Manual of Grasses for North America

Manual of Grasses for North America

Mary E. Barkworth
Laurel K. Anderton
Kathleen M. Capels
Sandy Long
Michael B. Piep
Cindy Talbot Roché
Linda Ann Vorobik
Sandy Long
Annaliese Miller
Bee F. Gunn
Christine Roberts
Mary S. Blankenship
Copyright Date: 2007
Pages: 640
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Manual of Grasses for North America
    Book Description:

    Grasses are the world's most important plants. They are the dominant species over large parts of the earth's land surface, a fact that is reflected in the many different words that exist for grasslands, words such as prairie, veldt, palouse, and pampas to mention just a few. As a group, grasses are of major ecological importance, as soil binders and providers of shelter and food for wild animals, both large and small. Some grasses, such as wheat, rice, corn, barley, rye, tef, and sugar cane are major sources of calories for humans and their livestock; others, primarily bamboos, are used for construction, tools, paper, and fabric. More recently, the seed catalogs that tantalize gardeners each winter have borne witness to an increasing appreciation of the aesthetic value of grasses. The Manual of Grasses for North America is designed as a successor to the classic volume by Hitchcock and Chase. It reflects current taxonomic thought and includes keys, illustrations, and distribution maps for the nearly 900 native and 400 introduced species that have been found in North America north of Mexico. In addition, it presents keys and illustrations for several species that are known only in cultivation or are of major agricultural significance, either as progenitors of bread wheat and corn or as a major threat to North American agriculture because of their ability to hybridize with crop species. The Manual is a major reference work for grasses that will retain its value for many years.

    eISBN: 978-0-87421-778-0
    Subjects: General Science, Botany & Plant Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Abbreviations
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Taxonomic Treatments
    (pp. 1-2)
    (pp. 3-4)

    Pl ann or per; usu terrestrial, smt aquatic; tufted, mat-forming, csp, plcsp, or with solitary culms (flowering stems), rhz and stln often well developed. Clm ann or per, hrb or wd, usu erect or ascending, smt prostrate or decumbent for much of their length, occ climbing, rarely floating; nd prominent, smt concealed by lf shth; intnd hollow or solid, bases meristematic; brchg from the bas nd only or from bas, mid, and up nd; bas brchg exvag or invag; up brchg invag, exvag, or infvag. Lvs alternate, 2-ranked, each composed of a shth and bld encircling the clm or br;...

  7. Key to Tribes
    (pp. 4-7)
    (pp. 7-8)

    The Pharoideae has one tribe, the Phareae, three genera, and twelve species. It is pantropical. In the Americas, it is represented by one genus, Pharus, that extends from Florida to Uruguay and Argentina. The Pharoideae is a basal lineage of the Poaceae, and the first subfamily in which an adaxial ligule and true spikelets are found.

    Pl per; rhz, smt csp or stln; monoecious. Clm ann, 10–300 cm, erect to decumbent; intnd usu solid. Lig scarious, smt ciliolate; psdpet present, twisted, placing the abx surface of the bld upmost; bld linear to oblong, not folding or drooping at night,...

    (pp. 8-11)

    The Bambusoideae includes two tribes, the woody Bambuseae and the herbaceous Olyreae. Their range includes tropical and temperate regions of Asia, Australia, and the Americas, primarily Central and South America. Three species of Bambuseae are native to the Manual region; there are no native species of Olyreae.

    Members of the Bambusoideae grow in temperate and tropical forests, high montane grasslands, along riverbanks, and sometimes in savannahs. They are mainly forest understory or margin plants with a limited ability to reproduce, disperse, or survive outside their forest environment. Many have relatively small geographic ranges, and there is a high degree of...

    (pp. 11-17)

    The Ehrhartoideae encompasses three tribes, one of which, the Oryzeae, is native to the Manual region; the Ehrharteae is represented by introduced species. The third tribe, Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb., is native to Africa and Madagascar. There are approximately 120 species in the Ehrhartoideae. They grow in forests, open hillsides, and aquatic habitats.

