Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External Worlds

Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External Worlds: Essays on the Philosophy of Adolf Grünbaum

John Earman
Allen I. Janis
Gerald J. Massey
Nicholas Rescher
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  • Book Info
    Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External Worlds
    Book Description:

    The inaugural volume of the Pitt-Konstanz series, devoted to the work of philosopher Adolf Grünbaum, encompasses the philosophical problems of space, time, and cosmology, the nature of scientific methodology, and the foundations of psychoanalysis.

    eISBN: 978-0-8229-7034-7
    Subjects: Philosophy, General Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xii)
    John Earman, Allen I. Janis, Gerald J. Massey and Nicholas Rescher
  4. Space, Time, Cosmology
    • 1 Physical Force or Geometrical Curvature? Einstein, Grünbaum, and the Measurability of Physical Geometry
      (pp. 3-22)
      Martin Carrier

      Science would be an easy matter if the fundamental states of nature expressed themselves candidly and frankly in experience. In that case we could simply collect the truths lying ready before our eyes. In fact, however, nature is more reserved and shy, and its fundamental states often appear in masquerade. Put less metaphorically, there is no straightforward one-to-one correspondence between a theoretical and an empirical state. One of the reasons for the lack of such a tight connection is that distortions may enter into the relation between theory and evidence, and these distortions may alter the empirical manifestation of a...

    • 2 Substantivalism and the Hole Argument
      (pp. 23-44)
      Carl Hoefer and Nancy Cartwright

      Adolf Griinbaum’sPhilosophical Problems of Space and Time(1973) set the agenda for studies of these topics for mid-twentieth century analytic philosophy. It was an agenda with a pronounced point of view: a firm empiricism combined with a rigorous understanding of contemporary spacetime physics. The recent “hole argument” of John Earman and John Norton against spacetime substantivalism follows closely in this tradition. Earman and Norton argue roughly as follows: If points of the spacetime manifold were real, that would imply that any generally covariant theory, such as the general theory of relativity, would be indeterministic; but the issue of determinism...

    • 3 The Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis
      (pp. 45-82)
      John Earman

      The idea of cosmic censorship was introduced over twenty years ago by Roger Penrose (1969). About a decade later Penrose noted that it was not then known “whether some form of cosmic censorship principle is actually a consequence of general relativity” (1978, 230), to which he added, “In fact, we may regard this as possibly the most important unsolved problem of classical general relativity theory” (ibid.). This sentiment has been echoed by Stephen Hawking (1979, 1047), Werner Israel (1984, 1049), Robert Wald (1984, 303), Frank Tipler (1985, 499), Douglas Eardley (1987, 229), and many others. Thus, if an “important problem”...

    • 4 From Time to Time Remarks on the Difference Between the Time of Nature and the Time of Man
      (pp. 83-102)
      Jürgen Mittelstrass

      Time is something familiar and something puzzling. It is the reality of hope, of waiting and of forgetting; it is the motion of the hands of a clock, and it is what Augustine (1955, 628–29) explained he could not explain and what Kant (1956–1964, vol. 1, 753) later called the still unexplained. Even in mythology time is so remarkable that it takes on divine form. Chronos is its name with the Greeks. According to Sophocles (Soph.El.179) Chronos sees and hears all, brings everything to light and conceals it again. He is a helpful God. The Day...

    • 5 The Conventionality of Simultaneity
      (pp. 103-128)
      Michael Redhead

      There is an honorable tradition in the philosophy of time that sees simultaneity as an equivalence relation defined on the set of all actual or indeed possible events,¹ and time itself as the linearly ordered quotient set induced by this equivalence relation. The equivalence classes of simultaneous events provide successive boundaries between a “fixed” past where present action can produce no change and an “open” future, a limbo of unrealized possibilities; the “moving” present breathes momentary reality on events before they are consigned to the other limbo of “dead” facts. Such is the rhetoric ofA-theorists as opposed toB-theorists,...

