Mechanistic Home Range Analysis. (MPB-43)

Mechanistic Home Range Analysis. (MPB-43)

Copyright Date: 2006
Pages: 208
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  • Book Info
    Mechanistic Home Range Analysis. (MPB-43)
    Book Description:

    Spatial patterns of movement are fundamental to the ecology of animal populations, influencing their social organization, mating systems, demography, and the spatial distribution of prey and competitors. However, our ability to understand the causes and consequences of animal home range patterns has been limited by the descriptive nature of the statistical models used to analyze them. InMechanistic Home Range Analysis, Paul Moorcroft and Mark Lewis develop a radically new framework for studying animal home range patterns based on the analysis of correlated random work models for individual movement behavior. They use this framework to develop a series of mechanistic home range models for carnivore populations.

    The authors' analysis illustrates how, in contrast to traditional statistical home range models that merely describe pattern, mechanistic home range models can be used to discover the underlying ecological determinants of home range patterns observed in populations, make accurate predictions about how spatial distributions of home ranges will change following environmental or demographic disturbance, and analyze the functional significance of the movement strategies of individuals that give rise to observed patterns of space use.

    By providing researchers and graduate students of ecology and wildlife biology with a more illuminating way to analyze animal movement,Mechanistic Home Range Analysiswill be an indispensable reference for years to come.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-4973-4
    Subjects: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xiv)
    P.R.M. and M.A.L.
  4. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-6)

    The advent of radio telemetry in the late 1950s revolutionized the study of animal movement, enabling the systematic measurement of animal movement patterns (Cochran and Lord 1963). Following its introduction, telemetry rapidly became a mainstay in wildlife studies and now is routinely used to track the movements of a variety of animals, including ungulates, rodents, primates, and carnivores (Macdonald et al. 1980; Millspaugh and Marzluff 2001). Telemetry has also been successfully used to study the movements of birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and even insects (Priede and Swift 1993). The recent development of global positioning system (GPS)–based telemetry is further...

  5. CHAPTER TWO From Individual Behavior to Patterns of Space Use
    (pp. 7-22)

    This chapter illustrates the mathematical techniques used to derive the mechanistic home range models analyzed in the later chapters. Our goal is not to provide a comprehensive treatment of how to develop macroscopic equations for animal movement; for this we refer the reader to two excellent general texts on this topic by Okubo (1980) and Turchin (1998). Rather, our goal is to show how the home range models developed in this book are formulated from underlying descriptions of individual movement and interaction behavior.

    The model formulation procedure can be broken down into two steps. First, specify the underlying model describing...

  6. CHAPTER THREE A Simple Mechanistic Home Range Model
    (pp. 23-37)

    Figure 3.1 shows the spatial extent of relocations of two carnivores, a wolf and a coyote, as a function of time from their first relocation. Initially, their space use increases rapidly, but as the sampling continues, the spatial extent of the relocations saturates, indicating that both individuals are restricting their movements to particular areas. This saturation is not consistent with random movement by these individuals, an assertion we will later prove in chapter 10, and indicates the presence of a localizing tendency in their movement behavior. This is common in many carnivore species where the need to provision offspring means...

  7. CHAPTER FOUR A Model Based on Conspecific Avoidance
    (pp. 38-54)

    In the localizing tendency home range model developed in chapter 3, individuals exhibited a fixed bias in their fine-scale movement behavior toward a home range center. However, the model predicted a circular home range, which gave a relatively poor fit to a dataset of coyote relocations. In particular, the model was unable to capture the relatively sharp boundaries between neighboring home ranges (see color plate 2). In this chapter we develop an alternative mechanistic home range model in which individuals exhibit an avoidance response to the scent marks of conspecifics. Our analysis closely follows that of Moorcroft et al. 1999....

  8. CHAPTER FIVE Comparative Analysis of Home Range Patterns Predicted by the Conspecific Avoidance Model
    (pp. 55-66)

    The results of the model–data fitting exercise in the previous chapter showed that a mechanistic home range model in which individuals exhibit an avoidance response to foreign scent marks was capable of capturing the macroscopic pattern of coyote home ranges at Hanford, Washington. In this chapter, we analyze in more detail the general properties and predictions of this conspecific avoidance model, using numerical simulations to explore its characteristics for the biologically realistic case of groups moving and interacting in two space dimensions. We then compare the predictions of the model to field observations of home range patterns and scent...

  9. CHAPTER SIX Mathematical Analysis of the Conspecific Avoidance Model
    (pp. 67-78)

    In this chapter, we examine the conspecific avoidance model implemented for an idealized case of two packs moving and interacting in one space dimension. While this means an inevitable loss of biological realism, the pairwise one-dimensional case retains many of the qualitative features of the two-dimensional, multiple-group case investigated in the two previous chapters. Following the approach of Lewis et al. (1997), we use the analytical tractability of the idealized model to gain mathematical insight into the properties and predictions highlighted by the numerical simulations in the previous chapter (see also White et al. (1998) and Murray (2002)). We also...

