Australia and China at 40

Australia and China at 40

JAMES REILLY
JINGDONG YUAN
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: UNSW Press
Pages: 256
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5vkp80
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  • Book Info
    Australia and China at 40
    Book Description:

    For the first time, Australia’s leading trading partner is not a democracy. Rather, it is a powerful authoritarian state with a fast-growing economy, a rapidly modernising military and bold global ambition. How should Australia respond to the seemingly unstoppable and dazzlingly swift rise of China? To mark the 40th anniversary of diplomatic relations between Australia and the People’s Republic of China, expert writers – from Australia and China – come together here to analyse how both countries relate to each other. They cast light on security and economic issues, trade and investment, and political, diplomatic and strategic challenges that can only increase in intensity. While China’s prosperity is good for Australia’s bottom-line, China’s assertiveness in regional affairs, its tight domestic political, human rights and currency controls and the expansion of its cultural influence all make Australians uneasy. And could this global powerhouse become a military threat? Or can we have it all in the Asian Century – healthy trade and diplomatic relations, and a genuine and robust dialogue?

    eISBN: 978-1-74224-591-1
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. FOREWORD
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Warwick Smith

    I am delighted to extend my congratulations on the publication of Australia and China at 40.

    In December 2012 we will celebrate one of our most important bilateral relationships: the 40thanniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Australia and the People’s Republic of China. The anniversary is an exceptional opportunity to reflect on our past accomplishments and, even more importantly, to contemplate future directions.

    China’s emergence as Australia’s largest trading partner and as an increasingly important force in global and regional order presents arguably the most complex foreign policy dilemma to Australia. The manner in which both countries...

  4. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. ix-xii)
  5. Introduction
    • AUSTRALIAʹS RELATIONS WITH CHINA IN A NEW ERA
      (pp. 2-20)
      James Reilly and Jingdong Yuan

      Reaching 40 years of diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China offers an opportune moment for Australians to reflect on their past, present and future relations with the world’s most populous nation and a rising power. For the first time in its history, Australia’s leading trading partner is not a democracy; but rather a one-party authoritarian state with a fast-growing economy, a rapidly modernising military and global ambition.

      China’s economic boom has directly contributed to Australian prosperity, and yet many Australians feel unease with China’s rising nationalism and assertiveness in regional affairs, tight political controls and state-driven investment. A...

  6. Historical legacies
    • 1 ʹTHE WORLD CHANGESʹ: AUSTRALIAʹS CHINA POLICY IN THE WAKE OF EMPIRE
      (pp. 22-43)
      James Curran

      This was the emphatic declaration of Gough Whitlam during his visit to China as Prime Minister in October–November 1973. Addressing Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai at a welcoming banquet in Beijing, Whitlam depicted Australia’s relationship with China as part of a wholesale renovation in Australian foreign policy, a recasting of its policies and priorities in the region and the world. Here China became the means by which Australia weened itself from the protective bosom of its allies in Britain and America and moved its gaze irrevocably to the Asiaaust Pacific. ‘In these four days in Peking’, he noted towards the...

    • 2 FROM KAPYONG TO KAPYONG: A CYCLE IN AUSTRALIA-CHINA RELATIONS
      (pp. 44-64)
      James Cotton

      On 24 April 2011, Prime Minister Julia Gillard attended a memorial meeting in the Republic of Korea to mark the 60th anniversary of the Battle of Kapyong. In her brief address her emphasis was upon the service of the veterans, but she did note also that the battle occurred as a result of ‘the Chinese Communist army[’s] … final attempt to take Seoul’.¹ It should be recalled that it was for its actions in the Battle of Kapyong that the 3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment, was awarded a US Presidential Citation for ‘extraordinary heroism and outstanding performance of combat...

  7. Hard or false choices?
    • 3 NEVER HAVING TO CHOOSE: CHINAʹS RISE AND AUSTRALIAN SECURITY
      (pp. 66-84)
      Nick Bisley

      China’s resurgence has set in train a series of changes which have very mixed implications for Australians. From an economic perspective, it has led to a huge increase in demand for Australian commodities that helped shelter Australia from the worst of the global financial crisis, and, as Michael Wesley’s chapter in this volume discusses, it has prompted a massive improvement in the country’s terms of trade. From a security perspective, however, China’s rise is viewed very differently. As the PRC has become more affluent it has begun to devote significant resources to its military, it has become more confident in...

