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Edited by Melvin K. H. Peters
  • Book Info
    Book Description:

    This volume represents the current state of Septuagint studies as reflected in papers presented at the triennial meeting of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). It is rich with contributions from distinguished senior scholars as well as from promising younger scholars whose research testifies to the bright future and diversity of the field. The volume is remarkable in terms of the number, scholarly interests, and geographical distribution of its contributors; it is by far the largest congress volume to date. More than fifty papers represent viewpoints and scholarship from Belgium, Canada, Cameroon, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Korea, The Netherlands, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    eISBN: 978-1-58983-660-0
    Subjects: Religion

Table of Contents

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  1. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  2. Introduction by the Editor
    (pp. 1-4)
    Melvin K. H. Peters

    The fourteenth triennial Congress of the IOSCS convened on July 29–31, 2010, in conjunction with the twentieth international meeting of the IOSOT in the beautiful city of Helsinki, Finland. This volume contains the vast majority of the papers presented at that Congress. It includes papers of a concluding panel discussion and also general articles covering a wide array of subjects. Unfortunately, a few participants, despite having received gentle reminders in some cases and, in others, having offered faithful promises, simply did not submit their work. Only rarely did material received fail to qualify for inclusion. The volume is, nonetheless,...

  3. The Septuagint and Oral Translation
    (pp. 5-14)
    Anneli Aejmelaeus

    The real story of the origins of the Septuagint is like a big puzzle for which only a few pieces are available.¹ Through centuries scholars interested in this area of study have tried to find pieces for the puzzle from the Letter of Aristeas—as we all know, a second-century b.c.e. pseudepigraph,² which cannot be regarded as a historical document telling us what really happened. The problem with Aristeas is that it is impossible to distinguish in which details it happens to be right and in which details it is not. No detail of the story can thus be relied...

  4. The Hebrew Text behind the Greek Text of the Pentateuch
    (pp. 15-32)
    Kristin De Troyer

    In Septuagint studies there is a fine balance between two activities that Septuagint scholars constantly do. On the one hand, we try to establish the Old Greek text as it left the hands of the first translators who were rendering the Hebrew text into Greek.¹ On the other hand, we study the recensions, especially the early ones, namely the so-called proto-Lucian, kaige, Symmachus, and Aquila, etc., in order to find out how the Old Greek was corrected towards a later Hebrew text.²

    The study of how the Hebrew was rendered in Greek was spearheaded by Ilmari Soisalon-Soininen and further advanced...

  5. The Septuagint and Scribal Culture
    (pp. 33-40)
    Arie van der Kooij

    Current research on the Septuagint (LXX) has made clear that the books of the LXX are marked by a striking diversity of translation style. Hence, it is fair to assume that the origins of these books differed from book to book, or from one cluster of books to another.¹ This also implies that the books making up the ‘Early LXX’, that is to say, the books that were translated before the kaige/Theodotion recension was produced, are not to be regarded as the result of a ‘Bible translation’ project. Consequently, the idea that the books were rendered into Greek simply because...

  6. Schriftliche und mündliche Weitergabe in der griechischen Susanna-Erzählung
    (pp. 41-50)
    Edgar Kellenberger

    Der Susanna-Stoff ist bekanntlich nicht nur in zwei unterschiedlichen griechischen Fassungen (lxx und „Θ“) überliefert, sondern zudem auch in verschiedenen mittelalterlichen Erzählungen, und zwar auf Hebräisch,¹ Samaritanisch,² Aethiopisch³ und Arabisch.⁴ Während es sich in diesen mittelalterlichen Texten stets um einen Wildwuchs aus mündlicher Tradition handelt, ist die Sachlage im Syrischen unklarer: Hier bewahren die Varianten in den Bibelhandschriften zwar treuer den plot der Theodotion-Fassung, aber zeigen doch untereinander deutlich mehr Abweichungen und narrative Zusätze, als dies beim üblichen Abschreiben zu erwarten wäre.⁵

    In Weiterführung meiner früheren Überlegungen zu textkritischen Problemen des Danielbuches6 wende ich dieselbe Fragestellung an die Susanna-Erzählung an,...

  7. Beyond Genre and Style: Notes on the Greek Esther
    (pp. 51-58)
    Victoria Spottorno

    Translating of the Book of Esther into Spanish has suggested bitter-sweet thoughts to me on the whole. Sweet because wise opinions drawn from sound studies have led to sound and wise conclusions, and bitter because these conclusions still keep the book surrounded with a crown of question marks. I dare to write some reflections about this attractive and complex book, being conscious of the great number of scholarly contributions that have been written on every aspect of its rich and suggestive content.¹ I do not intend to make an evaluation of them, but just to explain my views.

