Discourse 2.0

Discourse 2.0: Language and New Media

Deborah Tannen
Anna Marie Trester
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 272
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  • Book Info
    Discourse 2.0
    Book Description:

    Our everyday lives are increasingly being lived through electronic media, which are changing our interactions and our communications in ways that we are only beginning to understand. In Discourse 2.0: Language and New Media, editors Deborah Tannen and Anna Marie Trester team up with top scholars in the field to shed light on the ways language is being used in, and shaped by, these new media contexts. Topics explored include: how Web 2.0 can be conceptualized and theorized; the role of English on the worldwide web; how use of social media such as Facebook and texting shape communication with family and friends; electronic discourse and assessment in educational and other settings; multimodality and the "participatory spectacle" in Web 2.0; asynchronicity and turn-taking; ways that we engage with technology including reading on-screen and on paper; and how all of these processes interplay with meaning-making. Students, professionals, and individuals will discover that Discourse 2.0 offers a rich source of insight into these new forms of discourse that are pervasive in our lives.

    eISBN: 978-1-58901-955-3
    Subjects: Linguistics

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. ix-xiv)

    OUR LIVES NOW, in ways we are only beginning to understand, are lived with and through electronic media: We get news on the internet, read books on Kindle, find old friends on Facebook and new loves on OKCupid and Match.com. We network on LinkedIn, and create, enhance, and share images with Instagram; we “tweet,” “friend,” and “follow”; “post,” “pin” and “like”; and sometimes “#fail.” As we seek to understand these new ways of using language in our lives, the new worlds of words they entail in turn provide new means of understanding who we are and how we connect through...

  5. 1 Discourse in Web 2.0: Familiar, Reconfigured, and Emergent
    (pp. 1-26)

    FROM CONTROVERSIAL BEGINNINGS, the term Web 2.0 has become associated with a fairly well-defined set of popular web-based platforms characterized by social interaction and user-generated content. Most of the content on such sites is human discourse, via text, audio, video, and static images. It is therefore, in principle, of theoretical and practical interest to scholars of computer-mediated discourse. Yet although discourse-focused studies of individual Web 2.0 environments such as Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, and You Tube are starting to appear (see, for example, the chapters in Thurlow and Mroczek 2011), systematic consideration of the implications of Web 2.0 for computer-mediated discourse...

  6. 2 Polities and Politics of Ongoing Assessments: Evidence from Video-Gaming and Blogging
    (pp. 27-46)

    THIS MOST FAMOUS of Geertz’s flights of anthropological writing introduces what he labels an “interpretive theory of culture.” It eventually led him and many of his students to radical skepticism about the possibility of anthropology, and—he would have added—sociology, linguistics, conversational analysis. At about the same time Garfinkel, Sacks, and others argued that social life with its twitches and winks is “discoverable . . . not imaginable” (Garfinkel 2002, 96). The analyst need not interpret because, in the real life of sheep raids, school classrooms, and video game playing, a muscular event around the eye is always twitch...

  7. 3 Participatory Culture and Metalinguistic Discourse: Performing and Negotiating German Dialects on You Tube
    (pp. 47-72)

    DRAWING ON DISCOURSE THEORY, sociolinguistics and social semiotics, this chapter uses the notion of discourse as social practice for the study of metalinguistic discourse online. Based on two years of ethnographic observation and a mixed-methods approach, it explores the representation of German dialects on You Tube, thereby examining the multimodal performance of dialect in videos and the negotiation of these performances in audience comments. The discussion starts by introducing the notion of discourse as social practice and You Tube as a site of online participatory culture. It then introduces the concept of “participatory spectacle,” which focuses on the relation between...

  8. 4 “My English Is So Poor . . . So I Take Photos”: Metalinguistic Discourses about English on FlickR
    (pp. 73-84)

    FLICKR (www.flickr.com) is a photosharing site that allows people to upload, display, and share photos. Although photographs are often perceived to be the central element of Flickr, members of Flickr also interact in various writing spaces; they provide titles, captions, and tags (or keywords) for their photos as well as comment on one another’s photos. These writing spaces form a cross-modal cohesive tie between the posted photos and surrounding text. Each Flickr member also has a profile page, on which many people write short autobiographies detailing where they come from, what cameras and lenses they use, and their passion for...

  9. 5 “Their Lives Are So Much Better Than Ours!” The Ritual (Re)construction of Social Identity in Holiday Cards
    (pp. 85-98)

    TWO YEARS AGO I received one of those professionally printed holiday photo cards from some close friends who had recently moved to France. It was a particularly nice one. It was printed on heavy cardstock and opened up like a card you might buy at the store—except that it had their own pictures on it. On the front were two photos of their family of four, accompanied by the words “Joyeux Noel” and an elegant design. It opened up to four more photos on the left-hand side of their two children having fun in various leisure time activities, with...

