AMILLA

AMILLA: The Quest for Excellence. Studies Presented to Guenter Kopcke in Celebration of His 75th Birthday

edited by Robert B. Koehl
Volume: 43
Copyright Date: 2013
Published by: INSTAP Academic Press
Pages: 444
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5vj90s
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  • Book Info
    AMILLA
    Book Description:

    Contributions by 34 scholars are brought together here to create a volume in honor of the long and fruitful career of Guenter Kopcke who is the Avalon Foundation Professor in the Humanities at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. Articles pertain to various topics on the ancient art, architecture, and archaeology of the greater Eastern Mediterranean region: from Pre-Dynastic Egypt to the Bronze Age Aegean and Anatolia, Cyprus and the Near East, and Etruscan Italy.

    eISBN: 978-1-62303-313-2
    Subjects: History, Art & Art History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. List of Tables in the Text
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. List of Figures in the Text
    (pp. xi-xx)
  5. Preface and Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxi-xxiv)
    Robert B. Koehl
  6. Bibliography of Guenter Kopcke
    (pp. xxv-xxvi)
  7. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xxvii-xxviii)
  8. PART I. PERCEIVING ANCIENT ART

    • CHAPTER 1 Ancient Egyptian Art: Image and Response
      (pp. 3-16)
      Dorothea Arnold

      As an Egyptologist and museum curator in charge of a collection of Egyptian art, one is frequently asked why this art is so popular in our time. Witnesses to the factual truth underlying this question are the vast numbers of visitors to exhibitions of Pharaonic objects, the sales of books and replicas of such objects, and the personal experience of this curator, who hears again and again people just entering the Great Hall of The Metropolitan Museum say: “First I want to go to the Egyptian galleries.” It is not easy to find an explanation of this phenomenon in the...

    • CHAPTER 2 The Belvedere Apollo: On the Perception of an Ancient Work of Art after Antiquity
      (pp. 17-20)
      Annalis Leibundgut

      Since we have often discussed the problem of the perception of ancient works of art, dear Guenter, I am encouraged to take an extraordinarily famous “eidolon” of antiquity as a starting point for presenting some theoretic considerations in this field: the Belvedere Apollo (Fig. 2.1), on whom much of my work has focused (Leibundgut 2006; forthcoming).* The statue is particularly well suited for illuminating the problem since, from its discovery in the late 15th century (Magister 2002) to our day, it has caught the interest of both scholars and the general public, with alternating intensity. Whereas earlier archaeological research from...

    • CHAPTER 3 “Silence et fureur”: The Pythia in Berlin and in the Paris Opéra
      (pp. 21-30)
      Michael Maaß

      “Silence et fureur” (“Silence and Fury”) was the title of a 1996 exhibition held in Avignon that explored the conflicting forces in the lives of Greek women from antiquity and in the folklore of more recent times (Cavalier, ed., 1996). The antagonism between those extreme states, whose origins were surely rooted in the social and cultural position of women, was often expressed effectively in artistic representations (Reeder, ed., 1995; Tzedakis, ed., 1995).

      These profoundly conflicting conditions are well illustrated by comparing the depiction of a quiet Pythia on the interior of an Athenian drinking cup (kylix) of about 440 B.C.E....

  9. PART II. AEGEAN BRONZE AGE

    • CHAPTER 4 The Larnakes from the Hagios Charalambos Ossuary
      (pp. 33-40)
      Philip P. Betancourt

      A group of four larnakes from the Hagios Charalambos cave provides good evidence for the early history of mortuary practices in Crete.* The cavern was excavated in two campaigns. After it was discovered in 1976, it was investigated by C. Davaras from 1976 to 1983 (Davaras 1982, 1983, 1986). More recent excavations were conducted under the direction of Davaras and the author in 2002, with E. Stravopodi joining our team as co-director in 2003 (Betancourt 2005; Betancourt and Muhly 2006).

      The Hagios Charalambos cave is located on the western side of the Lasithi plain in East-Central Crete. The plain is...