    • 6 The Meaning of General Covariance The Hole Story
      (pp. 129-160)
      John Stachel

      Let me begin by explaining my title and the aims of this essay. Between 1913 and 1915 Einstein gave several versions of an argument for rejecting what he referred to as “general covariance” as a criterion for the selection of the field equations of the gravitational theory he was then developing. This argument is based on consideration of the gravitational field within a region of spacetime devoid of all other matter and fields-a region that he called a “hole”[Loch].Einstein afterwards referred to the argument itself as the “hole argument”[Lochbetrachtung].Together with Marcel Grossman, he proposed a metric...

  5. Scientific Rationality and Methodology
    • 7 Sciences and Pseudosciences An Attempt at a New Form of Demarcation
      (pp. 163-186)
      Robert E. Butts

      In an article appearing in an earlierFestschrifthonoring Adolf Grünbaum (Laudan 1983), Larry Laudan argued persuasively that the attempt to distinguish science from pseudoscience by employment of one or another of the proposed demarcation criteria is now dead. What he had specifically in mind is that demarcation criteria employing verificationist and falsificationist theories of meaning have failed to accomplish the required goal.¹ However, he obviously retained confidence in what he called “our intuitive distinction between the scientific and the non-scientific” (ibid., 124) and admitted that some future successful attempt to mark the difference could not be ruled out. The...

    • 8 The End of Epistemology?
      (pp. 187-204)
      Paul Feyerabend

      Epistemology arose in the West in connection with the “ancient battle between philosophy and poetry” (PlatoRepublic607b6f). In this battle a small group of social critics, soon called philosophers, opposed traditional customs, attitudes, and ways of reasoning. Continuing the Ionian trend of unification which looked for a single substance behind the manifold events of this world, Parmenides declared Being to be the most fundamental substance of all. What can be said about Being? That it is and that not-Being is not. Since the only alternative to Being is not-Being, Parmenides inferred that, basically, the world never changes and that...

    • 9 Seven Theses on Thought Experiments
      (pp. 205-228)
      Paul Humphreys

      Those of us who work in philosophy of science tend to come across “thought experiments” on both sides of the street. We have famous cases from the remote and recent history of science, cases so familiar that their names alone identify them: Heisenberg’s gamma ray microscope, the (original) EPR experiment, Newton’s rotating bucket experiment, Maxwell’s demon, Schrödinger’s cat, and so on. Philosophers have used what looks like a similar technique: Reichenbach’s differential and universal forces, the Turing test, Searle’s Chinese Room, Hobbes’s state of nature, Strawson’s auditory universe, and so on. (This connection has been explored by Gerald Massey 1990....

    • 10 On the Alleged Temporal Anisotropy of Explanation A Letter to Professor Adolf Grünbaum from His Friend and Colleague
      (pp. 229-248)
      Wesley C. Salmon

      Following a venerable philosophical tradition, I am taking this occasion to address a profound problem in an open letter. Not long ago you asked me to tell you why—given the time-symmetry of most of the fundamental laws of nature—particular events cannot (accordingly to my lights) be explained by appeal to facts that obtain subsequent to their occurrences, but only by reference to those that obtained antecedently. This is, as I say, a profound question, and it has not been suitably addressed by many of those who want to exclude explanations in terms of subsequent facts. The following is...

    • 11 A New Theory of Reduction in Physics
      (pp. 249-272)
      Erhard Scheibe

      Science is patchwork. Even physics, perhaps the most successful part of science, did not achieve its goal in one attempt. It cannot yet be presented as one unified theory. Students of physics are introduced to various theories: mechanics of mass points, continuum mechanics, electrodynamics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and so on. Moreover, there are other natural sciences besides physics: chemistry and, most importantly, biology. Sometimes it is said that by the invention of quantum mechanics chemistry could bereducedto physics, very much as, within physics, optics was reduced to electrodynamics or thermodynamics to statistical mechanics. Similarly, it is claimed that...

    • 12 Analogy by Similarity in Hyper-Carnapian Inductive Logic
      (pp. 273-282)
      Brian Skyrms

      Adolf Grünbaum (1976, 1978) has longstanding critical interest in Bayesian methods in the philosophy of science. In this essay I will show how Bayesian methods can be applied to provide a natural solution to a problem in Rudolf Carnap’s program for inductive logic—the problem of analogy by similarity. That the inductive methods in Carnap’s (1952) λ-continuum failed to give an adequate account of various kinds of analogical reasoning was pointed out by Achinstein and Putnam in a series of papers in 1963 (see Achinstein 1963a,b; Putnam [1963] 1975a, [1963] 1975b; and Carnap 1963a,b). In his posthumous “Basic System” (1980),...

