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Population and Society in Western European Port Cities, c 1650-1939

RICHARD LAWTON
ROBERT LEE
Volume: 2
Copyright Date: 2002
Edition: 1
Pages: 400
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5vjmf3
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    Population and Society in Western European Port Cities, c 1650-1939
    Book Description:

    This volume brings together ten original papers on the population dynamics and development of Western European port cities. In a substantial overview chapter Lawton and Lee examine ‘Port Development and the Demographic Dynamics of European Urbanisation’, setting in context the individual case studies that follow. These studies – of Bremen, Cork, Genoa, Glasgow, Hamburg, Liverpool, Malmö, Nantes, Portsmouth and Trieste – provide an important enhancement of our understanding of the particular socio-economic and demographic characteristics of port cities, and point to the existence of a particular port demographic regime. They emphasise the central importance of the high proportion of unskilled and casual labour, the susceptibility of cyclical employment, the inflated risk of epidemic infection, and other demographic and economic factors specific to port cities.

    eISBN: 978-1-84631-383-7
    Subjects: Population Studies

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. LIST OF FIGURES
    (pp. ix-xii)
  4. LIST OF TABLES
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
  5. PREFACE
    (pp. xvii-xx)
    Richard Lawton and Robert Lee
  6. Chapter 1 PORT DEVELOPMENT AND THE DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS OF EUROPEAN URBANIZATION
    (pp. 1-36)
    ROBERT LEE and RICHARD LAWTON

    Urbanization has been a critical component in European demographic change in the modern period and the scale of urban transformation has been extensive. By the early-seventeenth century only a fraction of Europe’s population lived in cities or towns of over 10,000 inhabitants, but by the late-eighteenth century a substantial urban network, with a large and growing population, had been established. The nineteenth century, in turn, witnessed unprecedented population growth and rapid urban expansion, with a marked acceleration in large city growth (Lawton and Lee, 1989b). Moreover, initial variations in the pace and scale of urbanization in individual European states gradually...

  7. Chapter 2 INDUSTRIALIZATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE: A CASE STUDY OF GLASGOW, 1801–1914
    (pp. 37-73)
    ANDREW GIBB

    In his statistical study of urbanization,The Growth of Cities in the Nineteenth Century, Adna Ferrin Weber (1899) considered the relative growth of London and Glasgow in relation to the national populations of England and Scotland, and described Glasgow’s growth as exceptional. He attributed this to its great variety of natural resources and its fortunate location. It occupied the position of a great commercial centre like London, it had a climate favourable to textile-working, like Manchester, and it lay in the middle of a great coal and iron district, like Birmingham. He added to these aspects of initial advantage, each...

  8. Chapter 3 THE POPULATION DYNAMICS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF GENOA, 1750–1939
    (pp. 74-90)
    GIUSEPPE FELLONI

    The scholar analysing the historical population dynamics of Genoa will quickly notice its special and well-defined features.¹ From 1805 Genoa was the capital of a small regional state that had just over half a million inhabitants in 1777. From the second half of the eighteenth century its economy was mainly based on two activities: first, overseas investments, supplying most of the income of its aristocratic oligarchy; and, secondly, shipping and trade, pursued either on an independent basis or on commission for foreign merchants.

    After the outbreak of the French Revolution and during the wars between France and other European powers,...

  9. Chapter 4 THE COMPONENTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN A RAPIDLY GROWING PORT-CITY: THE CASE OF LIVERPOOL IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
    (pp. 91-123)
    RICHARD LAWTON

    While typologies of cities provide a useful framework for population studies, they present considerable problems. Most urban centres are multi-functional, definitions of dominant function usually being based on the most easily accessible criterion of census occupational data (Nelson, 1955; Laux, 1989). Other—perhaps more crucial— factors in demographic behaviour, such as social class, cultural characteristics (for example, ethnicity, religion, levels of education) and income are seldom easily available.

    Moreover, the statistical bases of such classifications are usually very crude and the differences within a class in social, structural and demographic characteristics may be greater than those between different classes. Contrasts...

  10. Chapter 5 THE MORTALITY DEVELOPMENT OF A PORT-TOWN IN A NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: THE EXPERIENCE OF MALMÖ, SWEDEN, 1820–1914
    (pp. 124-175)
    GUNNAR FRIDLIZIUS

    Malmö is a port-town situated on the south part of the Swedish west coast (Figure 5.1). With about 250,000 inhabitants, it is the third largest town in Sweden. In 1820, when this investigation begins, it had a population of 6,700 rising to 25,000 by 1870 and to 85,000 by 1914, with a rate of growth considerably in excess of that of most other Swedish towns, especially prior to 1870. Malmö was the chief town for the export of the Scandinavian grain surplus (Fridlizius, 1981; 1984a; 1990), exports of which began to increase as early as the second half of the...

