Enterprise Architecture

Enterprise Architecture: A Pocket Guide

TOM GRAVES
Copyright Date: 2009
Published by: IT Governance Publishing
Pages: 54
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5hh6qc
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  • Book Info
    Enterprise Architecture
    Book Description:

    Enterprise architecture makes a vital contribution to the running of a large organisation. It was originally developed in order to manage a rapid growth in the cost and complexity of IT systems, using knowledge gained from software structure and design. For this reason, enterprise architecture is often thought of as a component of IT governance. However, the discipline has evolved and extended its scope. Enterprise architecture is now about structuring business capabilities and processes in order to support your long-term business strategy. Effective application of enterprise architecture will enable you to improve your productivity and performance. This pocket guide offers you an invaluable introduction to this business-critical subject. It explains the function of enterprise architecture within the organisation, looks at the skills needed within the enterprise architecture team and provides an overview of the most common enterprise architecture frameworks. As the author emphasises, enterprise architecture is not about creating models and designs for their own sake, but about using these structures to serve the needs of the business.

    eISBN: 978-1-84928-017-4
    Subjects: Technology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. PREFACE
    (pp. 5-5)
  3. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
    (pp. 6-6)
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. 7-7)
  5. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 8-8)

    Enterprise architecture is a key competency for most large organisations of the present day. Its roots reach back some twenty years or more, in early efforts to reuse knowledge about software structure and design to assist in managing a rapid growth in the cost and complexity of IT systems in general. Compliance to a formal enterprise architecture framework is now mandatory in many government and defence contexts, and is increasingly common in other larger organisations.

    For most of its history, enterprise architecture has been regarded as belonging under IT governance. At the present time the discipline is evolving once more,...

  6. CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE?
    (pp. 9-12)

    What is enterprise architecture, and why does it matter to business and to the governance¹ of business and IT?

    ThePractical Guidefor the US Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework definesenterpriseas:

    ‘…an organisation or cross-functional entity supporting a defined business scope or mission. [It] includes interdependent resources – people, organisations and technology – who must coordinate their functions and share information in support of a common mission or set of related missions.’²

    Note that, as the same document also emphasises:

    ‘…in many cases, the enterprise may transcend established organisational boundaries – e.g. trade, grant management, financial management, logistics.’

    A...

  7. CHAPTER 2: BUSINESS DRIVERS AND BENEFITS
    (pp. 13-17)

    The business benefits of enterprise architecture typically arise in layers, linked in part to the maturity of architecture capability,⁶ and to key business drivers that include:

    Cost management

    Compliance management

    Risk management

    Opportunity management.

    Cost management: Even from the earliest stages of enterprise architecture, there will be an urgent need for it to assist in managing and reducing the cost and complexity of the organisation’s systems – particularly its IT systems. The aim here will be to reduce redundancy and duplication, to enhance consistency and common meaning across the enterprise, and to control and constrain the proliferation of unmanaged and...

  8. CHAPTER 3: ARCHITECTURE AND GOVERNANCE
    (pp. 18-22)

    Governance is a key component of any enterprise architecture – not least because the architecture itself provides compliance rules to constrain design decisions within the enterprise.

    In the US, one of the key governance drivers for enterprise architecture is the Information Technology Management Reform Act 1996,⁸ more often referred to as the Clinger-Cohen Act. This mandates the use of a defined enterprise architecture – at least, for information technology – in all US federal government departments. It places an explicit emphasis on:

    capital planning and investment control

    performance-based and results-based management

    responsibilities of the CIO (Chief Information Officer)

    accountability.

    A...

  9. CHAPTER 4: ARCHITECTURE MATURITY
    (pp. 23-26)

    In many organisations, enterprise architecture will develop in an unstructured fashion, although in four distinct phases. Each phase will demand its own discrete forms of governance to match the requisite level of architecture maturity.

    A concern with architecture will typically start within largerIT projects. The usual driver here is often an urgent attempt to rein in the cost and complexity of links between new and existing IT systems. There is usually no formal architecture team as such at this stage, and governance will be provided by standard project management.

    There is an increasing awareness of the need forhorizontal...

  10. CHAPTER 5: THE ARCHITECTURE TEAM
    (pp. 27-30)

    The size, structure, skills and skillsets of the enterprise architecture team will change – often radically so – at different levels of architecture maturity.

    In the more usualad hocdevelopment sequence, the typical team make-up at each phase would be as follows:

    IT project architecture’ phase

    Size and structure: no formal team – typically a responsibility taken on personally by a project manager or team leader, from necessity, and often without formal authority.

    Skills and skillsets: extensive history and experience in many different aspects of IT, and ability to see relationships between them.

    Enterprise-wide IT architecture’ phase

    Size and...

  11. CHAPTER 6: FRAMEWORKS, METHODS AND TOOLS
    (pp. 31-38)

    An architectureframeworksummarises or describes how meaning is determined within the architecture. There are several different types of framework, with different roles and functions in architecture development.

    Perspective frameworkssplit the overall scope of the architecture into a simplified set of views, to provide a basic taxonomy for modelling. These views are often arranged in the form of a grid or box matrix: the well-known Zachman framework, for example, uses the interrogatives What, How, Where, Who, When and Why as one axis of a grid, and roles, such as Planner and Owner as the other. Each perspective is represented...

  12. CHAPTER 7: ARCHITECTURE IN PRACTICE
    (pp. 39-51)

    The current level of architecture maturity determines the type and scope of work that can be undertaken, and the preparation needed before starting work. Typical items to be assessed include:

    governance: funding, reporting relationships, organisational authority, primary stakeholders, performance metrics, etc.

    principles: applicable guidelines, policies, priorities, etc.

    standards: applicable laws, regulations, external and internal standards, etc.

    scope: primary focus of work, aligned to maturity level – e.g. technology infrastructure, information systems, business integration – and core business goals and business drivers, etc.

    frameworks: applicable taxonomies, ontologies, reference models, etc.

    methods: architecture development, solution development, implementation, project management, change management, administrative...

  13. ITG RESOURCES
    (pp. 52-54)