Millennial Praises

Millennial Praises: A Shaker Hymnal

Christian Goodwillie
Jane F. Crosthwaite
Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 368
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5vk2fb
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  • Book Info
    Millennial Praises
    Book Description:

    From the very beginning in the 1770s, singing was an important part of the worship services of the Shakers, formally known as the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing. Yet until the early nineteenth century, nearly all Shaker songs were wordless—expressed in unknown tongues or as enthusiastic vocalizations. Only when Shaker missionaries moved west into Ohio and Kentucky did they begin composing hymn texts, chiefly as a means of conveying the sect's unconventional religious ideas to new converts. In 1812–13, the Shakers published their first hymnal. This venture, titled Millennial Praises, included the texts without music for one hundred and forty hymns and elucidated the radical and feminist theology of the Shakers, neatly distilled in verse. This scholarly edition of the hymnal joins the texts to original Shaker tunes for the first time. One hundred and twentysix of the tunes preserved in the Society's manuscript hymnals have been transcribed from Shaker musical notation into modern standard notation, thus opening this important religious and folk repertoire to modern scholars. Many texts are presented with a wide range of variant tunes from Shaker communities in New England, New York, Ohio, and Kentucky. Introductory essays by volume editors Christian Goodwillie and Jane F. Crosthwaite place Millennial Praises in the context of Shaker history and offer a thorough explication of the Society's theology. They track the use of the hymnal from the point of publication up to the present day, beginning with the use of the hymns by both Shaker missionaries and antiShaker apostates and ending with the current use of the hymns by the last remaining Shaker family at Sabbathday Lake, Maine. The volume includes a CD of historical recordings of six Shaker songs by Brother Ricardo Belden, the last member of the Society at Hancock Shaker Village.

    eISBN: 978-1-61376-095-6
    Subjects: Religion, Music

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-x)
    Daniel W. Patterson

    The serious study of the song tradition of the American Shakers began, we generally say, with the work of Edward Deming Andrews. His bookThe Gift to Be Simpleappeared in 1940, and four years later Aaron Copland turned its title song into virtually a second American national anthem. Many studies have followed. But all of them rest upon efforts of Shaker musicians themselves, who began in the second decade of the nineteenth century to record and preserve the flood of songs their faith called forth. By my own last count—now surely outdated—853 Shaker song manuscripts survive, the...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xvi)
    Jane F. Crosthwaite and Christian Goodwillie
  5. Millennial Praises: The Birth of Shaker Hymnody
    (pp. 1-24)
    Christian Goodwillie

    The essential outwardly defining characteristic of the sect variously called Shakers, Shaking Quakers, Believers, and the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing has always been their singular use of music and dance in worship. The account quoted above is the earliest known description of Shaker worship. Eyewitnesses to Shaker worship through the 1780s and 1790s describe similar scenes of chaotic enthusiasm, riddled with personal sounds and movements. In 1781, Valentine Rathbun, a Baptist and eventual Shaker apostate, recorded his observations of the Shaker leader Mother Ann Lee in the act of worship:

    When any person goes to see...

  6. Millennial Praises: The Elaboration of Shaker Theology
    (pp. 25-38)
    Jane F. Crosthwaite

    When the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing ventured to publish their first collection of hymns in 1812–13, they were taking dangerous risks; some they acknowledged in their introductory preface, others they did not. They were publishing words to hymns but not the music, thus relying on a living community whose active practice and local memory could carry the words into song. They were also making specific—in print—a tradition that had relied on continuing revelation and unfolding wisdom, thus risking a crystallization of ideas that were still evolving. The printed word may capture moments of...

  7. [Illustrations]
    (pp. None)
  8. Introduction to the Musical Scores
    (pp. 39-42)
    Christian Goodwillie

    This book contains 128 hymns fromMillennial Praisesreunited with their Shaker tunes. AlthoughMillennial Praisesconsists of 140 hymn texts, five years of research has failed to yield tunes for the remaining 12 hymns. Many of the texts were sung to more than one tune. Different tunes were sometimes used in the eastern and western Shaker communities. Additionally, new tunes were written for old texts in many of the communities. As a result, 203 tunes are provided here, for 128 texts.

    The tunes in this book are drawn from five manuscript sources. The most important of these is a...