    • CHAPTER 5 From Representational to Narrative Art in the Early Bronze Age Cyclades
      (pp. 41-54)
      Christos G. Doumas

      Visual representation as a means of expression is known in europe and the greater circum-Mediterranean zone since at least the Upper paleolithic in the form of two- and three- dimensional representations that were engraved, painted, or modeled in the round, on rock surfaces, or on movable objects of stone, bone, antler, ivory, clay, and perhaps perishable materials (powell 1966, 12–13; Leroi-Gourhan 1979). Visual representations can play the role of texts for the archaeologist in the study of nonliterate ancient societies, since stories, legends, myths, and other oral genres could be transmitted through artistic manifestations (Rubinson 2006, 250, 261). Aside...

    • CHAPTER 6 From Vase Painting to Wall Painting: The Lilies Jug from Akrotiri, Thera
      (pp. 55-76)
      Andreas G. Vlachopoulos

      During the 2001–2002 academic year, while I was a research fellow at the Institute of Fine arts at New York University studying the Theran wall paintings, Guenter Kopcke was teaching a seminar on the Late Bronze Age and asked me to present some classes on Aegean iconography. One of the issues raised was the emergent relationship between Middle Cycladic (MC) iconography and the Late Cycladic (LC) wall paintings at Akrotiri. This conversation was stimulated by recent discoveries at Thera of figural MC pottery from deeper levels of the prehistoric settlement reached during the excavations in preparation for the new...

    • CHAPTER 7 The Crocus Gatherer’s Costume Revisited
      (pp. 77-90)
      Bernice R. Jones

      When Guenter Kopcke accepted my dissertation (Jones 1998), he considered it to be somewhat of a “work in progress.” Some of the ideas contained therein were subsequently published (Jones 2000, 37–38; 2001, 261) and now need modification. It is therefore my pleasure to present this article to him, which incorporates new developments in my research on the construction of the dress and kilt of the Crocus Gatherer from Akrotiri, Thera (Fig. 7.1).

      Although the construction of the dress is very similar to the one I had originally proposed (Jones 2000, 37–38), recent research described in this article reveals...

    • CHAPTER 8 Architectural Design, Bioclimate, and Palaces: The Loom, the Warp, and the Weft
      (pp. 91-102)
      Stella Chryssoulaki

      The precise structure of Aegean society in the first half of the Middle Minoan (MM) period (MM I–II), the period when the palace of Knossos was emerging (MacGillivray 1994, 55), has not yet been definitively reconstructed, beyond the possibility that it may have been organized around a strict social hierarchy.* While the overall plan of the Knossos palace appears to be an integrated complex of purpose-built rooms, there is no evidence that it was planned as a residence. The same applies to all the other large and imposing so-called palaces of the Late Minoan (LM) period; they undoubtedly served...

    • CHAPTER 9 A New Reconstruction of the South House at Knossos
      (pp. 103-134)
      Jane F. Lloyd

      Sir Arthur Evans’s reconstructions of the palace and South House at Knossos (Figs. 9.1, 9.2), though debated by scholars, are still the primary basis for our understanding of the three-dimensional forms of Minoan buildings. Differences, however, between the sketch plan of the South House drawn by Duncan Mackenzie in 1908 when it was completely excavated (Fig. 9.3) and plans drawn in 1910 (Fig. 9.4) and 1928 (Fig. 9.5) suggest that the excavators were not sure how to interpret some of their findings. The many Neopalatial Minoan houses excavated since 1928 and the extraordinarily well-preserved houses in the Bronze Age settlement...

    • CHAPTER 10 Cult Object—Image—Emblem: A Life-Sized Stone Bull’s Head from the Juktas Peak Sanctuary
      (pp. 135-144)
      Alexandra Karetsou and Robert B. Koehl

      Knowing Guenter Kopcke’s appreciation for the unique and unexpected, especially in the realm of Minoan culture, we present for his contemplation, and with great affection, a previously unpublished fragment from one such object (Herakleion Archaeological Museum [HM] no. 4560), which was discovered in the excavations of the peak sanctuary on Mt. Juktas, conducted under the direction of A. Karetsou on behalf of the Greek Archaeological Society (for annual preliminary reports, see Karetsou 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980a, 1985; for a useful synthesis in English, see Karetsou 1980b, 2003, forthcoming; Karetsou and Koehl 2012).

