OHSAS 18001 Step by Step

OHSAS 18001 Step by Step: A Practical Guide

NAEEM SADIQ
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: IT Governance Publishing
Pages: 122
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5hh4ww
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  • Book Info
    OHSAS 18001 Step by Step
    Book Description:

    In this easy-to-understand and timely pocket guide, Naeem Sadiq, examines the practical and managerial issues an organisation faces as it gears up to meet OHSAS 18001 standards of occupational health and safety. Using a wide variety of fictional ‘real world’ scenarios, Sadiq demonstrates the hazards that might be present in a workplace, how to assess risk, how to manage OHSAS 18001 implementation and how to communicate its implementation through all levels of management.

    eISBN: 978-1-84928-363-2
    Subjects: Technology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. FOREWORD
    (pp. 5-6)

    People do not go to work in order to get injured or fall sick. ‘Take care’ and ‘be safe’ are often the last words exchanged with one’s family before leaving home for work each day. It is, therefore, surprising that it took decades of indifference for organisations across the globe to realise that safe and healthy work environments are just about the first need of every individual who leaves home for work.

    This book is about establishing an occupational health and safety (OH&S) management system based on the OHSAS 18001 standard. Occupational health deals with the promotion and maintenance of...

  3. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
    (pp. 7-7)
  4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    (pp. 8-8)
  5. DISCLAIMER
    (pp. 9-9)
  6. Table of Contents
    (pp. 10-13)
  7. CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS OHSAS 18001?
    (pp. 14-14)

    OHSAS (Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series) 18000 is an international occupational health and safety management system specification. OHSAS comprises of two parts, 18001 and 18002, and embraces a number of other publications. It is intended to help an organisation to control and manage its occupational health and safety risks.

    OHSAS 18001 was jointly developed by a number of world-leading national standards bodies, certification bodies and specialist organisations, in response to a widespread demand for a recognised assessment and certification standard.

    Like most other management system standards, OHSAS 18001 is designed on the principle of the Plan-Do-Check-Improve (PDCI) cycle. Planning...

  8. CHAPTER 2: OH&S MANAGEMENT SYSTEM GENERAL REQUIREMENTS (CLAUSE 4.1)
    (pp. 15-15)

    Clause 4.1 of OHSAS 18001 follows an approach which is consistent with most other management system standards, such as ISO9001 and ISO14001. It begins by making a comprehensive statement for establishing, documenting, implementing, maintaining and continually improving a management system, based on all the requirements stated in Clause 4 of OHSAS 18001.

    These requirements are mandatory for any organisation that wants to control its OH&S risks and improve its OH&S performance. The standard follows the classic PDCI approach (establish, document, implement, maintain and improve), and unlike many other standards, it has no clauses on which an organisation may seek an...

  9. CHAPTER 3: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY (CLAUSE 4.2)
    (pp. 16-18)

    The OH&S policy is a statement that describes the overall intention, vision and direction of an organisation, relating to its OH&S performance. It is formally expressed by the organisation’s top management, to reflect its commitment to protect health and safety of all personnel, to comply with all applicable laws, and to continually improve the OH&S performance of the organisation.

    Establish an OH&S policy that includes:

    1 Top management’s commitment to prevention of injury and ill health, as well as continual improvement of its OH&S performance.

    2 Commitment to comply with all regulatory and other applicable OH&S requirements.

    3 A basis...

  10. CHAPTER 4: HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT AND DETERMINATION OF CONTROLS (CLAUSE 4.3.1)
    (pp. 19-26)

    Clause 4.3.1 of OHSAS 18001 requires the proactive assessment of hazards, risks and controls. This requirement is, therefore, central to the establishment of a sound OH&S system.

    An organisation is required to establish, and implement, procedures for ongoing hazard identification, risk assessment and determination of controls.

    Hazard identification must include infrastructure, equipment, human behaviours, capabilities, and routine and non-routine activities of all personnel.

    The risk assessment must consider applicable legal obligations and determine the risks that may be considered unacceptable to the organisation.

    The organisation must also determine controls to eliminate, substitute, or reduce the risks that have been assessed...

  11. CHAPTER 5: LEGAL AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS (CLAUSE 4.3.2)
    (pp. 27-30)

    Establish and implement a procedure that defines how an organisation identifies and accesses the applicable legal and other OH&S requirements to which it subscribes.

    The requirements thus identified ought to be considered, while establishing and implementing the occupational health and safety management system.

    Finally, it is required that these requirements be kept updated and also communicated to the relevant interested parties.

    1 The first step in managing compliance with OH&S legal requirements is to know which requirements are applicable to an organisation. Each country has its own laws and regulatory requirements and hence it is mandatory for an organisation to...

