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Managing Global Issues

Managing Global Issues: Lessons Learned

P. J. Simmons
Chantal de Jonge Oudraat
Copyright Date: 2001
Pages: 771
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  • Book Info
    Managing Global Issues
    Book Description:

    Globalization is pushing to the fore a wide variety of global problems that demand urgent policy attention. Managing Global Issues provides a comprehensive comparative assessment of international efforts to manage global problems. It identifies and explains successes and failures of such efforts, examines the roles of different actors, and outlines lessons that may guide future action by governments, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. The volume's 16 case studies examine organized crime, drugs, corruption, human rights, labor rights, health, trade, financial markets, development assistance, the environment, the global commons, communications, weapons of mass destruction, conventional weapons, internal conflicts, and refugees. Managing Global Issues is the result of an international multidisciplinary research team composed of experts in specific global issue areas. The book's broad scope, numerous case studies and its rigorous comparative analytical framework offers a unique and valuable contribution to the rapidly growing literature on global governance. Contributors include Vinod K. Aggarwal (University of California, Berkeley), Thomas Bernauer (University of Zürich), William Drake (Carnegie Endowment), Octavio Gómez-Dantés (National Institute of Public Health, Mexico), Catherine Gwin (World Bank), Peter M. Haas (University of Massachusetts, Amherst), Christopher C. Joyner (Georgetown University), Brian Langille (University of Toronto), Robert E. Litan (Brookings Institution), Kathleen Newland (Carnegie Endowment), Peter Richardson (Transparency International), Peter H. Sand (Institute of International Law, Munich), Dinah L. Shelton (Notre Dame Law School), Timothy D. Sisk (University of Denver), Joanna Spear (King's College, London), and Phil Williams (University of Pittsburgh).

    eISBN: 978-0-87003-336-0
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Jessica T. Mathews

    AS THIS BOOK GOES TO PRESS, in the summer of 2001, representatives of some 140 countries are meeting at the United Nations to devise controls on the trade in small arms—submachine guns, shoulder-fired missile launchers, and other instruments of terrorism and civil war. In this trade, commercial interests merge and conflict with public aims. The uses of illegal arms overlap perfectly legal ones. What is one man’s traitorous uprising is another’s patriotic revolution. The odds are, then, that if an accord can be reached, it will be a nonbinding declaration that holds up worthy goals for signatories to enforce...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Part I: Introduction

    • Managing Global Issues: An Introduction
      (pp. 3-22)
      P. J. Simmons and Chantal de Jonge Oudraat

      CONTAGIOUS DISEASES AND FINANCIAL CONTAGION, civil conflicts and regional security, carbon sinks and ozone layers, patent infringement and human rights infringement, biodiversity and biological weaponry, refugee flights and capital flows. Diverse and, at first glance, unrelated, these topics share a common identity. They are all global concerns that cannot be successfully addressed unilaterally, bilaterally, or even regionally. They and a swelling roster of topics are the stuff of almost ceaseless international discourse that sometimes inaugurates cooperation and sometimes dissolves in discord. Over the last generation, the international community has scored a number of impressive victories in dealing with issues requiring...

  6. Part II: Global Issues

    • 1 Communications
      (pp. 25-74)
      William J. Drake

      HOW ARE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS GOVERNED? Twenty years ago, the answer to this question would have been straightforward. Governments collaborated in the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to devise multilateral regimes for the organization of international networks and services and the distribution of radio frequency spectrum and satellite orbital slots. Similarly, they partnered in the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat) and ancillary organizations to provide and govern satellite communications. These three international regimes—for telecommunications, radio frequency spectrum, and satellite services—formed the overarching policy architecture of the global communications order. They extended to the international level a pattern of industry organization...

    • 2 Corruption
      (pp. 75-105)
      Peter Richardson

      MANY SOCIETIES ONCE REGARDED CORRUPTION as inevitable and, although wrong, not particularly harmful.¹ Historically, for a government or an international organization to try to convince another government to crack down on domestic corruption was not only rare but also thought to be naïve, not to mention insensitive to the prerogatives of national sovereignty. Although providers of international economic aid sought to prevent corruption directly related to the assistance they provided, they seldom addressed the overall problem.

      This chapter examines the methods and the success of the campaign—internationally, in countries and in business organizations—to create pressures and bring about...

    • 3 Crime, Illicit Markets, and Money Laundering
      (pp. 106-150)
      Phil Williams

      ORGANIZED CRIME IS PERHAPS BEST UNDERSTOOD as the continuation of commerce by illegal means, with transnational criminal organizations as the illicit counterparts of multinational corporations. During the 1990s, transnational organized crime—and the related phenomena of illegal markets and money laundering—were transformed from an unrecognized problem to an issue taken seriously by governments, both individually and collectively. Indeed, there has been a growing sensitivity to the problem and increased willingness to address transnational organized crime, illegal markets, and money laundering as serious challenges to international security and governance rather than simply domestic issues.

