Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume 1

Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume 1: The Revised Oxford Translation

Copyright Date: 1984
Pages: 1256
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  • Book Info
    Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume 1
    Book Description:

    The Oxford Translation of Aristotle was originally published in 12 volumes between 1912 and 1954. It is universally recognized as the standard English version of Aristotle. This revised edition contains the substance of the original Translation, slightly emended in light of recent scholarship; three of the original versions have been replaced by new translations; and a new and enlarged selection of Fragments has been added. The aim of the translation remains the same: to make the surviving works of Aristotle readily accessible to English speaking readers.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-3584-3
    Subjects: Philosophy

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
    (pp. ix-xii)
    J. B.
    (pp. xiii-xiii)
    (pp. xiii-2)
    (pp. 3-24)
    J. L. Ackrill

    1 . When things have only a name in common and the definition of being which corresponds to the name is different, they are calledhomonymous. Thus, for example, both a man and a picture are animals. These have only a name in common and the definition of being which corresponds to the name is different; for if one is to say what being an animal is for each of them, one will give two distinct definitions.

    When things have the name in common and the definition of being which corresponds to the name is the same, they are called...

    (pp. 25-38)
    J. L. Ackrill

    1 . First we must settle what a name is and what a verb is, and then what a negation, an affirmation, a statement and a sentence¹ are.

    Now spoken sounds are symbols of affections in the soul, and written marks symbols of spoken sounds. And just as written marks are not the same for all men, neither are spoken sounds. But what these are in the first place signs of—affections of the soul—are the same for all; and what these affections are likenesses of—actual things—are also the same. These matters have been discussed in the...

    (pp. 39-113)
    A. J. Jenkinson

    1 . First we must state the subject of the enquiry and what it is about: the subject is demonstration, and it is about demonstrative understanding.¹ Next we must determine what a proposition² is, what a term is, and what a deduction³ is (and what sort of deduction is perfect and what imperfect); and after that, what it is for one thing to be or not be in another as a whole, and what we mean by being predicated of every or of no.

    A proposition, then, is a statement affirming or denying something of something; and this is either...

    (pp. 114-166)
    Jonathan Barnes

    1 . All teaching and all intellectual learning come about from already existing knowledge. This is evident if we consider it in every case; for the mathematical sciences are acquired in this fashion, and so is each of the other arts. And similarly too with arguments—both deductive and inductive arguments proceed in this way; for both produce their teaching through what we are already aware of, the former getting their premisses as from men who grasp them, the latter proving the universal through the particular’s being clear. (And rhetorical arguments too persuade in the same way; for they do...

  10. TOPICS
    (pp. 167-277)
    W. A. Pickard-Cambridge

    1 . Our treatise proposes to find a line of inquiry whereby we shall be able to reason from reputable opinions about any subject presented to us, and also shall ourselves, when putting forward an argument, avoid saying anything contrary to it. First, then, we must say what deduction is, and what its varieties are, in order to grasp dialectical deduction; for this is the object of our search in the treatise before us.

    Now a deduction is an argument in which, certain things being laid down, something other than these necessarily comes about through them. It is a demonstration,...

    (pp. 278-314)
    W. A. Pickard-Cambridge

    1 . Let us now discuss sophistical refutations, i.e. what appear to be refutations but are really fallacies instead. We will begin in the natural order with the first.

    That some deductions are genuine, while others seem to be so but are not, is evident. This happens with arguments, as also elsewhere, through a certain likeness between the genuine and the sham. For physically some people are in a vigorous condition, while others merely seem to be so by blowing and rigging themselves out like the tribal choruses; and some people are beautiful thanks to their beauty, while others seem...

    (pp. 315-446)
    R. P. Hardie and R. K. Gaye

    1 . When the objects of an inquiry, in any department, have principles, causes, or elements, it is through acquaintance with these that knowledge and understanding is attained. For we do not think that we know a thing until we are acquainted with its primary causes or first principles, and have carried our analysis as far as its elements. Plainly, therefore, in the science of nature too our first task will be to try to determine what relates to its principles.

    The natural way of doing this is to start from the things which are more knowable and clear to...

    (pp. 447-511)
    J. L. Stocks

    1 . The science which has to do with nature clearly concerns itself for the most part with bodies and magnitudes and their properties and movements, but also with the principles of this sort of substance, as many as they may be. For of things constituted by nature some are bodies and magnitudes, some possess body and magnitude, and some are principles of things which possess these. Now a continuum is that which is divisible into parts always capable of subdivision, and a body is that which is every way divisible. A magnitude if divisible one way is a line,...

