Neurobehavioral Anatomy, Third Edition

Neurobehavioral Anatomy, Third Edition

Christopher M. Filley
Copyright Date: 2011
Pages: 250
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  • Book Info
    Neurobehavioral Anatomy, Third Edition
    Book Description:

    Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect key advances in behavioral neurology, Neurobehavioral Anatomy, Third Edition is a clinically based account of the neuroanatomy of human behavior centered on a consideration of behavioral dysfunction caused by disorders of the brain. A concise introduction to brain-behavior relationships that enhances patient care and assists medical students, the book also serves as a handy reference to researchers, neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and geriatricians.   The book outlines how cognitive and emotional functions are represented and organized in the brain to produce the behaviors regarded as uniquely human. It reviews the effects of focal and diffuse brain lesions, and from this analysis a conception of the normal operations of the healthy brain emerges. Christopher M. Filley integrates data and material from different disciplines to create a concise and accessible synthesis that informs the clinical understanding of brain-behavior relationships. Clinically practical and theoretically stimulating, the book is an invaluable resource for those involved in the clinical care and study of people with neurobehavioral disorders.   Including a useful glossary and extensive references guiding users to further research, the third edition will be of significance to medical students, residents, fellows, practicing physicians, and the general reader interested in neurology.

    eISBN: 978-1-60732-099-9
    Subjects: General Science, Biological Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
    (pp. xi-xviii)
    (pp. 1-24)

    Human behavior has an enduring appeal. Who among us has not reflected from time to time on how it is that a memory is formed, a sentence produced, or an emotion experienced? What is the origin of the thoughts and feelings that seem so distinctively to characterize the human species? Despite the enormous interest of this subject, however, our knowledge of human behavior is remarkably limited. The principle that the brain is the source of behavior has been acknowledged—with some notable exceptions—since the time of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, but the study of this relatively small organ encased...

    (pp. 25-48)

    A central goal of the clinical interaction between physician and patient is the gathering of information that will contribute to the patient’s proper evaluation and care. In the case of neurobehavioral disorders, deficits due to brain dysfunction can be recognized only after a thorough assessment of behavior has been completed. Many of the clinical data, of course, are elicited with a medical history, physical examination, elemental neurological examination, and appropriate laboratory, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing, but the assessment of mental status offers a particularly revealing, if challenging, portion of the clinical encounter. The mental status evaluation is in fact a...

    (pp. 49-62)

    Disturbances of arousal and attention compose a heterogeneous and challenging group of neurobehavioral syndromes (Geschwind 1982; Mesulam 2000; Posner et al. 2007). Ranging in severity from coma after brainstem infarction to subtle acute confusional states related to drug intoxication, these disorders are not only common clinically but provide many insights into the brain’s capacity to enable uniquely human mental life. Moreover, they bear directly upon the fundamental question of the nature of consciousness, a perennial philosophical conundrum that can now be meaningfully addressed in a neuroscientific context. This chapter will jointly consider the arousal and attentional disorders in some detail,...

    (pp. 63-74)

    Memory is a critical cognitive domain that has long challenged students of behavior. The importance of memory in human existence is indisputable, since without an intact mnemonic system, past experience cannot be called upon to deal with present contingencies or to formulate future plans. Many different disciplines have contributed to the study of memory, encompassing organisms as simple as the mollusk (Kandel 2006) and as complicated as higher primates (Zola-Morgan and Squire 1993; Budson and Price 2005). This chapter will concentrate on those aspects of memory that have particular neurobehavioral significance, recognizing that some important memory phenomena have no established...

    (pp. 75-94)

    Of all the higher functions, the capacity to communicate with language is perhaps the most obvious skill possessed by humankind. Language can be considered the verbal expression of symbolic thinking, and as such it not only endows human communication with an expansive richness of cognitive and emotional associations but also reflects the unique capacity of the human mind to interpret the world symbolically (Deacon 1997). Animals such as chimpanzees have been observed to exhibit some aspects of language, and Charles Darwin held that humans were essentially apes with big brains (Darwin 1872). But only humans possess the ability to use...

