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Citizenship Today

Citizenship Today: Global Perspectives and Practices

T. Alexander Aleinikoff
Douglas Klusmeyer
Copyright Date: 2001
Pages: 424
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  • Book Info
    Citizenship Today
    Book Description:

    The forms, policies, and practices of citizenship are changing rapidly around the globe, and the meaning of these changes is the subject of deep dispute. Citizenship Today brings together leading experts in their field to define the core issues at stake in the citizenship debates. The first section investigates central trends in national citizenship policy that govern access to citizenship, the rights of aliens, and plural nationality. The following section explores how forms of citizenship and their practice are, can, and should be located within broader institutional structures. The third section examines different conceptions of citizenship as developed in the official policies of governments, the scholarly literature, and the practice of immigrants and the final part looks at the future for citizenship policy. Contributors include Rainer Bauböck (Austrian Academy of Sciences), Linda Bosniak (Rutgers University School of Law, Camden), Francis Mading Deng (Brookings Institute), Adrian Favell (University of Sussex, UK), Richard Thompson Ford (Stanford University), Vicki C. Jackson (Georgetown University Law Center), Paul Johnston (Citizenship Project), Christian Joppke (European University Institute, Florence), Karen Knop (University of Toronto), Micheline Labelle (Université du Québec à Montréal), Daniel Salée (Concordia University, Montreal), and Patrick Weil (University of Paris 1, Sorbonne)

    eISBN: 978-0-87003-338-4
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Jessica T. Mathews

    CITIZENSHIP IS COMMONLY understood as membership in a nation-state. If nation-states today find themselves under pressure from the cross-cutting forces of globalization and devolution, is citizenship becoming an out-dated concept? Hardly. Interest in the practice and promise of citizenship is strong and growing—perhaps because citizenship is seen as providing a status and a tradition that can unite members of a polity under challenge from above and below. Citizenship also fosters a form of social cooperation and identification that, in most developed states, avoids the divisiveness of racial, religious, and ethnic affiliations.

    Citizenship is taking on added significance because of...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-ix)
  5. Abbreviations and Acronyms
    (pp. x-xii)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. 1-14)

    CITIZENSHIP HAS EMERGED as a major thematic link connecting policy domains that range from welfare, education, and labor markets to international relations and migration. Citizenship provides this link because it brings within its orbit three fundamental issues: how the boundaries of membership within a polity and between polities should be defined; how the benefits and burdens of membership should be allocated; and how the identities of members should be comprehended and accommodated. As a simple matter of law, citizenship, or nationality, is the primary category by which peoples are classified and distributed in polities across the globe. In political theory,...

  7. Part One. National Policies in Comparative Perspective

    • CHAPTER ONE Access to Citizenship: A Comparison of Twenty-Five Nationality Laws
      (pp. 17-35)

      NATIONALITY RESTS with territory at the heart of the definition ofnation-state. If territory determines the geographical limits of state sovereignty, nationality determines its population. Beyond these limits one finds foreign land, foreign sovereignty, and foreigners. Drawing the boundary within which some human beings are included and others excluded as foreigners, permitting some of them to acquire citizenship with certain conditions and some citizens to lose citizenship are all state prerogatives that require legal tools. Nationality law is made up of these tools. They can be compared to different colors that are subsequently mixed to achieve a desired effect. Two...

    • CHAPTER TWO The Evolution of Alien Rights in the United States, Germany, and the European Union
      (pp. 36-62)

      THE EVOLUTION OF alien rights, which Virginie Guiraudon (1998) characterized as the development of “citizenship rights for non-citizens,” marks a significant change in liberal postwar states.¹ How can we explain it? A recent prominent theory argues that nation-states have become permeable to the norms and discourses of global human rights, which protect people as universal persons rather than as national citizens (Jacobson, 1996; Soysal, 1994). This theory is undeniably attractive because it helps explain the convergence of similarly expansive schemes of alien rights across countries. It gives, however, an incomplete and in important ways misleading account of the origins and...

    • CHAPTER THREE Plural Nationality: Facing the Future in a Migratory World
      (pp. 63-88)

      IN A PERFECTLY symmetrical world each individual citizen or national is a member of one and only one state. In the past, many political theorists and legal scholars have imagined such a world. They denounced the very idea of dual nationality as unnatural and likened it to a bigamous marriage. Today, defenders of postnational and transnational understandings of political membership see in the phenomenon of dual nationality the harbinger of a new world, one no longer dominated by the nation-state. Whether one sees the rising trend of plural nationality as positive or negative, there is no denying that its incidence...