    Genre and...

  8. LXX Ruth: Translation, Interpretation, Characterization
    (pp. 59-72)
    Nathan LaMontagne

    The Septuagint translators of Ruth were clearly trying to reproduce the Hebrew of Ruth to an exacting degree. This study attempts to analyze the style of the Greek translation, both at the exegetical level and at the linguistic level. This study will proceed then from two perspectives. First, it will examine the linguistic style used to translate Hebrew into Greek throughout the book; second, it will examine individual passages, which offer significant variations from the MT, and examine the meaning and reasons for the variation. Naturally, there will be a great deal of overlap between these sections. The linguistic examination...

  9. The Provenance of the Old Greek Job
    (pp. 73-92)
    Johann Cook

    Research into the Greek version (Old Greek) of the Hebrew Bible, including the so-called de novo Septuagint writings, has been gaining momentum of late. There are various reasons for this positive development. The publication programme of the LXX is advancing progressively. The impact of the Dead Sea Scrolls on Septuagintal studies is also observed at various levels.² Novel theories as to the origin of the LXX have been formulated and many international projects have been formulated over the past decades.³

    There is a growing perception that this corpus contains invaluable exegetical and hermeneutical insights in addition to its traditional text-critical...

  10. Concerning the Origin of the Addition Found in ProvLXX 1:7
    (pp. 93-104)
    Lorenzo Cuppi

    Both in the Hebrew and the Greek text of the book of Proverbs, verse 1:7 holds, a remarkable position. In the words of Crawford H. Toy, “This general definition of wisdom may be regarded as the motto of the whole book.”¹ For a long time, it has been noted that the LXX translation of the verse shows two additional stichs in comparison with the MT.

    יראת יהוה ראשית דעת חכמה ומוסר אוילים בזו

    The fear of Yhwh is the beginning of knowledge, fools despised wisdom and instruction.

    Ἀρχὴ σοφίας φόβος θεοῦ, σύνεσις δὲ ἀγαθὴ πᾶσι τοῖς ποιοῦσιν αὐτήν· εὐσέβεια δὲ...

  11. Onias III and the Legitimacy of Judas Maccabaeus
    (pp. 105-126)
    Dov Gera

    Scholars discussing the Second Book of Maccabees often stress the centrality of the figure of Judas Maccabaeus in it.¹ In light of the role played by Judas in the book, such a view can hardly seem objectionable, but it does need to be looked at from the perspective of the book as a whole. One of the problems concerning this traditional view is that we have to read seven chapters of the book, before actually encountering the figure of Judas at chapter 8.² Thus, only the last eight of the book’s fifteen chapters deal with Judas, and he is in...

  12. Between Mĕšûbâ and Môšābâ: On the Status of Diaspora Jews in the Period of Redemption according to the Septuagint and Hellenistic Judaism
    (pp. 127-142)
    Noah Hacham

    My objective in the following lines is to uncover one of the considerations guiding the translators of the Septuagint in their selection of precise terms for their translation. I would assert that certain proposed translations, seemingly incompatible or in dissonance with the Hebrew version, derive not merely from a different reading of the Hebrew biblical text; rather they are grounded in a coherent worldview pertaining to the translated material. It is my opinion that readers would certainly have understood the Greek text in the context of its revised ideological and theological meaning and it is plausible that on the translation...

  13. Uncovering Echoes of LXX Legal Norms in Hellenistic Egyptian Documentary Papyri: The Case of the Second-Century Herakleopolite Nome
    (pp. 143-154)
    Rob Kugler

    Published in 2001 as P.Polit.Iud. 1–20, a group of documentary papyri from a Judean community in second-century b.c.e. Herakleopolis prove the existence of a Judean politeumata in Hellenistic Egypt.¹ The majority of the texts are petitions from Judeans of the politeuma to its leaders regarding their disputes with other parties. Some have argued that the papyri demonstrate that while these Judeans relied on ancestral norms found in the Septuagint in matters of family law, regarding most everything else they trusted in the general Ptolemaic legal norms that featured royal administrative and fiscal rules and Greek common law.² Yet a...

  14. The Miscellanies in 2 Reigns 2:35a–o, 46a–l and the Composition of the Books of Kings/Reigns
    (pp. 155-174)
    Zipora Talshir

    From time to time, like the Phoenix, the miscellanies appended at 3 Reigns 2:35a–o, 46a–l reappear on the scene, and capture our attention, as befits this quite extraordinary phenomenon. Like the legend, the problems are everlasting, but like its subject, the solutions are imaginary. The intriguing question raised by the miscellanies is whether they testify to the history of the book of Kings or to the history of the book of Reigns. In other words, are the miscellanies a remnant of the books of Kings in the making, or rather a by-product of the process of revision, the...