      Transnational criminal organizations pose a major...

    • 4 Development Assistance
      (pp. 151-195)
      Catherine Gwin

      INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE is a post–World War II phenomenon. In the aftermath of the Great Depression and the massive destruction of a second world war in less than a half-century, governments agreed to reform the international economic system and, through processes of international cooperation, lay the foundation for a new era of international peace supported by economic stability and growth. The innovation of financial and technical assistance, provided by nations in support of reconstruction and renewed growth, was one of the central pillars of the postwar international architecture.

      The International Monetary Fund (IMF), the International Bank for Reconstruction and...

    • 5 Economics: Global Finance
      (pp. 196-233)
      Robert E. Litan

      TO MANY, THE BUSINESS OF FINANCE conjures up images of needless middlemen, taking a cut off the top, as it were, as money changes hands. In fact, finance performs three vital economic functions: supplanting barter with far more convenient means of payment; spreading risk across time and space; and perhaps most important, channeling funds from savers to investors—a process known as “intermediation.”

      The importance of these functions is self-evident (if not fully appreciated) to those living in developed countries, who are accustomed to using banks and credit cards for paying their bills, buying insurance to spread risk, and using...

    • 6 Economics: International Trade
      (pp. 234-280)
      Vinod K. Aggarwal

      OVER THE LAST FIFTY YEARS, states have utilized a host of measures to regulate international trade flows, including unilateral restraints, bilateral agreements, regional accords, and multilateral arrangements. Depending on the number of products and the geographical participation of countries, we can consider three important specific governance approaches: sectoralism, regionalism, and globalism. Sectoralism refers to industry-specific arrangements that can be unilateral, bilateral, minilateral, or multilateral, and may be driven by market opening or protectionist objectives. Regionalism refers to arrangements by a limited set of geographically concentrated countries that involve either free trade arrangements or customs unions with common external tariffs, either...

    • 7 Environment: Nature Conservation
      (pp. 281-309)
      Peter H. Sand

      IT IS SOMEWHAT HAZARDOUS to label specific environmental regimes successes or failures, given the abysmal overall record of global environmental quality—virtually all indicators point downward. In few areas is the speed of decline as well documented as in the case of wildlife (animals and plants), mainly because the international machinery for worldwide scientific assessment and cooperation in this field is well established and matched by considerable public attention and media interest.¹ We are thus witnessing the most staggering loss of our planet’s living resources, at a rate of extinction that is one hundred to one thousand times as great...

    • 8 Environment: Pollution
      (pp. 310-353)
      Peter M. Haas

      THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, suggests renowned biologist E. O. Wilson, will be the age of the environment.¹ Despite the convenience of millennial accounting, this age started earlier—with the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE), when the international community first became aware of the widespread impact of human behavior on the natural environment. Before then, national leaders were by and large unfamiliar with environmental issues, scientific understanding was rudimentary; and there were few national or international institutions available for promoting environmental protection. Over the last thirty years, however, the environment has become firmly established on the international diplomatic agenda,...

    • 9 Global Commons: The Oceans, Antarctica, the Atmosphere, and Outer Space
      (pp. 354-391)
      Christopher C. Joyner

      THE ABILITY OF STATES TO REGULATE usage of the global common spaces in the twenty-first century has far-reaching consequences for the environment and for humankind. Global common spaces are domains lying beyond the exclusive jurisdiction of any state that states or their nationals may use for resource extraction, waste disposal, scientific research, and so on. Throughout history conflicts have arisen over who can use these areas, how they can be used, and whether one actor can exclude use by another. This chapter assesses why and how states have cooperatively sought to manage and regulate their activities in common space areas....

    • 10 Health
      (pp. 392-423)
      Octavio Gómez-Dantés

      GLOBALIZATION—THE RAPID GROWTH of international commerce, the increasing ease of travel, and the communications revolution—has eroded national borders, encouraging the movement of goods, services, people, ideas, and lifestyles from one country to another. One of the side effects of this new world dynamic is that disease is no longer a local phenomenon. National health systems, particularly in the developing world, already burdened by internal challenges—such as maintaining hygiene and providing adequate health care for the sick—must now worry about disease threats from outside their borders. Migrant workers may spread illnesses prevalent in their own countries (such...

    • 11 Human Rights
      (pp. 424-468)
      Dinah L. Shelton

      GOVERNANCE OVER HUMAN RIGHTS is multifaceted, including different levels of action (subregional, regional, global), multiple actors (states, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, experts, and, increasingly, business entities), and a variety of techniques, from legal standard setting and litigation to grassroots mobilization. Its scope of action can be seen in the development of new techniques as wide ranging as technical assistance/capacity building and criminal prosecution before national and international criminal tribunals. The proliferation of norms, institutions, and techniques reflects both the importance of the issue on the international agenda and the variety of problems needing attention.