  9. THE HYMNS
    • Preface to the 1813 Edition
      (pp. 45-46)
    • PART I
      • The Testimony of Eternal Truth. Part I Hymn I. RH p. 227.
        (pp. 49-51)
      • Commemoration of the Birth of Christ. Part I Hymn II. RH p. 223.
        (pp. 52-53)
      • John’s Vision. Part I Hymn III. RH p. 222.
        (pp. 54-55)
      • The foundation Pillars revealed. Part I Hymn IV. RH p. 231.
        (pp. 56-57)
      • The Son and Daughter. Part I Hymn V. RH p. 217.
        (pp. 58-59)
      • The heavenly Bridegroom & Bride. Part I Hymn VI. RH p. 215.
        (pp. 59-61)
      • The Restoration. Part I Hymn VII. RH p. 252.
        (pp. 62-63)
      • Typical Trumpets. Part I Hymn VIII. RH p. 216.
        (pp. 63-64)
      • Typical Dancing. Part I Hymn IX. RH p. 212.
        (pp. 65-66)
      • Voyage to Canaan. Part I Hymn X. RH p. 221.
        (pp. 67-68)
      • The Prophets and Apostles. Part I Hymn XI. RH p. 216.
        (pp. 69-71)
      • The only Way. Part I Hymn XII. RH p. 244.
        (pp. 72-73)
      • The Zion Traveller. Part I Hymn XIII.
        (pp. 73-73)
      • The happy Day. Part I Hymn XIV. RH p. 228.
        (pp. 74-74)
      • The Kingdom of Zion. Part I Hymn XV. RH p. 243.
        (pp. 75-76)
      • Spiritual Wine. Part I Hymn XVI. RH p. 225.
        (pp. 76-79)
      • The Fathers of Old. Part I Hymn XVII. RH p. 242.
        (pp. 80-81)
      • Ye are God’s building. Part I Hymn XVIII. RH p. 234.
        (pp. 82-83)
      • The latter Day. Part I Hymn XIX. RH p. 243.
        (pp. 84-84)
      • The great Harvest. Part I Hymn XX. RH p. 235.
        (pp. 85-86)
      • The Battle-ax Part I Hymn XXI. RH p. 231.
        (pp. 87-88)
      • Day of Judgment. Part I Hymn XXII. RH p. 217.
        (pp. 89-89)
      • Babylon is fallen. Part I Hymn XXIII. RH p. 221.
        (pp. 90-91)
      • Old Adam disturbed. Part I Hymn XXIV. PB p. 32.
        (pp. 92-93)
      • The Gospel Invitation. Part I Hymn XXV. RH p. 238.
        (pp. 94-95)
      • The Believer’s Faith. Part I Hymn XXVI.
        (pp. 96-96)
      • Resolution against a carnal Nature. Part I Hymn XXVII. RH p. 238.
        (pp. 97-98)
      • Humility. Part I Hymn XXVIII. RH p. 230.
        (pp. 99-99)
      • Heaven upon Earth. Part I Hymn XXIX. RH p. 217.
        (pp. 100-101)
      • Thanksgiving. Part I Hymn XXX. RH p. 247.
        (pp. 102-102)
      • Thankfulness. Part I Hymn XXXI.
        (pp. 103-103)
      • My Feelings. Part I Hymn XXXII. RH p. 238.
        (pp. 104-104)
      • The Season of Loves. Part I Hymn XXXIII. RH p. 246.
        (pp. 105-106)
      • Come let us proceed. Part I Hymn XXXIV. RH p. 242.
        (pp. 107-107)
      • The Union of the Spirit. Part I Hymn XXXV. RH p. 245.
        (pp. 108-108)
      • Let Love abound. Part I Hymn XXXVI. RH p. 247.
        (pp. 109-109)
      • The Fountain of Love. Part I Hymn XXXVII. RH p. 231.
        (pp. 110-112)
    • PART II
      • The everlasting Parents. Part II Hymn I. RH p. 215.
        (pp. 115-117)
      • Mother. Part II Hymn II. RH p. 214.
        (pp. 117-118)
      • The gospel Commencement. Part II Hymn III. RH p. 251.
        (pp. 119-121)
      • The gospel Sound. Part II Hymn IV. RH p. 216.
        (pp. 122-124)
      • The Day of Redemption. Part II Hymn V. RH p. 214.
        (pp. 125-126)
      • The gospel Message. Part II Hymn VI. RH p. 232.
        (pp. 127-128)
      • The gospel Call. Part II Hymn VII. RH p. 219.
        (pp. 128-129)
      • The Fall of Man. Part II Hymn VIII. INY p. 10.
        (pp. 130-131)
      • The Contrast. Part II Hymn IX. RH p. 237.
        (pp. 131-132)
      • The Believer’s Answer. Part II Hymn X.
        (pp. 133-134)
      • The Lamb’s Revelation. Part II Hymn XI. RH p. 212.
        (pp. 135-136)