  15. Different Distribution of Agreements between LXXL and Medieval Hebrew Variants in Kaige and Non-kaige Sections of III–IV Regnorum
    (pp. 175-192)
    Pablo Torijano Morales

    The Greek version of the LXX is a literary work, which has a value of its own. It has been rightly criticized quite often that it was used in the past almost exclusively in terms of textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible. Today we are more aware that, as J. W. Wevers affirmed:

    Before the Septuagint can be used in the text criticism of the Hebrew text, 1. the nature and limitations of the Greek language in contrast to those of the Hebrew language must be thoroughly understood. The text critic must understand and be able to contrast the grammatical...

  16. Agreements between LXXBL, Medieval Hebrew Readings, and Variants of the Aramaic, Syriac and Vulgate Versions in Kaige and Non-kaige Sections of 3–4 Reigns
    (pp. 193-206)
    Julio Trebolle Barrera

    The question of the relationship between textual criticism of the LXX and textual criticism of the Hebrew text (not exactly and not only the MT) becomes more acute and perplexing in a kaige section such as that of 4 Reigns. In this section LXXB does not transmit the OG text but that of a recension, which reflects a proto-Masoretic text, attempting to reproduce it with a literalism which prefigures Aquila’s—as the title of Barthélemy’s book indicates, Les devanciers d’Aquila.¹ In order to reconstruct the OG of this section we have to resort to a pre-Lucianic text preserved in the...

  17. The Greek Framework of Kings: Indicators of Recension
    (pp. 207-218)
    Jonathan M. Robker

    One cannot understand the Greek tradition of the book of Reigns as a monolith; rather, two important textual traditions, which are closely related to one another, play a decisive role in defining the textual history of Reigns: Vaticanus and Lucian.¹ An important figure in the continuing conversation about the relationship between the kaige² text of Vaticanus and the Antiochene tradition represented by the Lucianic texts is Siegfried Kreuzer, who has not only published in this matter, but was also the editor responsible for the Books of Reigns (among others) in the Septuaginta Deutsch.³ In the context of his introduction to...

  18. Translating the Historical Books
    (pp. 219-230)
    Natalio Fernández Marcos

    It is a well known fact that the translation of the Pentateuch is not always a faithful rendering of the original text, despite the affirmations to the contrary made by the author of the Letter of Aristeas §310: “Since this version has been made rightly and reverently, and in every respect accurately, it is good that this should remain exactly so, and that there should be no retouch.” The discrepancies between the original and the Greek copies were noticed at an early stage; this is apparent in the quick response to correct the Greek with the relation to the Hebrew...

  19. Vom hellenistischen Kleinrollensystem zum Kodex: Beobachtungen zur Textgestalt der griechischen Samuel- und Königebücher
    (pp. 231-242)
    Jong-Hoon Kim

    Bekanntlich sind in den griechischen Samuel- und Königebüchern unterschiedliche Textformen zu erkennen. 1921 stellte Thackeray seine Theorie über die Septuaginta-Übersetzung von Sam-Kön auf, deren wesentliche Idee er schon 1907 vorgestellt hatte.² Nach ihm bestehen die griechischen Sam-Kön bzw. 1.–4.Kgt aus zwei Teilen: α(1 Sam); ββ (2 Sam 1,1–11,1)³; γγ (1 Kön 2,12–21,43⁴, und βγ (1 Sam 11,2–1 Kön 2,11)⁵; γδ (1 Kön 22,1–2 Kön 25,30).⁶

    Er behauptet, dass die Samuel- und Königebücher zweistufig ins Griechische übersetzt, wurden: Zunächst wurden nur 1 Sam 1,1—2 Sam 11,1 und 1 Kön 2,12—21,43 übersetzt, und erst später...

  20. “Lukian redivivus” or Barthélemy and Beyond?
    (pp. 243-262)
    Siegfried Kreuzer

    The famous German philosopher and poet Gotthold Ephraim Lessing once wrote a little poem about Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, a famous and much appraised poet who lived in the eighteenth century and who was a little bit older then Lessing. It goes:

    Wer wird nicht einen Klopstock loben?

    Doch wird ihn jeder lesen? Nein!

    Wir wollen weniger erhoben

    und fleißiger gelesen sein.

    Who would not praise a Klopstock?

    But would everyone read him? No!