      The fragment (Fig. 10.1:a–d)...

    • CHAPTER 11 Animated Art of the Minoan Renaissance
      (pp. 145-148)
      J. Alexander MacGillivray

      “As archaeologists have taken to cultivating science, make matter and the behavior of matter their overriding concern,” Guenter Kopcke lamented, “it cannot fail but that art, irrational art, expression of hard-to-grasp human will, is seen as a different, distant planet, and safely ignored” (Kopcke 1999, 446). While remaining firmly grounded in the materialist camp, I would like to travel briefly to Kopcke’s distant art planet to seek the answer to a question that cannot be safely ignored by archaeologists: if there was widespread insecurity and decline following the Theran eruption in mature Late Minoan (LM) IA, as Jan Driessen and...

    • CHAPTER 12 Realities of Power: The Minoan Thalassocracy in Historical Perspective
      (pp. 149-174)
      Malcolm H. Wiener

      This paper discusses the Minoan empire at its height in Late Minoan (LM) IA in the context of five persistent themes in the history of humankind.* The themes are: (1) the ubiquity of warfare, often accompanied by the taking of captives; (2) the general prevalence of piracy, in particular in the Mediterranean; (3) the repeated appearance in human history of empires and colonies; (4) the recurring role of the search for raw materials in the formation of empires; and (5) the pervasive role of religion and ritual in the unification and expansion of early states. It is only by addressing...

  10. PART III. EGYPTIAN, ANATOLIAN, AND EAST MEDITERRANEAN BRONZE AGE

    • CHAPTER 13 Figural Representation from the Predynastic Cemetery at Naga El-Hai and the Origins of Egyptian Style
      (pp. 177-188)
      Rita E. Freed

      Professor Guenter Kopcke taught my first seminar at the Institute of Fine Arts, and from that seminar I learned how to evaluate objects.* Although the field I ultimately pursued was not his, the lessons I learned were applicable in every area I studied. I respect and admire him tremendously. In view of the breadth of his interests and his fondness for early material, I offer him this short note about a little-known predynastic Egyptian cemetery and the human and animal figures found there.

      Between January 21 and February 22, 1913, the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition, under...

    • CHAPTER 14 Kerma in Nubia, the Last Mystery: The Political and Social Dynamics of an Early Nilotic State
      (pp. 189-206)
      David O’connor

      It is a great pleasure for me to participate in thisFestschriftfor Guenter Kopcke, who is one of my most valued colleagues at the Institute of Fine arts of New York University. Ever courteous and accessible, he is also a scholar of extraordinarily wide and deep interests: to converse with him or to hear him lecture is a most stimulating experience. It is my hope that, given his receptivity to the whole of the ancient world in Eurasia and beyond, he will find this excursion that goes even farther afield—to ancient Nubia, upstream of Egypt—an acceptable contribution...

    • CHAPTER 15 The Origins of the Western Anatolian Early Bronze Age
      (pp. 207-220)
      Jak Yakar

      To Professor Guenter Kopcke: an outstanding scholar, devoted teacher, colleague, and friend.

      The pre–Bronze Age occupation sequence of western Anatolia demonstrates that the Aegean seaboard and its hinterland were settled a few centuries later than the southern or southwestern central plateau (Fig 15.1; bracketed numbers following site names refer to their location on the map). The Late Neolithic—Early Chalcolithic material inventories of this region, the local pottery repertories in particular, indicate that the agro-pastoral settlers maintained direct or indirect contacts with communities in the Lakes District, the southern Marmara, the eastern Aegean islands, and the northern Aegean littoral....