    (pp. 512-554)
    H. H. Joachim

    1 . Our next task is to study coming-to-be and passing-away. We are to distinguish the causes, and to state the definitions, of these processes considered in general—as they apply uniformly to all the things that come-to-be and pass-away by nature. Further, we are to study growth and alteration. We must inquire what each of them is; and whether alteration has the same nature as coming-to-be, or whether to these different names there correspond two separate processes with distinct natures.

    On this question, indeed, the early philosophers are divided. Some of them assert that the so-called unqualified coming-to-be is...

    (pp. 555-625)
    E. W. Webster

    1 . We have already discussed the first causes of nature, and all natural motion, also the stars ordered in the motion of the heavens, and the corporeal elements—enumerating and specifying them and showing how they change into one another—and becoming and perishing in general. There remains for consideration a part of this inquiry which all our predecessors called meteorology. It is concerned with events that are natural, though their order is less perfect than that of the first of the elements of bodies. They take place in the region nearest to the motion of the stars. Such...

    (pp. 626-640)
    E. S. Forster

    1 . Many a time, Alexander, has Philosophy seemed to me truly divine and supernatural, especially when in solitude she soars to the contemplation of things universal and strives to recognize the truth that is in them, and while all others abstain from the pursuit of this truth owing to its sublimity and vastness, she has not shrunk from the task nor thought herself unworthy of the fairest pursuits, but has deemed the knowledge of such things at once most natural to herself and most fitting. For seeing that it was not possible (as once the foolish Aloadae attempted) by...

    (pp. 641-692)
    J. A. Smith

    1 . Holding as we do that, while knowledge of any kind is a thing to be honoured and prized, one kind of it may, either by reason of its greater exactness or of a higher dignity and greater wonderfulness in its objects, be more honourable and precious than another, on both accounts we should naturally be led to place in the front rank the study of the soul. The knowledge of the soul admittedly contributes greatly to the advance of truth in general, and, above all, to our understanding of Nature, for the soul is in some sense the...

    (pp. 693-713)
    J. I. Beare

    1 . Having now considered the soul, by itself, and its several faculties, we must next make a survey of animals and all living things, in order to ascertain what functions are peculiar, and what functions are common, to them. What has been already determined respecting the soul must be assumed throughout. The remaining parts of our subject must be now dealt with, and we may begin with those that come first.

    The most important attributes of animals, whether common to all or peculiar to some, are, manifestly, attributes of soul and body in conjunction, e.g.,sensation, memory, passion, appetite...

    (pp. 714-720)
    J. I. Beare

    1 . We have to treat of memory and remembering, considering its nature, its cause, and the part of the soul to which this experience, as well as that of recollecting, belongs. For the persons who possess a retentive memory are not identical with those who excel in power of recollection; indeed, as a rule, slow people have a better memory, whereas those who are quick-witted and clever are better at recollecting.

    We must first consider the objects of memory, a point on which mistakes are often made. Now to remember what is future is not possible—that is an...

  20. ON SLEEP
    (pp. 721-728)
    J. I. Beare

    1 . With regard to sleep and waking, we must consider what they are; whether they are peculiar to soul or to body, or common to both; and if common, to what part of soul or body they appertain; further, from what cause they are attributes of animals, and whether all animals share in them both, or some partake of the one only, others of the other only, or some partake of neither and some of both.

    Further, we must also inquire what dreams are, and from what cause sleepers sometimes dream, and sometimes do not; or whether the truth...

    (pp. 729-735)
    J. I. Beare

    1 . We must, in the next place, investigate the subject of the dream, and first inquire to which of the faculties of the soul it presents itself, i.e. whether the affection is one which pertains to the faculty of thought or to that of sense-perception; for these are the only faculties within us by which we acquire knowledge.

    If, then, the exercise of the faculty of sight is seeing, that of the auditory faculty, hearing, and, in general that of the faculty of sense-perception, perceiving; and if there are some perceptions common to the senses, such as figure, magnitude,...

    (pp. 736-739)
    J. I. Beare

    1 . As to the divination which takes place in sleep, and is said to be based on dreams, we cannot lightly either dismiss it with contempt or give it confidence. The fact that all persons, or many, suppose dreams to possess a special significance, tends to inspire us with belief in it, as founded on the testimony of experience; and indeed that divination in dreams should, as regards some subjects, be genuine, is not incredible, for it has a show of reason; from which one might form a like opinion also respecting all other dreams. Yet the fact of...

    (pp. 740-744)
    G. R. T. Ross

    1 . The reasons for some animals being long-lived and others short-lived, and, in a word, the causes of the length and brevity of life call for investigation.

    The necessary beginning to our inquiry is a statement of the difficulties about these points. For it is not clear whether in animals and plants universally it is a single or diverse cause that makes some to be long-lived, others short-lived. Plants too have in some cases a long life, while in others it lasts but for a year.

    Further, in a natural structure are longevity and a sound constitution coincident, or...