    (pp. 95-104)

    Apraxia is an acquired disorder of skilled purposeful movement (Heilman and Rothi 2003; Greene 2005). As with aphasia and dysphasia, the term dyspraxia is sometimes used to denote less severe apraxia, but like aphasia, apraxia is far more commonly used for all degrees of severity. The theoretical importance of apraxia relates to the phenomenon of tool use, one of the key developments in human evolution that contributed to enhanced adaptation to the physical environment (Lewis 2006). In the clinical setting, apraxia can pose a significant impediment to patients with stroke and other brain lesions as they attempt to resume a...

    (pp. 105-118)

    Agnosia is fundamentally a disorder of recognition (Bauer and Demery 2003; Greene 2005). Like aphasia and apraxia, it may follow a focal cerebrovascular event but can also be seen in degenerative disease. A patient with agnosia fails to recognize an object even when primary sensory modalities have registered its features adequately. From the Greek meaning “absence of knowledge,” the term was first introduced by Sigmund Freud in his early monograph on aphasia (Freud 1891). Since then, no syndrome in behavioral neurology has engendered more debate, confusion, and controversy. It has been commented, for example, that the number of suggested mechanisms...

    (pp. 119-138)

    Lesions of the right hemisphere produce some of the most intriguing yet problematic syndromes in behavioral neurology. Despite a substantial amount of information that has appeared recently, these disorders present special difficulties since they typically do not reveal themselves through the usual route of verbal mediation. Right hemisphere disorders, although they may often be disabling in real-world settings, are often difficult for the patient and family or caregiver to describe and may escape unnoticed in the routine mental status examination unless specifically sought. When they are recognized, these disturbances can still be elusive because they implicate more intuitive, nonverbal cognitive...

    (pp. 139-158)

    It has been quipped that the Sylvian fissure, below which lies the temporal lobe and its various emotional functions, separates neurology from psychiatry. Although the position of this book is that any distinction between neurology and psychiatry will ultimately prove artificial (Chapter 1), it is true that a wide spectrum of emotional states, normal and otherwise, have been specifically linked with the temporal lobe and the limbic system to which it is intimately related. These regions therefore present a unique opportunity for exploration of emotional phenomena mediated by the brain. The cognitive domains of memory (Chapter 4) and language (Chapter...

    (pp. 159-174)

    The frontal lobes have long fascinated, and perplexed, students of human behavior (Filley 2009). One obvious reason for this is their impressive size, accounting for more than a third of the brain’s cortical surface (Damasio and Anderson 2003). Moreover, they are the most phylogenetically recent areas of the brain, and no other animal possesses frontal lobes of such size; accordingly, evolutionary theorists have stressed the role of the frontal lobes in the development of the highest human functions and consciousness itself (Stuss and Benson 1986; Miller and Cummings 1999). It seems certain that the frontal lobes are responsible for singular...

    (pp. 175-188)

    Injury to the brain is an obvious but still underemphasized source of neurobehavioral disability. Although incidence and prevalence figures for traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not known with certainty, it is estimated that, in the United States, approximately 1.5 million new cases occur each year (Arciniegas et al. 2005). Of these, some 235,000 require admission to a hospital (Arciniegas et al. 2005), and these patients are of course more easily recognized because of their more severe injuries. Many more TBI victims have so-called mild TBI, which does not require hospital admission but still may produce major clinical problems, often for...

    (pp. 189-226)

    The first several chapters of this book were primarily devoted to neurobehavioral syndromes that can be related to focal disruption of cerebral areas concerned with the representation of cognition and emotion. Our review then led to traumatic brain injury (TBI), a problem that, because of its diverse manifestations, produces both focal and diffuse syndromes. To conclude this volume, it is now appropriate to turn to another syndrome, one that by definition represents widespread brain dysfunction: the increasingly threatening problem of dementia. In contrast to the disorders of arousal and attention, dementia does not feature prominent alterations in level of consciousness...

    (pp. 227-228)

    The neurology clinic, with its abundance of unfortunate but instructive lesions of the brain, offers a continuously operating laboratory for the exploration of human behavior. The clinician’s first responsibility is the care of patients, but this imperative is rendered more attainable and more intelligent by attention to the ever fascinating relationships between brain and behavior. The treatment of patients in need and the understanding of the brain are both well served by the study of neurobehavioral syndromes consequent to brain disease, injury, or intoxication.

    This book has been intended to describe the anatomy of higher brain function through an analysis...

    (pp. 229-240)
  18. INDEX
    (pp. 241-250)