  10. CHAPTER SEVEN The Influence of Landscape and Resource Heterogeneity on Patterns of Space Use
    (pp. 79-91)

    While the conspecific avoidance model analyzed in the preceding chapters captures the influence of neighbors on home-range patterns within a region, the landscape in which the animals move was assumed to be entirely homogeneous. For the relatively uniform sagebrush environment at Hanford this may not be an unreasonable assumption (see color plate 10a). However, many environments such as the Lamar Valley region in Yellowstone National Park (color plate 10b) are heterogeneous mosaics of different terrain and habitat types whose characteristics significantly alter the movement behavior of individuals. These changes in movement behavior can arise either as a direct response to...

  11. [Illustrations]
    (pp. None)
  12. CHAPTER EIGHT Home Range Formation in the Absence of a Den Site
    (pp. 92-96)

    In the mechanistic home range models discussed so far, the den site has acted as a focal point for the movement of individuals. In this chapter, we briefly explore an alternative mechanism for the process of home range formation in the absence of home range center.

    In some populations of carnivores, home ranges have been observed to form in the absence of surrounding packs (Mech 1991) and in the absence of a den site (Mech, personal communication, 1994). One possible explanation is simply that, rather than a den site, a core foraging area or rendezvous site is acting as the...

  13. CHAPTER NINE Secondary Ecological Interactions
    (pp. 97-103)

    In this chapter, we consider two extensions to the home range models analyzed in the earlier chapters that explore the effects of space use on spatial interactions with prey populations and competing carnivore populations. As examples of such secondary ecological interactions, we consider the interaction between wolves and white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota, and the interaction between wolves and coyotes in areas where these two canids co-occur such as Yellowstone National Park.

    In northeastern Minnesota, the main prey species for wolves is the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), which accounts for approximately two-thirds of wolf food intake (Van Ballenberghe 1972; Fritts...

  14. CHAPTER TEN Displacement Distances: Theory and Applications
    (pp. 104-114)

    As illustrated in figure 3.1, measurements of space use in carnivores typically show a rapid initial increase followed by a leveling off in the area used by the individual. In this chapter, we investigate the relationship between these kinds of empirical estimates of space use and the patterns of space use predicted by mechanistic home range models. We begin by analyzing the statistical properties of the minimum convex polygon (MCP) method widely used in empirical studies of animal home ranges, which utilizes the outermost relocations of an individual to produce an estimate of the individual’s home range. We then turn...

  15. CHAPTER ELEVEN ESS Analysis of Movement Strategies: Analyzing the Functional Significance of Home Range Patterns
    (pp. 115-129)

    In essence, the preceding chapters of this book have focused on the following two questions: Given a set of movement rules for individuals, what pattern of home ranges should we expect to see on a particular landscape? And how well do these predicted patterns match observed patterns of space use and scent marking in carnivore populations? As we have seen, the answer to these questions is far from trivial, requiring the use of a formal mathematical approach to translate underlying stochastic movement processes into resulting patterns of space use. As we showed in chapters 2–8, even with fixed rules...

  16. CHAPTER TWELVE Future Directions and Synthesis
    (pp. 130-136)

    The analyses in the preceding chapters suggest a number of avenues for future research that we now consider before synthesizing the main findings of this book.

    Throughout the book, our analysis of home range patterns has focused on steady-state patterns of space use given by time-independent solutions of the space use equations, implying either a stable or, equivalently, a temporally averaged environment. However, in many carnivore populations, both the biotic and abiotic components of an animal’s environment fluctuate on a variety of time scales. For example, as discussed in chapter 7, seasonal variation in small mammal abundance and seasonal ungulate...

  17. APPENDIX A Derivation of the Fokker-Planck Equation for Space Use
    (pp. 137-138)
  18. APPENDIX B Alternative Derivation of the Space Use Equation
    (pp. 139-139)
  19. APPENDIX C Autocorrelation in Movement Direction
    (pp. 140-141)
  20. APPENDIX D Estimating the Parameters of the Localizing Tendency Model
    (pp. 142-143)
  21. APPENDIX E Movement with Attraction toward a Den
    (pp. 144-148)
  22. APPENDIX F Model Fitting
    (pp. 149-150)
  23. APPENDIX G Numerical Methods for Solving Space Use Equations
    (pp. 151-151)
  24. APPENDIX H Displacement Distances
    (pp. 152-156)
  25. APPENDIX I ESS Analysis Model Parameters
    (pp. 157-157)
  26. References
    (pp. 158-168)
  27. Index
    (pp. 169-172)
  28. Back Matter
    (pp. 173-174)