Community by Design

Community by Design: The Olmsted Firm and the Development of Brookline, Massachusetts

KEITH N. MORGAN
ELIZABETH HOPE CUSHING
ROGER G. REED
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 320
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5vk53v
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  • Book Info
    Community by Design
    Book Description:

    In 1883, Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. moved from New York City to Brookline, Massachusetts, a Boston suburb that anointed itself the “richest town in the world.” For the next half century, until his son Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. relocated to California in 1936, the Olmsted firm received over 150 local commissions, serving as the dominant force in the planned development of this community. From Fairsted, the Olmsteds’ Brookline home and office, the firm collaborated with an impressive galaxy of suburban neighbors who were among the regional and national leaders in the fields of architecture and horticulture, among them Henry Hobson Richardson and Charles Sprague Sargent. Through plans for boulevards and parkways, residential subdivisions, institutional commissions, and private gardens, the Olmsted firm carefully guided the development of the town, as they designed cities and suburbs across America. While Olmsted Sr. used landscape architecture as his vehicle for development, his son and namesake saw Brookline as grounds for experiment in the new profession of city and regional planning, a field that he was helping to define and lead. Little has been published on the importance of Brookline as a laboratory and model for the Olmsted firm’s work. This beautifully illustrated book provides important new perspective on the history of planning in the United States and illuminates an aspect of the Olmsted office that has not been well understood. Published in association with Library of American Landscape History: http://lalh.org/

    eISBN: 978-1-61376-227-1
    Subjects: History, Architecture and Architectural History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-x)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xi-xiv)
    Robin Karson
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xv-2)
  5. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 3-6)

    Initially commissioned by the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site of the National Park Service through the Organization of American Historians, this volume examines the impact of the Olmsted firm of landscape architects on the development of Brookline, Massachusetts. Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. relocated his home and office from New York City to the Boston suburb of Brookline in 1883. Until the departure of his son and namesake, Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., for California in 1936, the firm played a dynamic and influential role in the physical changes of this elite suburb. This book focuses on the work of the...

  6. One BROOKLINE BEFORE OLMSTED
    (pp. 7-18)

    Brookline seems to have been predestined to become an influential suburb and a likely home for Frederick Law Olmsted. From the colonial period forward, circumstances of location, topography, and economic, political, and social structure coalesced to create an environment in which the suburban ideal emerged. By the late nineteenth century, as the home of the first country club in the United States, Brookline could boast the status of a leading example for America’s affluent suburbs. Indeed, its staunch resistance to annexation by Boston made it an island of privilege surrounded on three sides by Boston neighborhoods. Nevertheless, the Brookline story...

  7. Two OLMSTED BEFORE BROOKLINE
    (pp. 19-40)
    Elizabeth Hope Cushing

    Among the many salient features that enhance the city of Boston, not least is the enviable amount of green space that characterizes it. In part this rich resource is the consequence of the cultural evolution that left areas such as the Boston Common open to public access despite steadily advancing development from the late seventeenth century on. The large swath of open land encircling the municipal area was, however, the result of a concerted effort on the part of nineteenth-century city fathers who understood the growing importance of urban recreational areas and green space in a rapidly expanding and increasingly...

  8. Three HENRY HOBSON RICHARDSON
    (pp. 41-65)

    Frederick Law Olmsted and his family moved to Brookline in 1883 primarily because of their personal and professional connections to Henry Hobson Richardson (1838–1886) and his family. With Olmsted’s move from New York City, the nation’s leading landscape architect and its most prominent architect were near neighbors in this suburban enclave. Although both men moved their homes and offices because of major commissions in Boston, it was suburban Brookline that became the site of their residences, their businesses, and their efforts in training the next generation of their professions. From the Green Hill neighborhood, until Richardson’s early death in...

  9. Four THE DESIGN COMMUNITY
    (pp. 67-94)

    Perhaps the most important and most obvious network that extended from Fairsted into the surrounding neighborhoods and the community of Brookline at large was the collective of architects, landscape architects, civil engineers, horticulturalists, and other professionals who shared interests with the Olmsted family and the firm’s office staff. Some of these connections began before Olmsted relocated to Brookline and continue, in some ways, into our own time. The Richardson-Olmsted matrix has already been discussed; the association of Olmsted with Charles Sprague Sargent will be examined in the next chapter. On a more general level, many of the leading members of...