    • 13 Capacities and Invariance
      (pp. 283-328)
      James Woodward

      A sign prominently displayed in California restaurants warns that consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy “can cause” birth defects. My interest in this essay is in what claims of this sort mean. What kind of causal knowledge do they represent and what kind of evidence is relevant to their truth or falsity? Following Nancy Cartwright (1989b) I will argue that such claims are about causal capacities and that they play an important role in causal reasoning, both in the natural and in the behavioral and social sciences.¹

      My discussion will proceed as follows. In section 1, I try to distinguish...

    • 14 Falsification, Rationality, and the Duhem Problem Grünbaum versus Bayes
      (pp. 329-370)
      John Worrall

      It was in a fascinating lecture of Adolf Grünbaum’s that I first heard A. R. Anderson’s wonderful admonition, “Keep an open mind, but not so open that your brains fall out!” Given the evidence we now have, it would surely be brain-endangering to be open-minded about any of the following theories:

      T₁:Light beams consist of tiny material particles.

      T₂:Light beams consist of waves in an elastic solid ether.

      T₃:The universe was created in 4004 B.C. with the earth and the various “kinds” that inhabit it very much as they are today.

      T₄:The parting of the...

  6. Philosophy of Psychiatry
    • 15 The Dynamics of Theory Change in Psychoanalysis
      (pp. 373-408)
      Morris Eagle

      Adolf Grünbaum’s book,The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique(1984), has had an enormous impact on philosophers, psychoanalysts, and others interested in the status of psychoanalytic theory. One of the main tasks of that book was to rigorously examine the empirical and logical foundations of certain basic Freudian claims such as the ubiquitous occurrence of repression and its purported central pathogenic role in the development and maintenance of neurotic symptoms. In Eagle (1986a), I have tried to show that current psychoanalytic developments, in particular, object relations theory and self psychology—the two predominant, current theoretical developments in psychoanalysis—do...

    • 16 Philosophers on Freudianism An Examination of Replies to Grünbaum’s Foundations
      (pp. 409-460)
      Edward Erwin

      In the first round of replies to Grünbaum’sFoundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique(1984), most of the critics were nonphilosophers. Philosophers now have had their turn. In what follows, I discuss some of the issues they have raised.

      AlthoughFoundations(Grünbaum 1984) is mainly concerned with the clinical support for the psychoanalytic theory of repression, Grünbaum also makes a number of significant scholarly points about Freud’s work. One of these concerns the interpretation of the following claim, “After all, (a patient’s) conflicts will only be successfully solved and his resistances overcome if the anticipatory ideas he is given (by...

    • 17 How Freud Left Science
      (pp. 461-488)
      Clark Glymour

      Sigmund Freud is remembered as the founder of the psychoanalytic movement. He is not usually remembered as an early computational psychologist or as a cognitivist philosopher of mind, but that is how he began. The historical claim is meant seriously. Freud was a cognitive scientist, with a clearly computational theory of mind and its functioning, and that understanding of his early work is amply justified by his texts. But the picture leaves a kind of historical puzzle: How did Freud the computational mental physiologist become something so apparently different, the founder and leader of the psychoanalytic movement? How did Freud...

    • 18 Isomorphism and the Modeling of Brain-Mind State
      (pp. 489-508)
      J. Allan Hobson

      In an effort to expose, clarify and advance my own thinking about the brain basis of dreaming I want to discuss two issues which have interested Adolf Grünbaum: (1) the nature of the brain-mind relationship (see Griinbaum 1971), and (2) Freud’s theory of dreams, which is the cornerstone of psychoanalysis (see Grünbaum 1984).

      Since my own philosophical position is a naive, intuitive, and professionally uniformed version of isomorphism, this contribution should be viewed more as a groping response toward Grünbaum-as-teacher than as a polished tribute to Grünbaum-as-scholar. Like many other scientists working at the exciting interface of neurobiology and psychology...