      • Gospel Tidings. Part II Hymn XII. RH p. 212.
        (pp. 137-137)
      • The new Creation. Part II Hymn XIII. RH p. 227.
        (pp. 138-139)
      • The true Pillar. Part II Hymn XIV. RH p. 235.
        (pp. 140-140)
      • The gospel Trumpet. Part II Hymn XV. RH. p. 213.
        (pp. 141-142)
      • The last Woe. Part II Hymn XVI. RH p. 237.
        (pp. 142-143)
      • Jacob and Esau. Part II Hymn XVII. ES p. 228.
        (pp. 144-145)
      • A View of Predestination. Part II Hymn XVIII. INY p. 11.
        (pp. 146-147)
      • The strait and narrow Way. Part II Hymn XIX. RH p. 232.
        (pp. 147-148)
      • The precious Way of God. Part II Hymn XX. RH p. 220.
        (pp. 149-151)
      • The happy Journey. Part II Hymn XXI. RH p. 213.
        (pp. 152-154)
      • The Language of the Spirit. Part II Hymn XXII. RH p. 236.
        (pp. 155-156)
      • Charity. Part II Hymn XXIII. RH p. 219.
        (pp. 157-157)
      • Freedom. Part II Hymn XXIV. RH p. 249.
        (pp. 158-159)
      • The Word of Life. Part II Hymn XXV. RH p. 222.
        (pp. 160-161)
      • The Tree of Life. Part II Hymn XXVI. RH p. 218.
        (pp. 162-163)
      • The gospel Child. Part II Hymn XXVII. RH p. 232.
        (pp. 164-164)
      • Love. Part II Hymn XXVIII. RH p. 227.
        (pp. 165-166)
      • Invitation to Union. Part II Hymn XXIX. RH p. 247.
        (pp. 166-166)
      • Beauty, Union, and Love. Part II Hymn XXX. RH p. 254.
        (pp. 167-167)
      • Happy Sensation. Part II Hymn XXXI. RH p. 235.
        (pp. 168-168)
      • Our Saviour’s Birth day. Part II Hymn XXXII. INY p. 13.
        (pp. 169-170)
      • The holy Lamb. Part II Hymn XXXIII. RH p. 218.
        (pp. 171-172)
    • PART III
      • The Cause and Effect of Man’s Fall.
        (pp. 175-175)
      • The Birth of Christ. Part III Hymn II. RH p. 254.
        (pp. 176-177)
      • The Morning Watch. Part III Hymn III. RH p. 244.
        (pp. 178-179)
      • The Virgin Spouse. Part III Hymn IV. RH p. 245.
        (pp. 180-180)
      • The Morning Star. Part III Hymn V. RH p. 255.
        (pp. 181-182)
      • The glorious Morn. Part III Hymn VI. RH p. 236.
        (pp. 183-184)
      • The living Building. Part III Hymn VII. RH p. 216.
        (pp. 185-185)
      • Faith. Part III Hymn VIII. RH p. 256.
        (pp. 186-187)
      • Victory over the Man of Sin. Part III Hymn IX. RH p. 253.
        (pp. 188-189)
      • How can we live any longer in Sin? Part III Hymn X.
        (pp. 190-190)
      • The Saints’ Triumph on the Downfall of Antichrist. Part III Hymn XI. INY p. 14.
        (pp. 191-192)
      • The Dragon’s Rage. Part III Hymn XII. RH p. 235.
        (pp. 193-195)
      • War in Heaven. Part III Hymn XIII. RH p. 249.
        (pp. 196-196)
      • The Day of Retribution. Part III Hymn XIV. RH p. 247.
        (pp. 197-198)
      • The Earthquake. Part III Hymn XV. RH p. 248.
        (pp. 199-201)
      • Noah’s Ark a Figure of the gospel Ark. Part III Hymn XVI. RH p. 239.
        (pp. 202-202)
      • The Ark of Safety. Part III Hymn XVII. RH p. 240.
        (pp. 203-203)
      • The Fountain of Grace. Part III Hymn XVIII. RH p. 239.
        (pp. 204-205)
      • The happy Mansion. Part III Hymn XIX. RH p. 262.
        (pp. 206-207)
      • Mother’s Children. Part III Hymn XX. RH p. 255.
        (pp. 208-209)
      • Natural and spiritual Relation. Part III Hymn XXI. RH p. 240.
        (pp. 210-212)
      • The Deceivers. Part III Hymn XXII. RH p. 220.
        (pp. 213-214)
      • The Lord is here. Part III Hymn XXIII. RH p. 239.
        (pp. 215-217)
      • The Law was holy. Part III Hymn XXIV. RH p. 239.
        (pp. 218-219)
      • The Bread of Life. Part III Hymn XXV. RH p. 245.
        (pp. 219-219)
      • The true Believer’s Treasure. Part III Hymn XXVI. RH p. 252.