    • CHAPTER 16 An Early Anatolian Ivory Chair: The Pratt Ivories in The Metropolitan Museum of Art
      (pp. 221-262)
      Elizabeth Simpson

      Between 1932 and 1937, the Metropolitan Museum of Art received four donations from Mr. and Mrs. George D. Pratt, consisting of ivory furniture attachments accompanied by numerous clay seal impressions (bullae), fragments of pottery vessels, and ivory figurines and large plates (Fig. 16.1).* Unfortunately, the ivories were not scientifically excavated, making it difficult to understand how the various pieces were related and to what sorts of objects they belonged. Study has now shown, however, that many of the ivory attachments can be associated with one magnificent piece of furniture—a chair or throne with ivory legs and other fittings that...

    • CHAPTER 17 A Plaster-Encased Multiple Burial at Alalakh: Cist Tomb 3017
      (pp. 263-280)
      K. Aslihan Yener

      In the course of a long and distinguished career, Professor Guenter Kopcke has touched on many areas and aspects of the art and archaeology of the Bronze and Iron Age Aegean, Ancient Near East, and Cyprus. It is one of these, Late Bronze Age (LBA) Alalakh, that I would like to consider in this paper. It is both a pleasure and an honor to have been invited to contribute an article to thisFestschrift: a pleasure because it is gratifying to have the opportunity to pay tribute to a mentor and friend, and an honor because of his eminence as...

    • CHAPTER 18 Red Lustrous Wheelmade and Coarse-Ware Spindle Bottles from Ashkelon
      (pp. 281-292)
      Celia J. Bergoffen

      Twenty-eight years have passed since Guenter Kopcke admitted me to the Institute of Fine Arts, and through all this time he has been my mentor, advisor, and friend. he once invited me to speak on Red Lustrous Wheelmade Ware (RLWM) spindle bottles in one of his seminars, and I know that he is still intrigued by them, so I thought this offering for hisFestschriftmight be of interest. Presented below is some new material from the Leon Levy Expedition to Ashkelon: the RLWM spindle bottles and an intriguing and rare group of spindle bottles, which are also red polished...

    • CHAPTER 19 Cypriot Bronzework and Images of Power: The Cesnola Krater and Tripod
      (pp. 293-308)
      Joan Aruz

      In both the Aegean and the Near East, throughout antiquity, scenes of animal attack and animal domination act as metaphors for virile male strength and royal supremacy. During the last centuries of the Bronze age, mastery over the most powerful of natural forces becomes perhaps the most vividly expressed theme on objects that manifest artistic interculturalism. These include stamp and cylinder seals, ivories, and metalwork. The subject is also appropriately popular on instruments of power such as elite ceremonial weapons in precious gold and silver. It is expressed in various ways, with human hunters armed with spears and daggers—or...

  11. PART IV. IRON AGE GREECE, WESTERN ASIA, AND THE NEAR EAST

    • CHAPTER 20 The Meaning of the Greek Cemetery from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age
      (pp. 311-320)
      Anthony M. Snodgrass

      Not all that much survives today of the confident, nomothetic universals of processual archaeology, which Guenter Kopcke and I earnestly discussed more than once in the years of its heyday. But one example of such approaches achieved a wider influence than most: the “Saxe/Goldstein hypothesis 8,” which was originally advanced by Arthur Saxe and later refined by Lynne Goldstein. In simplified form (cf. Saxe 1970, 119; Goldstein 1981, 61), the hypothesis holds that to the degree that a culture has a corporate group structure in the form of a lineal descent system that confers entitlement to property, it is to...

    • CHAPTER 21 “Old Country” Ethnonyms in “New Countries” of the “Sea Peoples” Diaspora
      (pp. 321-334)
      Itamar Singer

      The distinguished honoree of this volume begins one of his seminal articles with the sentence “There are questions that to the archaeologist are out of bounds, while they may well interest the historian” (Kopcke 1992, 103). As a paraphrase, I would say that there are questions that may be of interest for both archaeologists and historians, but they are so difficult to answer as to be out of bounds normally for both. The question I intend to pose here is: How did the “Sea peoples” designate themselves when they migrated to the eastern Mediterranean regions and why? As is well...