    We would like to be less elated

    but more read.”

    This saying could also be applied to one of the most famous Septuagint scholars at least of...

  21. Der Tempelbaubericht 3 Kgdms 6:1–22 : Vom Umgang der Übersetzer mit einer schwierigen hebräischen Vorlage
    (pp. 263-276)
    Martin Meiser

    Septuagintaforschung sucht seit alters die philologische und theologische Eigenart der jeweiligen Übersetzungsleistung in den verschiedenen Teilbereichen der Septuaginta zu bestimmen und leistet so einen Beitrag zur Rekonstruktion der Geistigkeit eines bestimmten Flügels innerhalb des pluriformen antiken Judentums. Die Überprüfung der Frage, ob ein spezieller Abschnitt der Septuaginta eher an der Ausgangs-oder an der Zielsprache orientiert ist, beginnt man, so zu Recht Anneli Aejmelaeus, am besten bei in unserem Sinne theologisch irrelevanten Stellen, um falsche Subjektivismen auszuschließen.¹ Als Ergebnis dessen zeigt sich für die Übersetzung von 3 Kgdms, Sektion γγ, dass auch diese Partie, bei allen Unterschieden zu den και-γε-Abschnitten, als...

  22. Greek Isaiah 25: 6–8 and the Issue of Coherence
    (pp. 277-290)
    W. de Angelo Cunha

    The Greek translation of Isaiah (G Isa) often differs from MT and the Isaiah scrolls (H Isa).¹ Whereas G Isa does not contain major structural differences from the Hebrew, as is the case with G Jer, it does differ from the Hebrew in several small but seemingly important details. Scholars have rightly compared it with G Job and Prov, as well as with the targumim because it contains several cases where its translation is rather free.² In comparison with other Greek translations of the prophets, G Isa may be characterized as a sui generis translation.³

    The history of research on...

  23. Hapax Legomena, the Septuagint, and Hebrew Lexicography
    (pp. 291-300)
    Hans Ausloos

    Almost three decades ago, my secondary school Dutch language teacher tried to persuade his pupils to consult a dictionary at least once a day—be it a bilingual dictionary or a reference encyclopedia. His advice initially evoked somewhat of a deep, even sacred reverence to dictionaries. When it was written in a dictionary, it should have been correct. Now, many years later, and actually making daily use of dictionaries, my almost blind trust is sometimes crumbling. Even though I am still persuaded of the accuracy and precision with which the majority of dictionaries are composed, I have the impression that...

  24. The Usages of Δίδωμι in the Septuagint
    (pp. 301-312)
    Paul Danove

    This discussion investigates the procedure for identifying verbal usages, the grammatical characteristics of δίδωμι with all usages, and the implications of these characteristics for interpretation.

    All occurrences in which δίδωμι requires completion by arguments with the same semantic and syntactic functions constitute a usage. For example, in the following occurrences, δίδωμι requires completion by three arguments that function as a semantic Agent (the entity that actively instigates an action and/or is the ultimate cause of a change in another entity), Theme (the entity moving from one place to another), and Goal (the literal or figurative entity towards which something moves).¹...

  25. The Greek Rendering of Hebrew Hapax Legomena in the Book of Qoheleth
    (pp. 313-332)
    Hans Debel and Elke Verbeke

    If one is looking for a candidate to load with all the sins of literalism, the book of Qoheleth presents a willing victim, as it is commonplace to count its Greek translation among the most ‘literal’ translations of the Hebrew Bible. Robert Kraft, for example, classified the book in the category of “literal translations reflecting closely the Semitic text,” with “relatively more focus on parent text,” in the subdivision of “mechanical,” where it appeared as the only Old Greek on par with Aquila’s version.¹ Actually, older research tends to identify the translator of LXX Ecclesiastes with Aquila: Heinrich Graetz is...

  26. “Biblical Greek” in the LXX? The Case of δωρεάν
    (pp. 333-346)
    Peter Spitaler

    The authors of the LXX frequently translate the Hebrew word חנם with the Greek word δωρεάν. The spectrum of meaning of חנם is broad, ranging from “without giving or taking compensation” to “without cause,” “undeservedly,” or “needlessly.”¹ In contrast, δωρεάν has a much narrower range of meaning, generally describing actions completed without giving or receiving payment, namely, “as a gift.” Thus, the use of δωρεάν in the LXX raises two intriguing questions.

    First, in choosing to translate חנם with δωρεάν, did the translators expand the range of meaning of δωρεάν to include shades of meaning imported from the Hebrew language...