        (pp. 220-221)
      • The excellent Gift. Part III Hymn XXVII. RH p. 229.
        (pp. 222-223)
      • The Language of Believers. Part III Hymn XXVIII. RH p. 255.
        (pp. 224-225)
      • Jacob’s Ladder. Part III Hymn XXIX. RH p. 241.
        (pp. 226-226)
      • Christ and Herod. Part III Hymn XXX. INY p. 217.
        (pp. 227-227)
      • Make thy Garden grow. Part III Hymn XXXI. INY p. 17.
        (pp. 228-229)
      • The faithful Few. Part III Hymn XXXII. RH p. 250.
        (pp. 230-230)
      • Union. Part III Hymn XXXIII. RH p. 265.
        (pp. 231-231)
      • The joyful Worship. Part III Hymn XXXIV. RH p. 246.
        (pp. 232-232)
      • Come loving Brethren. Part III Hymn XXXV. RH p. 250.
        (pp. 233-233)
      • Pure Love. Part III Hymn XXXVI. RH p. 240.
        (pp. 234-236)
    • PART IV
      • The Seasons. Part IV Hymn I. RH p. 220.
        (pp. 239-241)
      • The Day long prayed for. Part IV Hymn II. RH p. 241.
        (pp. 242-242)
      • The Hidingplace. Part IV Hymn III. RH p. 251.
        (pp. 243-244)
      • Christ is come; Alleluia! Part IV Hymn IV. RH p. 253.
        (pp. 245-246)
      • Christian Deeds and Names. Part IV Hymn V.
        (pp. 247-247)
      • Carnal Professors. Part IV Hymn VI.
        (pp. 248-248)
      • The Testimony of a Believer. Part IV Hymn VII. RH p. 254.
        (pp. 249-249)
      • Come and welcome. Part IV Hymn VIII. RH p. 245.
        (pp. 250-250)
      • The Gospel Day. Part IV Hymn IX. RH p. 214.
        (pp. 251-252)
      • Awake! Awake! Part IV Hymn X. RH p. 257.
        (pp. 253-253)
      • The Destruction of Gog. Part IV Hymn XI.
        (pp. 254-254)
      • The Shakers.
        (pp. 255-255)
      • The Reapers. Part IV Hymn XIII. RH p. 215.
        (pp. 256-256)
      • All Men cannot receive this Saying. Part IV Hymn XIV.
        (pp. 257-258)
      • There are Eunuchs. Part IV Hymn XV.
        (pp. 258-258)
      • The Soldiers of Christ. Part IV Hymn XVI. RH p. 237.
        (pp. 259-260)
      • The Journey to Canaan. Part IV Hymn XVII. RH p. 228.
        (pp. 261-262)
      • The Jubilee. Part IV Hymn XVIII. RH p. 241.
        (pp. 263-263)
      • The Kingdom of Peace. Part IV Hymn XIX. RH p. 265.
        (pp. 264-265)
      • The Kingdom of Glory. Part IV Hymn XX. RH p. 252.
        (pp. 266-267)
      • Flesh and Blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of God. Part IV Hymn XXI. RH p. 251.
        (pp. 267-268)
      • The carnal Resurrection. Part IV Hymn XXII. INY p. 19.
        (pp. 269-270)
      • The Resurrection of the Body. Part IV Hymn XXIII.
        (pp. 271-272)
      • The Resurrection of the Soul. Part IV Hymn XXIV. RH p. 256.
        (pp. 273-274)
      • Micah’s Prophecy. Part IV Hymn XXV. RH p. 238.
        (pp. 275-276)
      • The State of the World. Part IV Hymn XXVI. RH p. 241.
        (pp. 277-278)
      • The Church of Christ. Part IV Hymn XXVII. RH p. 258.
        (pp. 278-279)
      • Gospel Liberty. Part IV Hymn XXVIII. RH p. 600.
        (pp. 280-281)
      • There remaineth a rest. Part IV Hymn XXIX. RH p. 250.
        (pp. 282-282)
      • Come, ye Blessed!
        (pp. 283-284)
      • Love is the fulfilling of the Law. Part IV Hymn XXXI. RH p. 249.
        (pp. 285-286)
      • Improve each Moment. Part IV Hymn XXXII. RH p. 243.
        (pp. 287-287)
      • Rights of Conscience. Part IV Hymn XXXIII. RH p. 221.
        (pp. 288-289)
      • The Believer’s Manifesto. Part IV Hymn XXXIV. PB p. 56.
        (pp. 290-291)
  10. Notes to the Hymns
    (pp. 292-292)
  11. Bibliography
    (pp. 293-295)
  12. Index of First Lines
    (pp. 296-297)
  13. Notes to the Companion CD
    (pp. 298-298)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 299-300)