      This chapter assesses the accomplishments and...

    • 12 Labor Rights
      (pp. 469-507)
      Brian Langille

      KARL POLANYI PROVOCATIVELY OBSERVED that “labor is the technical term for human beings.”¹ In our time, discussions of international labor rights put a human face on discussions of international economic integration or, more simply, “globalization.” Not everyone is a refugee, the victim of terrorism, or involved in the weapons trade. But almost everyone is involved in productive activity, or seeks to be. The way in which productive economic activity is structured is the concern of labor law, the ambition of which is to secure justice in this aspect of the lives of people around the world. This chapter analyzes labor...

    • 13 Refugee Protection and Assistance
      (pp. 508-533)
      Kathleen Newland

      INTERNATIONAL REGIMES CAN FALL APART as well as come together. The emphasis in this volume is on regime formation, but it may be instructive to examine at least one example of regime dissolution, or at least transformation. The set of international agreements, norms, and common practices to assist and protect refugees provides one such example.

      The picture that follows is one of a once well-established regime now in disarray, whose main state supporters are no longer willing to conform consistently to its basic principles and expectations despite pressure from international institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). This shift is in part...

    • 14 Violence: Intrastate Conflict
      (pp. 534-563)
      Timothy D. Sisk

      THE DAWN OF THE TWENTIETH-FIRST CENTURY witnessed twenty-seven major armed conflicts around the globe.¹ Twenty of these were in Africa and Asia, with the remainder occurring in the Middle East, Europe, and South America. With the exception of two international wars, today’s conflicts are internal conflicts, or civil wars, taking place primarily within the borders of sovereign states.²

      Civil wars rose to the top of the international peace and security agenda in the early 1990s.³ Bosnia’s civil war from 1991 to 1995, and the 1994 Rwanda genocide, which left nearly 800,000 dead in a hundred days and produced some 1.7...

    • 15 Warfare: Conventional Weapons
      (pp. 564-609)
      Joanna Spear

      THE RECORD OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE EFFORTS designed to tackle problems caused by conventional weapons is patchy at best.¹ Indeed many of these arrangements have been short lived. However, changes in the global security environment and the use of tools such as transparency arrangements to build confidence and security are creating an atmosphere more conducive to lasting governance arrangements.

      Global governance of conventional arms is necessary and desirable for three main reasons. First, indiscriminate procurement of weapons can destabilize regions and states and initiate arms races (with negative security and fiscal consequences). In addition, the “buyer’s market” for conventional weapons is...

    • 16 Warfare: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons
      (pp. 610-660)
      Thomas Bernauer

      DESPITE THE REDUCED INTENSITY of great power rivalry since the late 1980s, risks posed by nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons, often referred to as weapons of mass destruction (WMD), persistently score at the top of global public security concerns. The technical feasibility of releasing from one single nuclear weapon more energy than was released by all conventional weapons in all wars in history remains the most powerful example of risks that human activity poses to life on Earth.

      For decades the international community has invested great efforts into controlling and eliminating the risks posed by NBC weapons. These efforts...

  7. Part III: Conclusions

    • 17 From Agenda to Accord
      (pp. 663-689)
      P. J. Simmons and Chantal de Jonge Oudraat

      IF THIS BOOK HAD BEEN WRITTEN in 1961 or 1971, aside from being a good deal thinner, it would have emphasized two sets of protagonists: sovereign states and the international organizations they controlled. With few exceptions, those states and institutions defined which international issues received serious notice and determined how they would be addressed. Increasingly over the last quarter century, the exceptions have become the rule. In every phase of managing global issues, free agents have gained significant influence.

      Nonstate actorsis the accepted—but not felicitous—term for these free agents; it only explains the authority they lack, not...

    • 18 From Accord to Action
      (pp. 690-728)
      P. J. Simmons and Chantal de Jonge Oudraat

      CONVERTING THE INTENT behind negotiated agreements and strategies into practical action is like running a marathon over a course pitted with obstacles after the cheering crowds have gone home. Implementation is hard, unglamorous work, but it is also the essence of global problem solving. Identifying the pressing challenges and furnishing a negotiated response to them is so much wasted effort if, after the signing ceremony, the parties return to business as usual. To ensure effective follow-through when consequences, commitment, and resources are unevenly distributed among signatories requires cajolery, collaboration, arm-twisting, encouragement, and the sophistication to know how much of each...

  8. Acronyms
    (pp. 729-736)
  9. Index
    (pp. 737-766)
  10. Contributors
    (pp. 767-771)
  11. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
    (pp. 772-772)