  10. Five CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT
    (pp. 95-136)
    Elizabeth Hope Cushing

    Frederick Law Olmsted’s prominence in Brookline is unquestionable, and the prevailing wisdom has always decreed that Henry Hobson Richardson’s presence drew people to the Warren Street neighborhood, in particular Olmsted himself. Historically, however, there has been an unrecognized third element in what turns out to be an important triad in the history of architecture, landscape architecture, and horticulture in Brookline and in the larger world: Charles Sprague Sargent, director of the Arnold Arboretum and longtime Brookline resident. Sargent’s presence, his wealth, social standing, and familial connections, combined with his own considerable contribution to the fields of horticulture and dendrology, figure...

  11. Six THE PLANNING CONTEXT
    (pp. 137-176)
    Roger G. Reed

    On February 25, 1889, Frederick Law Olmsted gave a talk at the Brookline Club about the history of roads and parkways, beginning with the earliest periods of Western civilization. According to the local newspaper, Olmsted related his reasons for moving to Brookline, remarking that it was an attractive place to live, efficiently managed, and very unlikely to be developed by “commercial interests,” adding, “How to preserve the topographical condition of the town is the most critical question of the time.” In what was presumably the central point of his talk, Olmsted “laid particular stress to the importance of laying out...

  12. Seven THE INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT
    (pp. 177-198)

    Beyond the armature of the major boulevards, subdivisions, and park systems, the Olmsted office influenced the development of Brookline through key institutional projects. These reinforced traditional patterns in the religious, political, and social life of the community, facilitated planned growth, and engaged central questions about the role of suburbanization in both Brookline and the nation at large. The commissions that the Olmsted firm executed for the First Parish Church, Brookline’s park and school systems, the Boston and Albany commuter railroad stations, The Country Club, and the Free Hospital for Women are representative of broad issues that progressive communities addressed to...

  13. Eight THE NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT
    (pp. 199-225)

    To understand fully the deep impact that the Olmsted family and firm had in the development of Brookline at large, we need to consider the microcosm of the Fairsted neighborhood in which they chose to live and work. Here they interacted with neighbors, many of whom sought their professional services, while others contributed to the knowledge and experience of the Olmsted office. (figs. 8.1 and 8.2) Few other areas of the town would have been more receptive or responsive to the professional and personal interests of the Olmsteds. And few other towns would have been as eager for their advice...

  14. CONCLUSION: LANDSCAPE INTO TOWNSCAPE
    (pp. 227-232)

    In the half century after his removal from Manhattan to Brookline, Frederick Law Olmsted, his family, and successor firms manipulated the landscape of suburban Brookline through privately financed commissions and public planning efforts. For “the richest town in the world,” the Olmsteds provided the professional guidance that made the community the envy of and model for many other suburbs. Their new hometown became a laboratory in which they pursued ideas and practices that reflected the national changes in landscape architecture and town planning. Several broad patterns can be observed from this evolution.

    Unlike the comprehensive plans that the Olmsted office...

  15. APPENDIX A. Olmsted Design Projects in Brookline
    (pp. 233-236)
  16. APPENDIX B. Architects and Landscape Architects in Brookline
    (pp. 237-238)
  17. APPENDIX C. Statement as to Professional Methods and Charges, 1902
    (pp. 239-242)
  18. APPENDIX D. Collaborative Projects of H. H. Richardson and F. L. Olmsted Sr.
    (pp. 243-244)
  19. APPENDIX E. Collaborative Commissions of the Olmsted Office in Brookline
    (pp. 245-246)
  20. APPENDIX F. Brookline Projects of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge
    (pp. 247-248)
  21. APPENDIX G. Brookline Projects of Peabody & Stearns
    (pp. 249-252)
  22. APPENDIX H. The Brookline Commissions of Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul
    (pp. 253-256)
  23. APPENDIX I. Town Green and Green Hill Properties with Olmsted Connections
    (pp. 257-260)
  24. Notes
    (pp. 261-290)
  25. Index
    (pp. 291-302)
  26. Back Matter
    (pp. 303-304)