    • 19 Psychoanalytic Conceptions of the Borderline Personality A Sociocultural Alternative
      (pp. 509-526)
      Theodore Millon

      Controversy is natural to a young science such as psychology and its subdisciplines (e.g., psychoanalytic theory), an inevitable and perhaps desirable sign that intellectual energy is being expended in efforts to explore and understand the further reaches and more subtle intricacies of its subject domain. It seems appropriate, therefore, to find that Adolf Grünbaum, a distinguished philosopher of science, has alloted a portion of his broad-ranging intellectual activities to take issue with its dominant trends, to voice doubts, point to gaps, confront and question, and show that our knowledge is not in a final and neatly packaged form, but in...

    • 20 On a Contribution to a Future Scientific Study of Dream Interpretation
      (pp. 527-548)
      Rosemarie Sand

      Psychoanalysts typically rely not on one, but on two different theories when they interpret dreams. One of these theories is Freud’s. The other is an ancient hypothesis which has increasingly made its way into psychoanalytic practice over the decades.

      Freud’s theory has been repudiated by scientific dream researchers because they regard its method as yielding pseudoevidence. Aspects of the old hypothesis, on the other hand, have been well accepted by some experimenters. I suggest, therefore, that if psychoanalysts will eschew the Freudian method and rely entirely upon the ancient technique, they will thereby remove a major roadblock which has prevented...

  7. Freedom and Determinism; Science and Religion
    • 21 Indeterminism and the Freedom of the Will
      (pp. 551-572)
      Arthur Fine

      Adolf Grünbaum’s writings on the free will problem, although not extensive, have been widely reproduced and influential (see Grünbaum 1953, 1967, and 1972). Characteristically, at the center of Grünbaum’s work are clear and forceful arguments—in this instance, for the compatibility of determinism and free will. This compatibilism, I suspect, derives in good measure from Grünbaum’s passionate concern to protect the possibility of an adequate human science, which is to say (as he sees it) a causally based science of individual and social behavior. Insofar as libertarian incompatibilism seems to draw boundaries around causal analysis, exempting human action from its...

    • 22 Adolf Grünbaum and the Compatibilist Thesis
      (pp. 573-588)
      John Watkins

      Compatibilism has been a long-standing thesis of Adolf Grünbaum (he first defended it in his 1952 article). His version involves three subtheses: (1) all human behavior is open to scientific explanation with the help of causal laws; (2) it makes no difference, with respect to human freedom and responsibility, whether the laws are deterministic or statistical; and (3) there is“no incompatibilitybetween the existence of either causal or statistical laws of voluntary behavior, on the one hand, and the feelings of freedom which we actually do have, the meaningful assignment of responsibility, the rational infliction of punishment, and the...

    • 23 Creation, Conservation, and the Big Bang
      (pp. 589-612)
      Philip L. Quinn

      In a recent paper Adolf Grünbaum has argued that those who think recent physical cosmology poses a problem of matter-energy creation to which there is a theological solution are mistaken (see Grünbaum 1989). In physical cosmology, creation is, he claims, a pseudoproblem. My aim in this essay is to refute that claim.

      The essay is divided into five sections. First, I provide some background information about the theological doctrine of divine creation and conservation. By citing both historical and contemporary philosophers, I try to make it clear that there is widespread and continuing agreement among philosophers committed to traditional theism...

  8. Moral Problems
    • 24 Moral Obligation and the Refugee
      (pp. 615-624)
      Nicholas Rescher

      Half a century has gone by since the outbreak of war closed the exits from Nazi Germany, so that the particular group of refugees to which Adolf Grünbaum and I belong is now passing from the scene. Jews and non-Jews alike, these people left their homeland under very difficult and painful circumstances. And this group has made impressive contributions to the United States—especially in the areas of science, social thought, scholarship, and medicine (see Cosher, 1984). Still, these refugees represent simply one more link in a long chain extending across the history of this country, past, present, and undoubtedly...

  9. Name Index
    (pp. 625-628)