    (pp. 745-763)
    G. R. T. Ross

    1 . We must now treat of youth and old age and life and death. We must probably also at the same time state the causes of respiration as well, since in some cases living and the reverse depend on this.

    We have elsewhere given an account of the soul, and while it is clear that its substance cannot be corporeal, yet manifestly it must exist in some bodily part which must be one of those possessing control over the members. Let us for the present set aside the other parts or faculties of the soul (whichever of the two...

    (pp. 764-773)
    J. F. Dobson

    1 . What is the mode of growth of the natural breath and its mode of maintenance? For we see that it increases in volume and strength in accordance with both changes of age and the varying condition of the body. May we suppose that it increases as the other parts do, through the addition of some substance to it? Now it is nutriment that is thus added to living creatures; so that we must consider the nature and origin of the nutriment in this case.

    Nutrition may result in either of two ways—by means of respiration, or, as...

    (pp. 774-993)
    A. W. Thompson

    1 . Of the parts of animals some are simple: to wit, all such as divide into parts uniform with themselves, as flesh into flesh; others are composite, such as divide into parts not uniform with themselves, as, for instance, the hand does not divide into hands nor the face into faces.

    And of such as these, some are called not parts merely, but members. Such are those parts that, while entire in themselves, have within themselves other parts: as, for instance, the head, foot, hand, the arm as a whole, the chest; for these are all in themselves entire...

    (pp. 994-1086)
    W. Ogle

    1 . Every study and investigation. the humblest and the noblest alike, seems to admit of two kinds of proficiency; one of which may be properly called educated knowledge of the subject, while the other is a kind of acquaintance with it. For an educated man should be able to form a fair judgement as to the goodness or badness of an exposition. To be educated is in fact to be able to do this; and the man of general education we take to be such. It will, however, of course, be understood that we only ascribe universal education to...

    (pp. 1087-1096)
    A. S. L. Farquharson

    1 . Elsewhere we have investigated the movement of animals after their various kinds, the differences between them, and the causes of their particular characters (for some animals fly, some swim, some walk, others move in various other ways); there remains an investigation of the common cause of any sort of animal movement whatsoever.

    Now we have already determined (when we were discussing whether eternal motion exists or not, and what it is, if it does exist) that the origin of other motions is that which moves itself, and that the origin of this is the immovable, and that the...

    (pp. 1097-1110)
    A. S. L. Farquharson

    1 . We have now to consider the parts which are useful to animals for movement in place; first, why each part is such as it is and to what end they possess them; and second, the differences between these parts both in one and the same creature, and again by comparison of the parts of creatures of different species with one another. First then let us lay down how many questions we have to consider.

    The first is what are the fewest points of motion necessary to animal progression, the second why sanguineous animals have four points and not...

    (pp. 1111-1218)
    A. Platt

    1 . We have now discussed the other parts of animals, both generally and with reference to the peculiarities of each kind, explaining how each part exists on account of such a cause, and I mean by this the cause for the sake of something.

    There are four causes: first, the final cause, that for the sake of which; secondly, the definition of essence (and these two we may regard pretty much as one and the same); thirdly, the material; and fourthly, that from which the source of movement comes.

    We have then already discussed the other three causes, for...

    (pp. 1219-1228)
    T. Loveday and E. S. Forster

    1 . Simple colours are those which belong to the elements, i.e. to fire, air, water, and earth. Air and water in themselves are by nature white, fire (and the sun) yellow, and earth is naturally white. The variety of hues which earth assumes is due to dying, as is shown by the fact that ashes turn white when the moisture that tinged them is burnt out. It is true they do not turn a pure white, but that is because they are tinged by the smoke, which is black. And this is the reason why lye-mixture turns yellow, the...

    (pp. 1229-1236)
    T. Loveday and E. S. Forster

    All sounds, whether articulate or inarticulate, are produced by the meeting of bodies or of the air with bodies, not because the air assumes certain shapes, as some people think, but because it is set in motion in the way in which, in other cases, bodies are moved, whether by contraction or expansion or compression, or again when it clashes together by an impact from the breath or from the strings of musical instruments. For, when the nearest portion of it is struck by the breath which comes into contact with it, the air is at once driven forcibly on,...

    (pp. 1237-1250)
    T. Loveday and E. S. Forster

    1. Mental character is not independent of and unaffected by bodily processes, but is conditioned by the state of the body; this is well exemplified by drunkenness and sickness, where altered bodily conditions produce obvious mental modifications. And contrariwise the body is evidently influenced by the affections of the soul—by the emotions of love and fear, and by states of pleasure and pain. But still better instances of the fundamental connexion of body and soul and their very extensive interaction may be found in the normal products of nature. There never was an animal with the form of one...