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Anonimo Mexicano

Anonimo Mexicano

Richley H. Crapo
Bonnie Glass-Coffin
Copyright Date: 2005
Pages: 120
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  • Book Info
    Anonimo Mexicano
    Book Description:

    Anonimo Mexicano is the first publication of the full Nahuatl text and English translation of a rare and important Native history of preconquest Mexico. Written circa 1600 by an anonymous Tlaxcaltecan author, it is an epic account of the settling of central Mexico by Nahua peoples from the northern frontier. They developed a sophisticated culture with powerful city states and an agricultural economy, fought great wars, established dynasties, and recorded their history and legends in painted books. The Mexica became the most powerful of these nations until their conquest by the Spanish with the help of the Tlaxcalteca, who were rivals of the Mexica and whose national origin tale was recorded in Anonimo Mexicano.

    eISBN: 978-0-87421-515-1
    Subjects: Sociology, Anthropology, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. 1-6)

    When Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico in 1519, the Mexica of the Valley of Mexico ruled an empire of three to four million people. A million of these lived in the Valley of Mexico, where the Mexica capital city of Tenochtitlan was located. The other two or three million people were made up of conquered tributary groups outside the Valley of Mexico. The Tlaxcalteca, who resided in the next valley to the east of the Valley of Mexico, were a traditional enemy of the Mexica; they had not been conquered and incorporated into the Mexica domain even though they were...

  4. Chapter 1
    (pp. 7-10)

    It is said, it is mentioned that they, the Toltecs, were large of body. Their garments were white and long,⁶ that is to say they reached to their feet. These people were the ones who came here first. It is said that they came from the west, led here by seven nobles or captains who were named: the first one was Tzacatl [and the others were] Tlacatzin, Ehecatzin, Cohuatzon, Tzihuac Cohuatl,¹² Tlapalmetzotzin, and Metzotzin. It is said they were exiled because they were expanding throughout the land there, and their lineages were growing very large in number. Thus as they...

  5. Chapter 2
    (pp. 11-20)

    Finally, all of the land was abandoned, and the Toltecs had already gone to the territory below. In one town, which was called Amaqueme, there was a lord, the king of the Chichimeca, whose name was Tlamacatzin. And his vassals all went completedly naked. They simply went about only dressed with tanned animal skins. They were frightening, because their avocation was conducting war, and they carried their hunting arrows, arrows, and bows.⁹⁸ And they ate whatever they found, [even] insects and butterflies. The lord¹⁰⁰ died, leaving¹⁰¹ his two sons, one called Achcauhtzin, [the other] Xolotl.¹⁰³ The first became the lord...

  6. Chapter 3
    (pp. 21-24)

    It is said that there in the great city the people were most plentiful, because they scattered themselves rapidly.³⁰² They withdrew completely and came to Anahuac.³⁰³ And Huitzinton was one of the more learned and astute³⁰⁴ among those who led them. So he asserted to them that a bird had sung thus and said “Let’s go! Let’s go!”³⁰⁷ He told Tecpantzin what he had heard. And these two were very effective in hurrying all the Azteca. They interpreted the bird’s song effectively, as a good omen that they should go together and abandon this land, and that they should already...

  7. Chapter 4
    (pp. 25-27)

    In this book of stories it is told about the Azcapotzalco people, who first undertook to establish their city in the first era. They were a very great multitude. Certainly the density of this one was nowhere equaled. Its settlement lasted five hundred and thirty years.³³⁹ Thus they set an example with their cities. The first who came to rule was one Hueitzin Teuctli,³⁴¹ the second was Acolhuaca Teuctli, the son-in-law³⁴² of the lord Xolotl. And it is said that he held the rulership peacefully in goodness for one hundred years.

    After Acolhua, his son Cuecuex³⁴⁶ took the rulership, but...

  8. Chapter 5
    (pp. 28-37)

    It is recounted, it is told in this Tlaxcalteca book of stories, which a nobleman named Benito Itzcac Maquechtli³⁷⁴ wrote by hand, that he was one of the first who were taught, because he received baptism by the Franciscans.³⁷⁷ And herewith he begins to tell what our great-grandfathers, our grandfathers, and our fathers went along handing down to us in teachings³⁷⁹ in our painted books.³⁸⁰ In the great land of Aztlan, that the Mexica, the Tlaxcalteca, the Otomi, and the Totonaca used to live together.³⁸¹ And there they went their own ways.³⁸⁴ First the Mexica, who left to come here...