  27. The Historical and Theological Lexicon of the Septuagint: A Sample Entry—εὐλογέω
    (pp. 347-356)
    Jan Joosten

    1. The verb εὐλογέω, whose etymology is transparent (for εὐ-see εὐδοκέω, “to favor,” εὐπορέω, “to cause to thrive,” etc., for -λογέω, see κακολογέω, “to revile,” σεμνολογέω, “to speak solemnly,” etc.), might in principle be expected to mean: “to speak well.” This meaning is indeed attested once, in Let. Aris. 249; note also the noun εὐλογία “fine words” (distinct from the usual meaning “praise”) in Plato, Rep. III 400d and in Rom 16:18, and the adjective εὔλογος, “eloquent,” occurring as a variant reading for ἱκανός in Exod 4:10 (the more usual meaning of εὔλογος is “reasonable”). Commonly, however, the verb means “to...

  28. A Note on Some Προσήλυτοι in P.Duk.inv. 727R
    (pp. 357-360)
    David M. Moffitt

    A papyrus in the holdings of the Special Collections Library at Duke University—P.Duk.inv. 727—likely dates from the third or second centuries b.c.e. The recto of this document provides the earliest nonseptuagintal attestation of the word προσήλυτος to date. In this note I will briefly summarize the contents of the recto and offer some initial comments on the potential significance of the papyrus for the study of the Septuagint.

    Unfortunately P.Duk.inv. 727 is a fragmentary document. Nevertheless, it is clear that the papyrus does not contain any biblical text. Both the recto and verso appear to be drafts of...

  29. What after the Lexicon?
    (pp. 361-368)
    Takamitsu Muraoka

    My LXX lexicon (GELS)¹ provides at the end of most entries some paradigmatic data, namely, a list of semantically related lexemes. Unlike LEH² I am primarily interested in meaning, not forms. So I list not only derivationally related lexemes, but also semantically related words, namely synonyms, antonyms and suchlike. In GELS, therefore, you would not find, for instance, ἀποκρίνομαι listed under κρίνω, because they have semantically nothing in common. The only feature that they share and could be of interest lies in their morphology. Thus at the end of the lexeme ἀφανίζω you will find in my lexicon a lengthy...

  30. Jeremiah 38:31–34 (MT 31:31–34): The History of the Two Versions and Their Reception
    (pp. 369-380)
    Georg Walser

    While working on my Jeremiah commentary for the Brill Septuagint Commentary Series I came across a small but very interesting monograph by Adrian Schenker about Jer. 38:31–34. According to Schenker¹

    Die Verheißung eines neuen Bundes beim Propheten Jeremia in der Fassung der griechischen Bibel der Septuaginta wurde noch nie systematisch mit ihrer hebräischen Fassung verglichen, wenn man von einer ausgezeichneten, aber knappen Studie von Pierre-Maurice Bogaert, Louvain-La-Neuve, und einer in den entgegengesetzte Richtung zielenden Untersuchung von Bernard Renaud absieht.

    Strangely enough, it seems as if Schenker is right, that the differences between the two versions only occasionally have been...

  31. Le vocabulaire homilétique de Jr 1–20 comparé à 4 Rg 17,7–20
    (pp. 381-396)
    Christian-Bernard Amphoux and Arnaud Sérandour

    Le livre de Jérémie a surtout été étudié, jusqu’ici, sous sa forme longue transmise en hébreu et dans les traductions faites sur l’hébreu. A côté de cette tradition du livre, il existe une forme courte attestée par une partie des manuscrits grecs et des versions faites sur le grec ; et il est convenu d’appeler cette forme la Septante (LXX) de Jérémie. Or, plusieurs études menées à la fin du xxe siècle concluent que la forme courte du livre est antérieure à la forme longue¹ ; et la forme longue en serait une révision datant de l’époque asmonéenne. Dans ces...

  32. Was LXX Pentateuch a Style-Setter for LXX Minor Prophets?
    (pp. 397-412)
    Jennifer Dines

    It is now clear that vocabulary and syntax first occurring in the Greek Pentateuch sometimes influenced choices made by later translators.¹ The translation of the Minor Prophets (MP) is no exception.² This being so, we might wonder whether pentateuchal influence is discernible in other ways as well. Recent study has shown that the various translators (five for the Pentateuch, one for MP) attempt intermittently to reproduce some of their source texts’ literary features—assonance, alliteration, rhyme and so on—either exactly or equivalently.³ This is interesting enough, as it shows them to be sensitive to stylistic effects and responsive to...