  10. 6 The Medium Is the Metamessage: Conversational Style in New Media Interaction
    (pp. 99-118)

    IN 1981 I ORGANIZED the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics “Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk.” In my introduction to that volume (Tannen 1982a, ix) I explain that I regard “text” and “talk” not as two separate entities—text as written language and talk as spoken—but rather as “overlapping aspects of a single entity”: discourse. I suggested, moreover, that the word “discourse” is invaluable as a corrective to the tendency to think of spoken and written language as separate and fundamentally different. Research by many of the participants in that meeting supported this view. Bright (1982) showed...

  11. 7 Bringing Mobiles into the Conversation: Applying a Conversation Analytic Approach to the Study of Mobiles in Co-present Interaction
    (pp. 119-132)

    IN FOCUSING ON THE MUNDANE conduct of everyday life, Erving Goffman’s work drew attention to the fundamental practices that define mutual co-presence. Now, in the so-called digital age, we increasingly find ourselves having to reconcile new forms of communication with Goffman’s chief domain of face-to-face interaction. Although scholarly interest in new forms of mediated interaction has grown steadily, only recently have scholars begun to consider how communication technologies—particularly mobile devices—are woven into co-present interaction. It is the intersection of these two domains, specifically co-present interaction and mobile usage, that is the focus of this chapter.

    This chapter summarizes...

  12. 8 Facework on Facebook: Conversations on Social Media
    (pp. 133-154)

    AS ERVING GOFFMAN TELLS US, there is no such thing as faceless communication. This observation—no less true in the world of social media than it is in the world of so-called face-to-face interaction—is palpably present in Facebook. Face, in this sense, is the part of us that both requires and is vulnerable in social interaction. On Facebook, social interaction takes place when members provide other members with something they can respond to, comment on, and approve of, and in turn when they acknowledge other members through updates and posts. In this investigation we focus on the back-and-forths this...

  13. 9 Mock Performatives in Online Discussion Boards: Toward a Discourse-Pragmatic Model of Computer-Mediated Communication
    (pp. 155-166)

    PERFORMATIVES (Austin 1962) have received little attention in online environments. Yet the formal performative marker “hereby” appears on personal websites, discussion boards, and, to some extent, blogs—in contexts of informal computer-mediated communication (CMC). This chapter accounts for the motivations and communicative success of explicit performatives including the formal marker, by investigating their forms and discourse-pragmatic functions in data from discussion boards on beauty and fashion. For example, a user expressing regret over the sums of money that she has recently spent on makeup gets the response “I hereby grant you permission to blow cash on how you look.” More...

  14. 10 Re- and Pre-authoring Experiences in Email Supervision: Creating and Revising Professional Meanings in an Asynchronous Medium
    (pp. 167-182)

    THIS ANALYSIS RESULTS from a collaborative, interdisciplinary research project undertaken by a communication scholar (Gordon) and a scholar in counselor education (Luke) to investigate the discourse of email supervisory communication in the context of student internships required as part of counselor education and training. Master’s-level students enrolled in counseling programs complete internships at varying sites according to academic program (for instance, school counseling students intern in local schools, whereas mental health counseling students intern in community agencies, hospitals, or residential organizations). In addition to participating in onsite and in-class group experiences, interns also communicate with a supervising professor via a...

  15. 11 Blogs: A Medium for Intellectual Engagement with Course Readings and Participants
    (pp. 183-200)

    IN THE AGE OF WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES and computer-mediated communication (CMC) that give access to a sea of information and offer various opportunities for responding and co-constructing it in chats, online forums, wikis, or blogs, a gruff traditional humanities professor questions skeptically whether blogs used in educational settings are just a new format for what one has been doing all along or a new form with yet-unexplored potential for fostering learning, reflection, and academically argumentative writing. Practitioners have reflected on the positive effects of using blogs in education (Ferdig and Trammell 2004; Lowe and Williams 2004; Oravec 2002; Walker 2005;...

  16. 12 Reading in Print or Onscreen: Better, Worse, or About the Same?
    (pp. 201-224)

    THE YEAR WAS 1968. The United States was finally gaining traction in the space race against the Soviet Union. In December, NASA launched the Apollo 8 mission that circled the moon. For the first time it was possible to see our planet from beyond a low-earth orbit. Photographs taken on that mission profoundly altered millions of people’s perceptions in ways unrelated to astronomy. The Soviet Union was no longer an abstraction on a Mercator-projected map but physically viewable as part of a single, contiguous globe. So, too, were China, India, Colombia, and South Africa. Those pictures from space offered a...

  17. 13 Fakebook: Synthetic Media, Pseudo-sociality, and the Rhetorics of Web 2.0
    (pp. 225-250)

    “THE DIGITAL MEDIA REVOLUTION is here. Are you?”¹ This bold challenge (or threat) is lifted from publicity materials used by the masters of communication in digital media program at my university. In its publicity, this “self-sustaining” program sells itself by promising “professionals the necessary tools to understand and exploit the fast changing world of media technology.” Elsewhere, in North Africa and the Middle East, a very different kind of fast-paced revolution has been happening. The determined, often violently opposed uprisings of the so-called Arab Spring have meanwhile been excitedly recast by many Western newsmakers and commentators as the “Facebook Revolution,”...

  18. Index
    (pp. 251-258)