  12. CHAPTER 6: OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAMME(S) (CLAUSE 4.3.3)
    (pp. 31-35)

    An organisation is required to establish documented and measurable OH&S objectives for relevant functions within the organisation.

    These objectives should be consistent with OH&S policy, including management’s commitment to prevention of injury and ill health, compliance with laws, OH&S risks and commitment to continual improvement.

    Once the objectives have been established, the organisation must prepare plans that define responsibilities, resources and time-frames to achieve these objectives. Plans should be reviewed at regular intervals, to ensure that the organisation is able to achieve its defined objectives.

    1 Consider the following factors whilst setting OH&S objectives and targets:

    OH&S policy is the...

  13. CHAPTER 7: RESOURCES, ROLES, RESPONSIBILITY, ACCOUNTABILITY AND AUTHORITY (CLAUSE 4.4.1)
    (pp. 36-38)

    The ultimate responsibility for OH&S rests with the chief executive.

    Top management shall provide resources to implement and improve the OH&S system.

    Top management shall define, delegate, document and communicate OH&S roles and responsibilities.

    A member of top management is appointed to ensure that the OH&S management system is established and implemented. They must also report about the system’s performance to the top management.

    Ensure that personnel at all levels understand and perform their assigned OH&S roles and responsibilities.

    1 Identify all tasks and roles that are required to establish, implement and improve the OH&S management system. This could include...

  14. CHAPTER 8: COMPETENCE, TRAINING AND AWARENESS (CLAUSE 4.4.2)
    (pp. 39-41)

    All persons working for an organisation must be competent to perform their assigned OH&S roles.

    OH&S training needs shall be identified, and steps taken to enhance competence, where any gaps are identified. Training should consider the level of risk, literacy and the language skills of the trainees.

    Procedures shall be established to make personnel aware of their OH&S roles and responsibilities, consequences of their behaviour and activities, emergency preparedness and response, benefits of improved performance and potential harm of departure from procedures.

    The following step-by-step approach, backed up by a procedure, could effectively meet the requirements of this clause:

    1...

  15. CHAPTER 9: COMMUNICATION, PARTICIPATION AND CONSULTATION (CLAUSE 4.4.3)
    (pp. 42-45)

    An organisation must have procedure(s) on:

    How it communicates OH&S information among its employees, contractors and visitors.

    How OH&S information from external sources is received, documented and responded to.

    How the involvement of workers (to the extent it is appropriate) is ensured in processes, such as risk assessment, incident investigation and the development of new OH&S policies.

    How workers are represented and consulted on matters that affect their OH&S.

    How contractors and other interested parties are consulted on relevant OH&S issues.

    The following step-by-step approach, supported by a procedure, could effectively meet the requirements of this clause:

    1 Define when,...

  16. CHAPTER 10: DOCUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF DOCUMENTS (CLAUSE 4.4.4 AND 4.4.5)
    (pp. 46-49)

    1 The OH&S documentation should be as simple, minimum and efficient as possible. It should include the following:

    OH&S scope, policy, objectives and targets.

    Description of the main elements of the OH&S management system and their interaction.

    Procedures and records required by OHSAS 18001 and those determined by the organisation for effective management of their own OH&S processes and risks.

    2 An organisation is also required to establish a procedure that defines how it controls (approves, reviews, changes, identifies, disseminates and removes obsolete versions) documents of internal and external origin.

    It is best to explain the difference between the two...

  17. CHAPTER 11: OPERATIONAL CONTROLS (CLAUSE 4.4.6)
    (pp. 50-52)

    Identify operations and activities which are associated with hazards, and where controls must be applied to minimise hazards and manage OH&S risks.

    Operational controls include documented procedures and operating criteria for the safe functioning of processes, activities and equipment.

    OH&S controls must also be implemented over contractors, visitors, purchased goods, equipment and services.

    Operational controls may be defined as all those measures, methods and precautions taken to manage OH&S risks of an organisation’s activities and operations. The organisation must plan these activities to ensure that they are carried out under controlled conditions. These conditions (including operating criteria) must be specified...

  18. CHAPTER 12: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE (CLAUSE 4.4.7)
    (pp. 53-57)

    Identify all possible OH&S emergency situations that may arise in an organisation.

    Plan, prepare and respond to emergency situations (to minimise harm to life and property) and also mitigate adverse consequences.

    Establish procedure(s) for emergency preparedness and response, and periodically test them to determine their effectiveness.

    Periodically review emergency procedures in the light of lessons learnt, either during emergency drills or from actual emergencies.

    The emergency planning process may bring to light deficiencies, such as lack of equipment or trained personnel. It could also highlight issues that can be corrected before the occurrence of an actual emergency (such as identifying...