    • 4 MANAGING OFF-BALANCE TRIPARTITE RELATIONS: HOW TO AVOID UNNECESSARY CONFRONTATION
      (pp. 85-102)
      You Ji

      The Australia–US agreement to deploy US Marines in Darwin, announced in November 2011, suddenly brought the military dimension in Sino-Australian relations to public attention. The academic assessment on the impact of the new US footprint in north Australia has further intensified the strategic debate in the Australian security community concerning Australia’s place in the emerging new international order.¹ The central question in the debate is how Canberra manages the off-balance tripartite relations in the inevitable Sino-US rivalry demonstrated by America’s ‘return to Asia’ – announced by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in 2010 – and China’s rise to primacy....

  8. Economic interdependence
    • 5 SINO-AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC RELATIONS: A GENERAL REVIEW
      (pp. 104-120)
      Yu Chang Sen

      Since the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Australia established formal diplomatic relations in 1972, the nations’ economic relationship has gone ahead in leaps and bounds. Bilateral trade has developed to the highest level; mutual investment grows continuously; and economic and technical co-operation has proceeded at a high level.

      The Sino-Australian relationship is one of the most important and special bilateral relationships in the Asia-Pacific region. Currently, China is a rising global economic and political great power, while Australia acts as a significant leading middle power as well as being a highly open society in the Asia-Pacific. For Australia, China...

    • 6 CHINAʹS RESOURCES TRADE AND INVESTMENT WITH AUSTRALIA
      (pp. 121-140)
      Ding Dou

      Resources and energy, including iron ore, coal, liquefied natural gas and oil, have been vital to the Sino-Australian economic relationship. Although China has now become Australia’s largest trading partner and export market, the two-way trade structure underpins Australia’s resources exports to China, and Australia’s more remarkable dependence on its resources exports to China.

      Australian leaders have fully recognised the dominant contribution of Australian resources to the growing bilateral economic ties. Three consecutive speeches by Australian leaders since August 2011 have emphasised this point. In her speech to the Australia–China Economic and Trade Co-operation Forum on 26 April 2011, Prime...

  9. Australia-China relations in bilateral and regional contexts
    • 7 DIVERGENCE IN AUSTRALIAʹS ECONOMIC AND SECURITY INTERESTS?
      (pp. 142-161)
      John Lee

      In 2010, on the back of an economy that has been doubling in size every eight to ten years, China officially surpassed Japan to become the largest economy in Asia and the second largest in the world after the United States. Having embraced the regional and global trading system since the late 1980s, China became Japan’s largest trading partner in 2007, South Korea’s and India’s largest trading partner in 2008, and the largest external trade partner for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2010. China has become the United States’ largest trading partner in Asia, and America’s second-largest...

    • 8 EAST ASIAN REGIONAL CO-OPERATION AND SINO-AUSTRALIAN RELATIONS
      (pp. 162-177)
      Han Feng

      Over the past two decades, China and Australia have greatly expanded their economic ties and diplomatic interactions as a result of deepening regional co-operation and integration in East Asia and the Asia-Pacific region in general. Indeed, both countries have been active participants in a number of regional multilateral institutions such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and the East Asia Summit (EAS). This chapter looks into Sino-Australian relations from the perspective of East Asian regional co-operation.

      Since the end of the Cold War, East Asian countries have been engaged in efforts to promote regional economic...

    • 9 HOW YOUR ATTITUDES HELP SHAPE RELATIONS WITH CHINA
      (pp. 178-194)
      Fergus Hanson

      Opinion polls are regularly dismissed. Foreign policymakers and commentators can find it tedious or inconvenient to consider supposedly ill-informed public attitudes when dealing with international relationships critical to the national interest. That is a mistake, particularly when it comes to one as front and centre in the public debate as Australia’s relations with China.

      While leaders do not always follow popular opinion, no modern statesperson is likely to act without taking into consideration the constraints and opportunities that public opinion create. As Opposition leader Tony Abbott recently put it: ‘Every politician will tell you that the only poll that counts...

  10. Conclusion
    • AUSTRALIA AND THE CHINA BOOM
      (pp. 196-210)
      Michael Wesley

      For the past four years, the Lowy Institute has asked Australians whether they believe that China’s growth has been good for Australia, as part of the annual Lowy Poll on Australia and the world. In 2008, 63 per cent agreed that China’s growth has been good for Australia. In 2010, 73 per cent agreed with that proposition. By 2011, 75 per cent of Australians said that China’s growth has been good for Australia.¹ The Lowy polls also asked the people we polled which country they thought was the world’s leading economic power. For two years running – 2010 and 2011...

  11. NOTES
    (pp. 211-225)
  12. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. 226-226)
  13. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 227-233)
  14. INDEX
    (pp. 234-244)