  33. Speech in the Book of Judith
    (pp. 413-424)
    Deborah Levine Gera

    Until recently scholars were virtually unanimous in their belief that the book of Judith was originally written in Hebrew, and that the surviving Greek text is a translation from this original Hebrew. This still appears to be the majority view,¹ but an increasingly vocal minority of scholars argue that our text was written in Greek and is not a translation.² In this paper I shall focus on the passages of direct speech in the book of Judith in order to further illuminate the question of the original language of Judith. I shall be looking at the speech passages from two...

  34. Some Remarks on the Codex Ambrosianus
    (pp. 425-434)
    Mariachiara Fincati

    It is well known that the Codex Ambrosianus (F), one of the most important ancient uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible,¹ contains in its margins a great number of variant readings, taken from different sources. One of these sources seems to be linked to the Jewish tradition of later biblical translations. In the last IOSCS Congress (Ljubljana, 2007), Cameron Boyd-Taylor showed some lexical matches with the marginal annotations of a Hebrew manuscript of the Former Prophets.² It is a curious and uncommon fact that a Christian manuscript gathers Jewish biblical material and that its Septuagintal text is modified according to...

  35. Greek Variants behind Coptic Readings in 1 Samuel 31?
    (pp. 435-444)
    Elina Perttilä

    The Sahidic version of 1Samuel was translated from the Septuagint (LXX) at the end of the third or the beginning of the fourth century, and it is therefore a daughter version of the LXX. The translation was made before most of the Greek manuscripts we have were written. Thus, if we could be able to decipher the source text of the Sahidic translation in its details, it would be an old and important witness in the textual criticism of the Greek text. Before citing Sahidic in the apparatus of the Greek text, there are many things to be taken into...

  36. The Rendering of Toponyms in the LXX-Minor Prophets: An Indication of Alexandrian Provenance
    (pp. 445-456)
    Gunnar Magnus Eidsvåg

    In recent years the debate concerning the provenance of the Septuagint translations has been renewed, especially when it comes to the translations of the prophets and the writings. Several scholars leave open the possibility that the translations of these books were undertaken in Palestine.¹ It would be wrong to say that these scholars support their arguments by hard evidence, simply because hard evidence is almost non existent. In these matters we are all bound to deal with more and less convincing indications, collect them and weigh them against each other. In this paper I will discuss one issue which may...

  37. Ephraim Dwelt in Egypt: Egypt and Assyria in the Septuagint of Hosea
    (pp. 457-472)
    W. Edward Glenny

    In his study of “‘Egypt’ in the Septuagint Text of Hosea” Pisano found evidence that the text had been modified in an apparent systematic way in order to change the time frame of the references to Egypt, so that Israel’s return to Egypt was placed in the past.¹ He suggested this could have been done for historical accuracy or to be a symbolic statement concerning Israel’s situation at the time of Hosea. Some of Pisano’s evidence for his view is debatable, and Joosten suggests the case he makes for his thesis is “flimsy.”² The recent commentary on Hosea in La...

  38. Readings Attributed to “οί περὶ α′ and/or σ′” by Theodoret of Cyrrhus
    (pp. 473-498)
    Reinhart Ceulemans

    As is commonly acknowledged, the writings of Greek Christian authors constitute a very valuable corpus for the scholar who is critically involved with the various texts of the Greek Bible, not least the Hexaplaric versions. Then again, textual critics are also aware of the fact that those writings, although rich in offering data, often puzzle those who wish to put their data to concrete use and include them into a critical apparatus. Readings of Greek Bible versions these ancient authors offered are often presented in a manner that is vague and unclear.¹ Also in the Hexaplaric readings one encounters throughout...

  39. Θρησκεία, Terra Incognita, and Terra Devastata: Vocabulary and Theology of Symmachus
    (pp. 499-514)
    Michaël N. van der Meer

    Out of the ancient Jewish translations of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, viz., Old Greek (third century b.c.e.–first century c.e.), Kaige-Theodotion (around the turn of the Christian era), Aquila (early second century c.e.), and Symmachus (late second century c.e.),¹ the one produced by Symmachus has probably suffered most from obliteration, both in Antiquity and Modernity. Whereas we have modern critical editions for most of the books of the Septuagint, we have to work from the splendid but also outdated compilation of Hexaplaric material made by Frederick Field between 1865 and 1875.² Although that edition was a monumental achievement in...