    • CHAPTER 22 Phoenician Clay Figurines Recovered from the Sea in the Hecht Museum Collection
      (pp. 335-344)
      Ephraim Stern

      The groups of Phoenician clay figurines presented here is dedicated to Guenter Kopcke, who has made important contributions to the study of the ties between Greece and the Levant and their mutual cultural links.

      Previously, A. Raban and Y. Kahanov (2003) published a small group of clay models of Phoenician boats housed in the Hecht Museum of the University of Haifa. In the introduction to their article they describe the provenance of the boats (Raban and Kahanov 2003, 17):

      The models of the boats were found covered with sea sediment which indicated they had been submerged for a long period...

    • CHAPTER 23 The Hasanlu Lovers
      (pp. 345-350)
      Oscar White Muscarella

      The English poet John Donne (1572–1631) wrote a beautiful poem about two lovers who were eventually buried together,The Relique(published in 1633):

      When my grave is broke up againe

      Some second ghest to entertaine, . . .

      And he that digs it . . .

      Will he not let’us alone,

      And thinke that there a loving couple lies . . .

      Then, he that digges us up, will bring

      Us, to the Bishop, and the King,

      To make us Reliques . . .

      All women shall adore us, and some men;

      And since at such time, miracles are...

  12. PART V. ARCHAIC AND CLASSICAL GREECE, ITALY, AND WESTERN ASIA

    • CHAPTER 24 Ships in Pre-Classical Asia Minor
      (pp. 353-366)
      Olaf Höckmann

      Much of Guenter Kopcke’s work has been devoted to studying the contacts between Greece and its Eastern neighbors. This encourages me to honor him with a paper that touches on the very tools of contact, namely the ships from that part of the ancient world that was the focus for such contacts. Asia Minor forms a bridge between the Near East and the Aegean; its long east–west coasts along the Black Sea and the Mediterranean invite sea traffic. The Late Bronze Age shipwrecks from Cape Uluburun (Yalçm, pulak, and Slotta, eds., 2005) and Cape Gelidonya in Lycia (Bass 1967)...

    • CHAPTER 25 Apollo and Herakles at Naukratis in the Archaic Period
      (pp. 367-378)
      Ursula Höckmann

      Only one archaic Greek settlement is known in Egypt—Naukratis (Petrie 1886; Gardner 1888; Boardman 2000; Möller 2000a, 2000b), located in the Nile delta on its westernmost Canopic branch, not far from Saïs, the capital of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty (Fig. 25.1). Herodotus and Athenaeus document the cults that were practiced there (Hdt. 2.178; Ath. 15.675F—676C), as do more than approximately 2,800 inscriptions found on pottery vessels dedicated to several deities, most of which date to the Archaic period, the seventh to sixth century B.C.E. (Möller 2000a, 166–181; Höckmann and Möller 2006; Schlotzhauer 2006; Ehrhardt, Höckmann, and Schlotzhauer 2008;...

    • CHAPTER 26 The Career of Mnesikles
      (pp. 379-380)
      James McCredie

      Of the four great marble buildings on the Acropolis—the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Temple of Athena Nike, and the Erechtheion—the authorship of the first by Iktinos (McCredie 1979) and the second by Mnesikles is virtually undisputed.* The architect(s) of the Erechtheion and of the Nike temple are, however, unattested, and attribution has been various.

      The buildings progress one right after the next: the Parthenon and the Propylaia from 437–432 B.C.E., the Temple of Athena Nike from 424/3 to 420, and the Erechtheion from ca. 420–413 and from 409–406.

      Ira S. Mark has clearly set out...

