Thought and Choice in Chess

Thought and Choice in Chess

Adriaan D. de Groot
WITH A PREFACE BY SIJBOLT NOORDA
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 484
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt46n0r2
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  • Book Info
    Thought and Choice in Chess
    Book Description:

    What does a chessmaster think when he prepartes his next move? How are his thoughts organized? Which methods and strategies does he use by solving his problem of choice? To answer these questions, the author did an experimental study in 1938, to which famous chessmasters participated (Alekhine, Max Euwe and Flohr). This book is still usefull for everybody who studies cognition and artificial intelligence.

    eISBN: 978-90-485-0191-5
    Subjects: General Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. PREFACE
    (pp. None)
    Sijbolt Noorda
  3. PREFACE
    (pp. V-VIII)
    ADRIAAN D. DE GROOT
  4. PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
    (pp. IX-X)
  5. LIST OF TABLES
    (pp. XI-XII)
  6. Table of Contents
    (pp. XIII-XVI)
  7. CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    (pp. 1-32)

    Although a good many more books have been written about chess than the uninitiated generally realize,} the psychological side of the game has remained a largely virgin territory.

    The chess literature is for the most part ofa purely technical nature. It deals with the play and not with the player and his way of thinking; it treats the problem and not the problem solver. Other than their games, the 'biographies' of famous players contain little more than a record of tournament results, prizes won, and a sketch of their chess careers. Concerning their inner development one finds only scanty accounts;...

  8. CHAPTER II PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF THINKING
    (pp. 33-76)

    Although it has often been stated that theories of association are insufficient as a fundament for the description of productive thought processes, associationism still prevails in the terminology and ways of thinking of many researchers. The superiority of Selz's theory, the main subject of the present chapter, has been recognized by some students of thought, it is true, but is has never become very influential. It would appear to be of importance, therefore, to show what Selz has done by relating and contrasting his contribution with a few ofthe main features of associationism.

    (a) In all variations of association...

  9. CHAPTER III METHOD AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
    (pp. 77-98)

    In an old but still excellent exposition, joseph geyser (1909) discusses in some detail the methodology of introspective investigations on thought processes. He draws attention to a fundamental difficulty which one inevitably encounters in such work, namely, the impossibility for the subject to think and introspect (report) at the same time. Some of the suggestions he gives as to how this problem might be optimally approached and some of his remarks and advice are just as valuable today as when they were written. Hence it seems worthwhile to bring some of Geyser's points to the fore again.!

    Geyser vieweddenkpsychological...

  10. CHAPTER IV THE EXTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE THOUGHT PROCESS
    (pp. 99-130)

    The second part of this book, consisting of Chapters IV, V, and VI, treats the main results of what can be called the structural analysis of the protocols. For a reasonably complete descriptive analysis it was necessary to analyze the complete set of protocols of the main series from many different viewpoints. A consideration of length, however, prohibits the presentation of the complete evidence on which the findings are based. For that reason a somewhat less space consuming method of presentation is used: fragments of protocols serve as illustrations rather than proofs. Only a few protocols are treated in their...

  11. CHAPTER V MAIN AND SUBPROBLEMS
    (pp. 131-181)

    For the following systematic and general analyses we need a method for the interpretation of specific expressions as they occur in the protocols. We shall have to read the protocols withthe organization of the thought processas our main interest and pay no heed to other possible points of view. The types and the details of the subject’s experiences as investigated by the Wurzburg psychologists are not of any concern to us now. It would, for that matter, be impossible to pin them down since 'thinking aloud' protocols provide little information in this respect. But we shall pay attention...

  12. CHAPTER VI THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    (pp. 182-253)

    According to the classicalDenkpsychologieof Otto Selz any productive thought process may be regarded as a series of specific reactions introduced by a schematic anticipation of the goal to be attained. It is true that Selz developed this conception mainly via his study of relatively simple and brief processes of experimental problem solving (see examples in Chapter II), but he was convinced that it was just as applicable to more complex and/or long-term processes of, e.g., invention and mental creativity.

    Later investigators, however, like Selz's pupil Julius Bahle and the Gestalt psychc,logist Karl Duncker, felt the need to introduce...

  13. CHAPTER VII THE ORGANIZATION AND METHODOLOGY OF THE THOUGHT PROCESS
    (pp. 254-315)

    In Chapter IV we came to see the alternation of elaborative and integrative phases as the basic structure of the thought process. In the light of the organization and methodology of the thought process this meansthat the subject (player) periodically returns 10 more general problems, especially to the main problem. The structure of all thought processes in which a difficult problem must be dealt with is characterized by this alternation.

    In Section 44 we saw that the alternation of phases corresponds to aninteraction between elaboration and total goal (problem) conception. 'During an elaborative phase the problem in its...

  14. CHAPTER VIII CHESS TALENT
    (pp. 316-370)

    The term 'master' has more or less gone out of fashion as an epithet for someone who has attained a high, generally recognized, degree of competence in a special trade or field. Though there have been a few recent attempts to restore the title of 'master' to its honored position, the concept has practically disappeared from everyday life. No longer does everyday language recognize the guild master, in the true meaning of the word; the master of healing is now called a physician, the master builder an architect. The academic degrees of Master of Arts and Master of Science retain...

  15. CHAPTER IX EPILOGUE 1963
    (pp. 371-406)

    Throughout this study methods that can be called introspective have been freely used. While this is in accord with a still living European tradition, introspection is known to be rather suspect in the eyes of most – unot all- scientifically minded American psychologists. We shall not now unearth all the pros and cons of introspection, let alone offer an 'apology' to behavioristicaIly inclined readers. It does seem in order, though, to begin the epilogue of the English edition with enough conunent to clarify the author's standpoint.

    In his book on thought and judgment Johnson remarks that the work of the...

  16. APPENDIX I: THE GAMES FROM WHICH POSITIONS A, B, AND C WERE TAKEN
    (pp. 407-408)
  17. APPENDIX II: COLLECTION OF PROTOCOLS
    (pp. 409-440)
  18. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 441-446)
  19. INDEX OF SUBJECTS
    (pp. 447-459)
  20. INDEX OF NAMES
    (pp. 460-463)
  21. Back Matter
    (pp. 464-466)