  9. The Begining of the Mexican War 8th/[Chapter]
    (pp. 38-42)

    Thus the battle began.⁵⁶¹ They did not confer with those they had brought with them just then.⁵⁶⁴ Thus they thought their very great act would bring their aid.⁵⁶⁵ These finished⁵⁶⁶ conferring at the⁵⁶⁷ city. They⁵⁶⁸ departed, and the commoners united themselves. They united themselves, so that together they were very many. Indeed, they crossed the mountains and they filled the plains⁵⁶⁹ there. Thus they went there, wandering this way. Some were scattered to the savannas, others onto the mountains of Xoloteopan, that is now called Totolan, where it is flat. They were beginning to come to Cuapanco, and San Nicolás...

  10. Chapter 7
    (pp. 43-44)

    They waged⁶²⁰ this war that was frightening to the ears of those who heard it and knew about it. Some did not believe the Teochichimeca were mere mortal men, but believed them to be demons.⁶²² Thus they were surely revered. Thus when the news [of the war] arrived in their vicinity, all the inhabitants of the cities wanted to be united with them.

    Thus they would agree to be forever at peace with them. So it was that they endorsed their proposals. It was they, the Chichimeca who were at Huexotzinco, who first came together with those who were kin...

  11. Chapter 8
    (pp. 45-48)

    At that time, the Tlaxcala were peacefully governing their cities.

    This sovereign ruled by himself. This sovereign did not know vassalage to anyone. His name was Culhuacateuctli Cuanex. This one took care of a younger brother who was called Teyohualminqui Chichimecteuctli, who was later called Cuicuitzcatl Teochichimecatl. Afterwards he was seen to be already great, and had many properties and was taking care of many of his vassals. He divided their rulership with his brother Teyohualminqui. And then Colhuacateuctli summoned this one, his younger brother, and, in front of all,⁶³³ he gave him half of the vassals whom he was...

  12. Chapter 9
    (pp. 49-55)

    Thus it is truly difficult to know the beginning of his rulership, his noble domain. Their seat of residence was Ocotelulco Catlacuitlapan. They began to migrate; it is recounted like this. Still, in one place they mention that thus they mastered it, when the Chichimeca were settling cities in the beginning at Poyauhtlan, on the shore near Chalco in Mexico. Afterward they carried out⁶⁴⁹ the war in the vicinity of the Acolhua and Tepaneca. Thus already there they said that they came around Popocatepetl, and they came dividing up the land and settling cities. Thus nobles relinquished them, so that...

  13. Chapter 10
    (pp. 56-57)

    After he received the rulership, Culhuacateuctli divided the region with his younger brother Teyohualminqui. He retained the high part, Texcalticpac, that he chose first for himself. He was resting with much happiness. Thus relaxing greatly his burden and his duty, he already passed some years. So it was already said. After he died, he was buried with honor. Thus one of his sons, named Texcallihuehue, succeeded him in his government. And about him his accomplishments are not told, nor are they mentioned now. So it is only told that when he was already dead, a son named Pantzinteuctli succeeded him,...

  14. Chapter 11
    (pp. 58-60)

    This third rulership was also here in the high palace of Tlaxcala. It was established and settled there by the Chichimec nobles, who scattered themselves here from the flatland of Teopoyauhtlan when they who founded this rulership arrived here, as it is said, going around Popocatepetl. And these Chichimec nobles separated themselves, coming here by way of Tetzcoco, where they settled near Tepetlaoztoc, where there were many great caves there. Thus they slept there for many days, then they went on and migrated here, where they arrived at the heights of Tlaxcala. And they just saw that already many people...

  15. Chapter 12
    (pp. 61-65)

    Thus the battle began. They did not confer with those they had brought with them just then. Thus they thought their wholly great act would bring their aid. These finished conferring at the city. They departed, and the commoners united themselves. They united themselves, so that together they were very many. Indeed, they crossed the mountains and they filled the plains there. Thus they went there, wandering this way. Some were scattered to the savannas, others onto the mountains of Xoloteopan, that is now called Totolan, where it is flat. They were beginning to come to Cuapanco, and San Nicolás...

  16. NOTES
    (pp. 66-101)
    (pp. 102-102)
  18. INDEX
    (pp. 103-106)