    • CHAPTER 27 The Classical Marble Pyxis and Dexilla’s Dedication
      (pp. 381-398)
      Jasper Gaunt

      In her account of the classical marble vessels from Delos and Rheneia, Photini Zaphiropoulou shed much light on a tradition that modern scholarship has consistently neglected (Zaphiropoulou 1973). This article addresses just one of the shapes she treated—the pyxis. The first part considers the magnificent class of pyxides equipped with a pedestal foot, and proposes Athenian manufacture under Persian or Lydian inspiration. This leads to a brief digression on marble exaleiptra, before the discussion returns to simple marble pyxides of various types. Some of these greatly resemble their Bronze Age ancestors. The connections between Bronze Age and classical Greece...

    • CHAPTER 28 Helen’s Birth on a Calyx Krater from Acanthus
      (pp. 399-408)
      Katerina Romiopoulou

      The cemetery of ancient Acanthus (modern Ierissos) in the Chalcidice peninsula has been undergoing urgent excavation since 1973, and from its extent (ca. 60 ha), it appears that excavation will continue for quite some time to come. To date, approximately 25,000 graves have been discovered; they span a long period, from the end of the seventh century B.C.E. until the Roman Imperial period, with a gap of nearly two centuries during the Hellenistic period. Since the cemetery was in continuous use, the state of preservation of the graves is uneven. Earlier burials from the Archaic period were covered or destroyed,...

    • CHAPTER 29 Observations on “La Stanca,” the Neo-Attic Weary Maenad
      (pp. 409-414)
      Beryl Barr-Sharrar

      Guenter Kopcke’s stated admiration for the Roman marble relief slab in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Fig. 29.1; Metropolitan Museum of Art accession no. 35.11.3), that depicts one of the most appealing of the canonical neo-Attic maenads (Hauser’s type no. 26 [Hauser 1889]), prompts me to set down some new observations about the figure and its probable Athenian prototype in this brief paper in his honor.

      Professor Kopcke’s enthusiasm is analogous to that of G. Richter, who in publishing the extensively restored slab in 1936, when it entered the collection of the museum, called it a “marble relief...

    • CHAPTER 30 Some Notes on the Metropolitan Museum’s Pagenstecher Lekythos
      (pp. 415-422)
      Joan R. Mertens

      Guenter Kopcke’s early publications include two articles on Late Classical period pottery, a fundamental inquiry into black-glazed vases with gilding (Kopcke 1964) and a consideration of Attic relief wares (Kopcke 1969). Both studies concern the influence of other media and techniques on classical pottery. Following this avenue of Kopcke’s scholarship, I should like to venture a few thoughts about the pagenstecher lekythos in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (accession number 06.1021.223; Rogers Fund, 1906), the most ambitious example of its class (Figs. 30.1, 30.2).

      The lekythos measures 46 cm in height, with the neck and the egg-shaped portion...

    • CHAPTER 31 What Role for Etruscans?
      (pp. 423-436)
      Larissa Bonfante

      My title reprises that of Guenter Kopcke’s contribution—“What role for phoenicians?”—to the important conference he organized in New York in 1990, “Greece between East and West: 10th–8th Centuries B.C.E.” This period, encompassing much of the Iron Age and the beginning of the Orientalizing period, and thus the world of Homer, has received a great deal of scholarly attention in the last years, and there have been many new discoveries made and new ideas engendered. In the context of the friendly discussion and stimulating, often controversial ideas that characterize Guenter’s teaching, scholarship, and conversations with colleagues far and...

    • CHAPTER 32 The Genesis of the Etruscan Round Throne
      (pp. 437-440)
      Irma Wehgartner

      Everyone who has, like you, lived for a while in Munich knows the Walchensee not just from the paintings of Lovis Corinth. They know the clear blueish-green shimmering water that mirrors the surrounding mountains on calm days, and the fog banks that spill cascade-like over the Kesselberg on autumn days. Normally one desires quiet and closeness to nature at this place, not archaeological discoveries. Despite this, one day a walk along the south shore of the lake led to the discovery of an object that would catch the attention of anyone who has any knowledge of archaeological artifacts. In the...