    Molecular data provide strong support for the close relationship of the Oryzeae and Ehrharteae. Morphologically, they are characterized by spikelets that have a distal unisexual or bisexual floret with up to two proximal sterile florets and, frequently, six stamens in the staminate or bisexual florets....

  11. 4. POÖIDEAE
    (pp. 17-183)

    The subfamily Poöideae includes approximately 3300 species, making it the largest subfamily in the Poaceae. It reaches its greatest diversity in cool temperate and boreal regions, extending across the tropics only in high mountains....

    (pp. 183-185)

    The Arundinoideae are interpreted here as including one tribe, the Arundineae.

    Pl usu per; csp or not, smt rhz, smt stln. Clm 15–1000 cm, ann, hrb to somewhat wd, intnd usu hollow. Lvs usu mostly cauline, often conspicuously distichous; shth usu open; aur usu absent; abx lig usu absent (of hairs in Hakonechloa); adx lig memb or of hairs, if memb, often ciliate; bld without psdpet, smt deciduous at maturity; mesophyll usu non-radiate (radiate in Arundo); adx palisade layer absent; fusoid cells absent; arm cells usu absent (present in Phragmites); Kranz anatomy absent; midribs simple; adx bulliform cells present;...

    (pp. 185-253)

    The subfamily Chloridoideae is most abundant in dry, tropical and subtropical regions. In the Manual region, it reaches its greatest diversity in the southwestern United States. Almost all its members, and all those in the Manual region, have C₄ photosynthesis.

    There is considerable disagreement concerning the tribal treatment within the Chloridoideae, the number of tribes recognized varying from two to eight. The treatment presented here is conservative in recognizing the Orcuttieae and Pappophoreae as distinct tribes. It departs from most other treatments in merging all other North American taxa into a single tribe, the Cynodonteae....

    (pp. 253-257)

    The Danthonioideae include one tribe, the Danthonieae, which used to be included in the Arundinoideae. The combination of haustorial synergids, ciliate ligules, elongated embryo mesocotyls, and C₃ photosynthesis distinguishes the Danthonioideae from other subfamilies of the Poaceae.

    Pl usu per, smt ann; when per, csp, rhz, or stln. Clm usu solid, rarely hollow. Lvs distichous; shth usu open; abx lig usu absent; aur usu absent; adx lig of hairs or memb and ciliate; bld not psdpet; mesophyll non-radiate; adx palisade layer absent; fusoid cells absent; arm cells absent; Kranz anatomy absent; midrib simple, usu with 1 vascular bundle (an arc...

    (pp. 257-264)

    The subfamily Aristidoideae includes one tribe, the Aristideae.

    Pl ann or per; usu csp. Clm ann, erect, solid or hollow, usu unbrchd. Lvs distichous; shth usu open; aur absent; abx lig absent or of hairs; adx lig memb and ciliate or of hairs; bld without psdpet; mesophyll cells radiate or non-radiate; adx palisade layer absent; fusoid cells absent; arm cells absent; Kranz anatomy absent or present, when present, with 1 or 2 parenchyma shth; midribs simple; adx bulliform cells present; stomatal subsidiary cells dome-shaped or triangular; bicellular microhairs present, with long, slender, thin-walled tml cells. Infl tml, not lfy, usu...

    (pp. 264-266)

    The subfamily Centothecoideae is one of the subfamilies that cannot be characterized by a suite of morphological characteristics, but anatomical, micromorphological, and nucleic acid data all support its recognition. It is most abundant in warm-temperate woodlands and tropical forests....

    (pp. 266-346)

    The subfamily Panicoideae is most abundant in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly mesic portions of such regions, but several species grow in temperate regions of the world. Within the Manual region, the Panicoideae are represented by 63 genera and 363 species. They are most abundant in the eastern United States. Photosynthesis may be either C₃ or C₄.

    Spikelets with two florets are found in many other subfamilies, but rarely do they follow the pattern of the lower floret being sterile or staminate and the upper floret bisexual....

    (pp. 346-346)
  19. Illustrations
    (pp. 347-504)
  20. Distribution Maps
    (pp. 505-558)
  21. Index
    (pp. 559-626)
  22. Abbreviations
    (pp. 627-627)
  23. Back Matter
    (pp. 628-629)