  19. CHAPTER 13: PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT, MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF COMPLIANCE (CLAUSE 4.5.1 AND 4.5.2)
    (pp. 58-62)

    1 An organisation must establish and implement procedure(s) to monitor :

    Its OH&S performance (using proactive and reactive measures)

    The extent to which its OH&S objectives are met.

    2 Equipment used for measurement and monitoring of OH&S performance must be calibrated.

    3 The organisation must also periodically evaluate compliance with OH&S legal and other requirements to which it subscribes and keep a record of these periodic evaluations.

    OH&S performance can be termed as the effectiveness of all those measures that are implemented to prevent injury and disease to persons at the workplace. These measures could be arrangements for identifying hazards,...

  20. CHAPTER 14: INCIDENT INVESTIGATION, NON-CONFORMITY, CORRECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE ACTION (CLAUSE 4.5.3)
    (pp. 63-67)

    Establish a system to record, investigate and analyse incidents in a timely manner.

    Establish a system to take effective corrective and preventive actions for actual and potential non-conformities.

    Conduct a risk assessment prior to implementing corrective or preventive actions, if these actions involve new or changed hazards.

    Ensure changes are made in the OH&S documentation (where required) as a result of corrective and preventive actions.

    It may be best to explain, in simple words, the meaning of terms used in this chapter.

    Incident: An incident is any work-related event that caused, or could have caused, injury or ill health, regardless...

  21. CHAPTER 15: CONTROL OF RECORDS (CLAUSE 4.5.4)
    (pp. 68-69)

    Establish a system for creation and maintenance of records, to demonstrate conformity to OH&S requirements stated in OHSAS 18001 and those determined by the organisation itself.

    Create identification and traceability for OH&S records and store them in a manner that they are protected, as well as easily retrievable.

    Define the retention period for OH&S records and retain them for the stated period.

    Records demonstrate and provide evidence of the results achieved, and the activities performed as a requirement of OHSAS 18001, or the planned arrangements defined in an organisation’s own OH&S management system. The process and activities of a record...

  22. CHAPTER 16: INTERNAL AUDIT (CLAUSE 4.5.5)
    (pp. 70-74)

    Establish an audit procedure that defines the responsibilities for planning, conducting, reporting and follow-up of internal OH&S management system audits.

    Conduct audits at intervals planned on the basis of significance of risks, as well as the results of previous audits.

    Determine if the OH&S management system conforms to the requirements of OHSAS 18001, and is effective in meeting its own objectives and planned arrangements.

    Select auditors who are objective and impartial.

    It is best to begin by seeking clarity on the meaning of terms used in the audit process. These are:

    Audit: An audit is essentially a process of independently...

  23. CHAPTER 17: MANAGEMENT REVIEW (CLAUSE 4.6)
    (pp. 75-77)

    It is the responsibility of the top management of an organisation to review the performance of its OH&S management system at defined intervals.

    The review must evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the OH&S management system, and explore possibilities for its further improvement.

    The review must be based on inputs, such as audit results, legal compliance, results of consultation with employees, communication with interested parties, achievement of objectives, corrective and preventive actions and recommendations for improvement.

    Top management should provide specific decisions and actions relating to continual improvements of its OH&S management system.

    ‘Management review’ is the final, and the...

  24. APPENDIX A: SAMPLE PROCEDURE FOR OH&S HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT AND DETERMINATION OF CONTROLS
    (pp. 78-81)
  25. APPENDIX B: OH&S HAZARD AND RISK REGISTER
    (pp. 82-82)
  26. APPENDIX C: TYPES OF OH&S HAZARDS
    (pp. 83-84)
  27. APPENDIX D: SAMPLE PROCEDURE FOR TRAINING COMPETENCE AND AWARENESS
    (pp. 85-87)
  28. APPENDIX E: DOCUMENTS REQUIRED BY OHSAS 18001
    (pp. 88-89)
  29. APPENDIX F: SAMPLE PROCEDURE FOR CRITICAL PRESSURE EQUIPMENT (CPE)
    (pp. 90-94)
  30. APPENDIX G: SAMPLE PROCEDURE FOR ‘PERMIT TO WORK’
    (pp. 95-99)
  31. APPENDIX H: SAMPLE PROCEDURE FOR FORK-LIFT TRUCKS
    (pp. 100-103)
  32. APPENDIX I: SAMPLE FORMAT FOR A NON-CONFORMITY REPORT (NCR)
    (pp. 104-106)
  33. APPENDIX J: SAMPLE FORMAT FOR OH&S RECORD CONTROL
    (pp. 107-107)
  34. APPENDIX K: SAMPLE INPUT REPORT FOR OH&S MANAGEMENT SYSTEM REVIEW
    (pp. 108-118)
  35. BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES
    (pp. 119-119)
  36. ITG RESOURCES
    (pp. 120-122)