rich countries has played an important rhetorical role. It is explicitly and implicitly suggested that those countries have become rich only because they followed those ‘good’ policies – the implication...

    • 5 STAGNATION IN AFRICA: DISENTANGLING FIGURES, FACTS AND FICTION
      (pp. 107-136)
      Paul Hoebink

      The pile of books on Africa on my desk is growing quickly. The titles are alarming. Africa is being described as “A shackled continent” and its development is termed “stalled”. Some titles are more neutral, like “The State of Africa”, but others clearly point at failure: “The Trouble with Africa: Why Foreign Aid Isn’t Working”. They suggest that Africa is back in the 1980s where book titles were even more dramatic: “A Year in the Death of Africa” and “Africa in Crisis”. Those were the years of hunger and starvation; in the new millennium Africa seems to be the continent...

    • 6 INCLUDING THE MIDDLE CLASSES? LATIN AMERICAN SOCIAL POLICIES AFTER THE WASHINGTON CONSENSUS
      (pp. 137-156)
      Evelyne Huber

      Latin American countries have experimented with a variety of development models – from liberal export-driven models in the first third of the 20thcentury to import substitution industrialization (isi) between roughly the 1930s and the 1970s, and neoliberal models since the 1980s. Latin America has also long been the region with the highest inequality in the world. At the height of the isi phase, in the late 1960s/early 1970s, inequality declined very slightly, only to increase significantly in the debt crisis decade of the 1980s and to continue at very high levels during and after the phase of neoliberal reforms....

    • 7 IMAGINARY INSTITUTIONS: STATE-BUILDING IN AFGHANISTAN
      (pp. 157-176)
      Martine van Bijlert

      Development is taking place in increasingly complex post-conflict environments, and despite the challenges involved, ambitions have soared rather than waned. The interventions are driven by a broad peace-building agenda and involve a wide range of activities in the fields of security, diplomacy, governance and development – all at once. Underlying these ambitions is the belief that multi-party democracy and a free market economy are the surest route to stability, and the assumption that outside intervention can bring this about (despite a body of research suggesting that this may not be that simple).¹ Afghanistan provides a case study of the complexity...

    • 8 BEYOND DEVELOPMENT ORTHODOXY: CHINESE LESSONS IN PRAGMATISM AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE
      (pp. 177-210)
      Peter Ho

      After more than half a century of experience, the development sector is still haunted by ‘old spectres’ such as the effectiveness of development cooperation; human rights in development; and conditionality versus corruption. The fact that politicians, academics and development practitioners alike are vexed by these questions has led critics to conclude that development cooperation has had no measurable effect on development (Bauer 1988; Dichter 2003).¹ It is not this chapter’s intention to engage in this debate, rather, it argues that development cooperation might be helped if we would shed the “orthodoxy of development” and open our eyes to the implications...

  8. PART III BEYOND THE STATE:: NEW ACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT
    • 9 BUSINESS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: FROM PASSIVE INVOLVEMENT TO ACTIVE PARTNERSHIPS
      (pp. 211-236)
      Rob van Tulder and Fabienne Fortanier

      Academic thought about economic growth and sustainable development in the 21stcentury represents a breach with traditional thinking in many respects. One of the main changes is increased attention to the active role that firms (whether multinational corporations or local enterprises) can play in achieving development, either directly through corporate social responsibility (csr) activities or in the form of partnerships with non-governmental organizations (ngos) and/or governments. This mirrors the increasing awareness that not only governments should contribute to development (e.g. via official aid), but that all relevant actors in society can and should contribute to solving development problems. The modern...

    • 10 WHY ‘PHILANTHROCAPITALISM’ IS NOT THE ANSWER: PRIVATE INITIATIVES AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      (pp. 237-254)
      Michael Edwards

      The rise of ‘private initiatives’ – by ngos, philanthropic foundations and other civil society groups – has been one of the most striking features of foreign aid over the last ten years, yet (especially in regard to philanthropy) it remains poorly understood and inadequately debated. At a conservative estimate, private aid flows already amount to over $ 25 billion a year, and the trend is rising, so at some point in the future private aid may exceed official development assistance from donor governments.¹ This trend raises significant questions about the impact and accountability of private development assistance, and these questions...

    • 11 THE TROUBLE WITH PARTICIPATION: ASSESSING THE NEW AID PARADIGM
      (pp. 255-278)
      Nadia Molenaers and Robrecht Renard

      Around the turn of the millennium, donors made the participation of civil society in the formulation of Poverty Reduction Strategies (prsps) a formal condition for Enhanced hipc (Highly Indebted Poor Countries) debt relief. Soon prsps became a cornerstone of a new aid approach. Many critics in the ngo (non-governmental organizations) community and beyond reacted enthusiastically to what was perceived as a major breakthrough in the thinking at the World Bank and the imf (International Monetary Fund). Today the fizz seems to have gone out of the bottle. Governments never really warmed to the idea, and donors discovered they had stumbled...

  9. PART IV NEW INTERDEPENDENTIES
    • 12 HOW CAN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TURN THE CHINA-INDIA THREAT INTO AN OPPORTUNITY?
      (pp. 279-302)
      Raphael Kaplinsky

      The rise of China and India – the Asian Driver economies – is transforming the global economic, political and social landscape. The challenges posed by their rapid growth and global emergence are increasingly at the centre of strategic debates in the large oecd economies. But what of their impacts on other low-income economies in general, and sub-Saharan Africa (ssa) in particular? Perhaps these giant Asian economies, confronted with their own challenges in overcoming endemic and deeply rooted poverty, share common problems and have common interests with other low-income economies? Or, perhaps more darkly, the overlap of common interests is thin,...

    • 13 POST-WAR PEACE-BUILDING: WHAT ROLE FOR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS?
      (pp. 303-320)
      Chris van der Borgh

      In recent decades, international organizations have played an ever growing role in ending civil wars and the subsequent processes of reconstruction and development. Between 1987 and 1994, the number of un peace missions tripled (Doyle and Sambanis 2006: 6). Other international actors, like the European Union (eu), the Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe (osce) and the African Union (au), also organized peace missions (Kaldor 2007: 22). In addition, bilateral donors and non-governmental organizations (ngos) were active in conflict and post-conflict zones. The idea that security and development are closely interrelated has become widespread in the international community and...

    • 14 MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT: CONTESTED CONSEQUENCES
      (pp. 321-340)
      Ronald Skeldon

      No country has moved to a high level of economic development unaccompanied by a redistribution of its population to urban areas. The concentration of labour force in cities has been a fundamental and necessary part of modern patterns of development, and migration to towns and cities has been one of the integral components of this transformation. Yet the current debate on migration and development has not incorporated this redistribution of population into its deliberations. Rather, the debate has focused on the minority of people who move: those who have crossed an international border and who are estimated to represent about...

    • 15 GLOBAL JUSTICE AND THE STATE
      (pp. 341-372)
      Pieter Pekelharing

      This article has three aims. First, it explains the rise of the concern for global justice and the idea that it is possible to influence the worldwide pattern of distribution and end poverty. Second, it sketches a brief history of the concept of ‘distributive justice’,¹ highlighting the role of the state as the agent of distributive justice and the difficulties that arise in extending the concept of distributive justice into the global realm. Third, it connects problems of distributive justice to problems of economic growth, capturing the political choices to be made in a trilemma derived from the development economist...

  10. Back Matter
    (pp. 373-379)