  40. Designing a New Septuagint Commentary: SBLCS and WATER
    (pp. 515-524)
    Robert J. V. Hiebert and Nathaniel N. Dykstra

    In 2005 the Society of Biblical Literature Research and Publications Committee entered into a collaborative partnership with the IOSCS to establish the Society of Biblical Literature Commentary on the Septuagint (SBLCS). The rationale for this series, as articulated in the prospectus formulated by the planning committee (Albert Pietersma, Claude Cox, Moisés Silva, Benjamin Wright, David Aiken, and John Wevers) and posted on the IOSCS website, is as follows:

    Since the early part of the twentieth century, the Septuaginta Unternehmen in Goettingen, Germany, has been systematically reassembling and reconstructing, from the heterogeneous textual evidence extant, the original form of the Greek...

  41. Writing a Commentary on the Septuagint
    (pp. 525-538)
    Dirk Büchner

    In contrast to the writing of a commentary on a composed biblical work, in which the commentator aims to bring the text of a book in the sacred canon, to a readership who wish to be furnished with philological, historical and theological information, the task of the SBLCS commentator is different. What the series editors ask commentators to feature about the material before them, is that it is in the first place the result of a sacred work rendered into a different language to serve a particular function for the audience that first received it. The central concern therefore is...

  42. Some Peculiar Place Names in the LXX of Joshua
    (pp. 539-548)
    Seppo Sipilä

    The book of Joshua is especially rich in place names, because the middle part of the book includes the town lists with more than 300 names in them.¹ For a normal (western) Bible reader lists of names are probably boring,² because they do not contain information of easily recognizable significance. Already in the New Testament we can find a warning to avoid genealogies (Titus 3:9), and I suppose the same applies to the town lists.

    However, from a scholarly point of view the name lists can turn out to be interesting and even useful. It is well-known that Max Margolis...

  43. ᾄσατε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε καὶ ψάλατε (Ps 97:4): Présent vs aoriste dans les impératifs des Psaumes LXX
    (pp. 549-568)
    Philippe Le Moigne

    « Le Seigneur a dit à mon Seigneur : Siège à ma droite jusqu’à ce que j’ai fait de tes ennemis le tabouret de tes pieds »¹ ; le grec de ce psaume 109 (TM 110)² dit Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου, avec un impératif présent³ au lieu de l’impératif aoriste κάθισον que l’on a, par exemple, en 1 Règnes (TM 3 Rois) 19:2. Pourquoi a-t-on l’impératif présent pour l’action de s’asseoir, qui est a priori assez rapide ? Pourquoi la durée du procès importe-t-elle au traducteur ? En réalité, celui-ci ne fait ici que rendre le fait que le texte...

  44. Die Rezeption der Septuaginta im entstehenden Christentum. Das Wuppertaler Forschungsprojekt
    (pp. 569-586)
    Martin Karrer

    Am Institut für Septuaginta und biblische Textforschung der Kirchlichen Hochschule Wuppertal/Bethel richtete die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 2007 ein Forschungsprojekt über die Zitate der Septuaginta im Neuen Testament ein. Ausgewählte Erträge seien kurz vorgestellt.¹

    Bis zum letzten Drittel des 20. Jh. herrschte beträchtliche Unklarheit darüber, wie Übereinstimmungen zwischen neutestamentlichen Zitaten und Septuaginta-Handschriften zu erklären seien, wenn der Wortlaut vom masoretischen Text abweicht und sich nicht in der gesamten Septuaginta-Überlieferung durchsetzt. Alfred Rahlfs vermutete in diesen Fällen in der Regel einen nachträglichen Einfluss des Neuen Testaments auf die Septuaginta-Überlieferung.² Die neutestamentliche Textkritik, am einflussreichsten Bruce M. Metzger, dagegen plädierte oft umgekehrt für sekundäre...

  45. Old Testament and New Testament Versions of the Mosaic Law: The Intersection of Oral and Written Tradition
    (pp. 587-604)
    Ulrich Schmid

    The present study is about a passage from the Mosaic Law that has generated a considerable echo in the New Testament. Parts of the decalogue (Ex 20:13–15; Dtn 5:17–19) are referred to in the Synoptic Gospels (esp. Mt 19:18; Mk 10:19; Lk 18:20) but also in Paul (Rom 13:9) and even in the letter of James (2:11). This textual complexion has produced differences in the course of the tradition. The New Testament writers, e.g., are at variance when compared with one another and with their Old Testament source texts. And the question is, what caused these differences? Were...

  46. A Comparison of the Septuagint Textual Form in the Torah Quotations Common to Philo of Alexandria and the Gospels of Mark and Matthew
    (pp. 605-624)
    Gert J. Steyn

    Comparative studies on the quotations from the Torah in the NT seldom take cognizance of the Corpus Philonicum. These studies generally tend to compare the quotation mainly with the MT and LXX. Lately, and justifiably so at least, the Dead Sea Scrolls are also more and more included in such textual comparisons on the OT quotations in the NT. However, the place of the Hellenistic Jewish writer, Philo of Alexandria, alongside such textual comparisons remains often largely neglected. Similar to this oversight in NT comparisons, is the tendency to ignore these quotations in the NT where they overlap in Philo....