  11. Chapter 6 POPULATION DYNAMICS AND ECONOMIC CHANGE IN TRIESTE AND ITS HINTERLAND, 1850–1914
    (pp. 176-211)
    MARINA CATTARUZZA

    The outbreak of the First World War marked a sudden interruption in the exceptional economic development of the port of Trieste which was never to recur in the history of the town. The increase in shipping tonnage arriving in the port between 1905 and 1913 exceeded that of other major continental ports (Figure 6.1). Between 1912 and 1913, after the opening of the new Franz Joseph port, port traffic increased by 907,000 net tons; only Rotterdam in that year recorded a higher increase (Camera di Commercio, 1914; Babudieri, 1962, pp. 1–8). In 1913, thanks to the record tonnage arriving...

  12. Chapter 7 THE ADMIRALTY CONNECTION: PORT DEVELOPMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN PORTSMOUTH, 1650–1900
    (pp. 212-251)
    BARRY STAPLETON

    In south-east Hampshire the population centre of Portsmouth is a relatively new settlement.¹ Non-existent in 1086 at the time of the Domesday Book (Stapleton, 1989),² it was founded in the late-twelfth century during a prolonged period of medieval population growth. As a new community it was much smaller than its more established neighbouring market towns at Titchfield and Fareham, or even markets such as that at Havant created at about the same time. Even as late as the beginning of the seventeenth century it seems likely that Portsmouth was still only the fourth or fifth largest parochial community in the...

  13. Chapter 8 THE PORT-CITY LEGACY: URBAN DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN THE HANSESTADT BREMEN, 1815–1910
    (pp. 252-269)
    ROBERT LEE and PETER MARSCHALCK

    It is commonly assumed that the accelerated expansion of urbanization in Western Europe in the nineteenth century was primarily a result of large-scale industrialization. This was clearly the case in relation to areas dominated by coal mining and iron and steel production, such as the towns in the Ruhr valley, in northern France, as well as in the West Midlands in England. However, other urban communities, for example port-cities and commercial and service centres, frequently registered population growth on the basis of pre-industrial employment structures and only later underwent industrialization. In particular, with increasing functional specialization within the urban hierarchy...

  14. Chapter 9 CHANGES IN POPULATION DEVELOPMENT, URBAN STRUCTURES AND LIVING CONDITIONS IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY HAMBURG
    (pp. 270-304)
    CLEMENS WISCHERMANN

    The former ‘free imperial city of Hamburg’ (since 1806 ‘the free Hansa city’) was situated with its northern boundaries about 15 miles from the mouth of the Elbe. Ever since the foundation of Hamburg the harbour has played an important economic role in determining urban location. Nevertheless, the area of the old town (the Altstadt and the Neustadt), which was fortified until the Napoleonic Wars, did not show any distinct functional or social differentiation until well into the second half of the nineteenth century.

    The pre-industrial town naturally did not lack a structural framework nor elements of planning, especially with...

  15. Chapter 10 DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE: THE WORKERS AND THE BOURGEOISIE IN NANTES, 1830–1848
    (pp. 305-325)
    ANGELA FAHY

    During the period of the July Monarchy the French working class was neither sociologically nor ideologically homogeneous (Magraw, 1983, p. 105). Workers in individual towns and specific industries had different grievances. Disparities in conditions led to varying responses and these responses were, in turn, informed by the economic and social histories of those communities. Magraw has pointed to the different political traditions of workers in Marseilles, Toulouse and Paris. Just as there was a geography of working-class politics and protests, likewise there were variations in the response of the middle classes to issues involvingles classes inférieurs, les ouvriers, cette...

  16. Chapter 11 POPULATION, SOCIETY AND POLITICS IN CORK FROM THE LATE-EIGHTEENTH CENTURY TO 1900
    (pp. 326-346)
    JOHN B. O’BRIEN

    There was no significant change in Cork’s population between 1821, the year of the first census, and the end of the century (Connell, 1950): it oscillated around 80,000, rising in the 1840s and again in the 1880s but, even then, the increases were not spectacular (Table 11.1). This was in stark contrast to the striking 250 per cent increase during the eighteenth century.¹ Still, in the national context, Cork more than held its own in the nineteenth century. While Irish population dropped by more than 40 per cent between 1841 and 1891, Cork’s declined by only 6 per cent. In...

  17. INDEX
    (pp. 347-388)