  47. The Non-dependence of the Psalms Translator in Relation to the Translators of the Pentateuch
    (pp. 625-644)
    Staffan Olofsson

    Although the Septuagint in itself cannot be seen as an expression of a unified interpretive tradition, there are nevertheless unifying features. It can be taken as a given among LXX scholars that the translators of the later LXX books were influenced by the first translated part of the Septuagint, i.e., the Pentateuch. This also applies to the book of Psalms. I concur with this evaluation.¹ This is part of the broader assumption that an equivalent chosen in a LXX book is sometimes based on the authority of a previous translation unit, rather than the religious train of thought of the...

  48. Les Odes ajoutées au Psautier dans la Septante comme actes de langage
    (pp. 645-662)
    Cécile Dogniez

    Dans son édition de la Septante², A. Rahlfs fait suivre les Psaumes d’un recueil auquel il donne le titre d’Odes³. Cette collection4 est composée de quatorze odes dont neuf sont en usage dans l’Eglise grecque. Ces quatorze odes figurent dans l’Alexandrinus, mais dans un ordre différent⁵ de celui de Rahlfs. Ce manuscrit en onciale du 5e siècle constitue un témoin d’une extrême importance pour notre corpus puisqu’il est le premier manuscrit grec de la Bible qui offre cette collection à la suite des 151 Psaumes. En effet ces odes sont absentes du Sinaiticus et du Vaticanus, pourtant antérieurs à l’...

  49. The Septuagint’s Fidelity to Its Vorlage in Greek Patristic Thought
    (pp. 663-676)
    Edmon L. Gallagher

    Biblical exegesis during the patristic period entailed little concern for the Hebrew text of the Old Testament. The Septuagint penetrated the consciousness of Christians to the extent that they treated it as the original text and constructed elaborate interpretations on the basis of it, without thought to the underlying Hebrew. Indeed, the fathers justified such use of this translation by claiming that it was inspired in its own right, and they formulated an array of arguments to substantiate this claim.¹ Nevertheless, the fathers were constantly aware that their Old Testament was, in fact, a translation,² and the relationship between the...

  50. Using Patristic Evidence: A Question of Methodology in the Textual Criticism of the LXX
    (pp. 677-690)
    Tuukka Kauhanen

    Working on my doctoral thesis¹ concerning the proto-Lucianic problem in 1 Samuel, I began more and more to think that the solution to the problem lies in the biblical quotations of the early Church Fathers² (Hippolytus, Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Cyprian). A substantial part of my forthcoming thesis will consist of meticulous analysis of these quotations. Many problems have arisen during this work.

    (1) What is the nature of the quotation? Is it a word-for-word citation, an adaptation to the specific needs of the author, or an allusion with little verbal correspondence with the biblical text?

    (2) If the quotations are...

  51. Hebrew Bible(s) and Greek Witnesses? A First Look at the Makeup of 2 Kings for the Oxford Hebrew Bible
    (pp. 691-704)
    Andrés Piquer Otero

    This presentation will focus on issues related to the Oxford Hebrew Bible edition of 2 Kings (henceforth OHB), given the importance that the Vorlage of the LXX text has for several of the biblical books which seem to present two texts or “redactions”, as it is the case in some of the Former Prophets. I will not deal here with some of the most recent criticism leveled at the OHB project,² which is grounded, for the most part, on the treatment of “accidentals”³ and concerns about the production of a “heterogeneous” text, given that these issues have already been discussed...

  52. Les mots ותהי־לו סכנת dans 1 Rois 1,2
    (pp. 705-712)
    Jean Koulagna

    Au début de cette présentation, il convient de situer notre réflexion dans le contexte qui l’a suscitée. L’objet de la présente communication se situe dans le contexte de l’édition du texte hébreu du Premier livre des Rois dans le cadre du projet dénommé Oxford Hebrew Bible (OHB), initié et dirigé par Ronald Hendel, Université de Californie, Berkeley. Des projets d’édition diplomatique de la bible hébraïque en cours existent : le Hebrew University Bible (HUB), fondé depuis 1955, qui édite la bible sur la base du Codex d’Alep, et la Biblia Hebraica Quinta (BHQ), révision de la Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS)...

  53. Contributors
    (pp. 713-716)