    • CHAPTER FOUR Relational Nationality: On Gender and Nationality in International Law
      (pp. 89-124)

      SINCE THE European Convention on Reduction of Cases of Multiple Nationality and Military Obligations in Cases of Multiple Nationality (the “European Convention on the Reduction of Multiple Nationality”) (Council of Europe, 1963) was opened for signature in 1963—so the introduction to the new European Convention on Nationality (Council of Europe, 1997a) begins—“there has been a growing recognition that numerous problems concerning nationality, in particular multiple nationality, have not been sufficiently considered by the 1963 Convention” (Council of Europe, 1997b, 21). Among the problems that led the new convention to modify the old convention’s principle of avoiding multiple nationality...

  8. Part Two. Locations of Citizenship

    • CHAPTER FIVE Citizenship and Federalism
      (pp. 127-182)

      THERE HAS BEEN an enormous growth in the scholarship on citizenship, which has frequently given more attention to the meaning of citizenship and to policy issues that are closely linked to immigration policies than to questions about the constitutional structures involved in deciding citizenship questions (for notable exceptions, see Spiro, 1994; Skerry, 1995; Schuck, 1998a; Schuck, 2000). In this chapter I identify certain structural aspects of federal polities’ approaches to citizenship and then explore the possible bearing of federal forms of citizenship on contemporary debates over “dual” or multiple nationalities. I proceed from the premise that citizenship, as a formal...

    • CHAPTER SIX Ethnic Marginalization as Statelessness: Lessons from the Great Lakes Region of Africa
      (pp. 183-208)

      IN MY VISITS to countries with serious problems of internal displacement in my continuing dialogues with governments as the representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, I begin by discussing the problem with leaders at the national level. I then move down the ladder of authority, ending with the affected population. I discuss their conditions and specific needs for protection and assistance. I then go back to the leaders at various levels to share what I have learned and to offer recommendations.

      In this context, I asked displaced persons in one Latin American country what they wanted me...

    • CHAPTER SEVEN City-States and Citizenship
      (pp. 209-234)

      DESPITE THE WEALTH of literature on globalization and national fragmentation, few observers have considered the possibility that the two phenomena are linked. This chapter analyzes the phenomena of globalization and subnational disintegration as linked trends. These links are indicative of a significant reorientation of the nation-state and its role as an organizing framework in society. As this role changes, fundamental institutions, such as citizenship, which have been embedded in this framework, are also changing. Globalization is having a profound transformative effect on nearly all aspects of domestic and international life, but these effects vary widely in their pace, scope, and...

  9. Part Three. Redefining Citizenship:: Concepts and Practices

    • CHAPTER EIGHT Denationalizing Citizenship
      (pp. 237-252)

      MOST TALK ABOUT citizenship has concerned two questions: Who is entitled to enjoy citizenship, and what does citizenship entail for its holders? The debate has focused, in other words, on defining the class of citizenship’s subjects and on elaborating the meaning of citizenship in substantive terms. And there is certainly a great deal to say about these matters. Yet most analysts have tended to ignore another set of questions that are fundamental to citizenship. These are questions concerning citizenship’s location—that is, questions about where citizenship takes place and where itshouldtake place. The reason these questions have largely...

    • CHAPTER NINE The Emergence of Transnational Citizenship among Mexican Immigrants in California
      (pp. 253-277)

      THE LATE 1990s were years of paradox for immigrants to the United States, years of expanded membership in a more exclusionary society. On the one hand, the new nativist movement launched in 1994 produced a barrage of policy changes that limited the rights of noncitizens. On the other hand, as “settlement” became “citizenship,” unprecedented numbers of legal permanent residents made their way into and through the naturalization process. The huge scale of today’s expansion of the formal boundaries of citizenship is only one expression, moreover, of a broader and more complex shift in collective identity and increasing membership in public...

    • CHAPTER TEN Immigrant and Minority Representations of Citizenship in Quebec
      (pp. 278-316)

      IN THE PAST DECADE, most Western societies have looked for institutional and political ways to renew their views of citizenship (Labelle and Salée, 1999; Pickus, 1997; Schuck, 1996; Weil, 1997). This renewal has taken shape mainly through immigration policies that increasingly emphasize the development of control mechanisms to regulate immigrant entry (Brochmann, 1998; Hollifield, 1997; Weil, 1998). This is part of a sociopolitical and ideological vision that focuses on issues of security and acts as “a moralizing discourse, articulated around the idea of anomie and the loss of values” (Bigot, 1998, 13, authors’ translation).

      As the illegal fringe of international...

  10. Part Four. Concluding Reflections

    • CHAPTER ELEVEN Cultural Citizenship, Minority Rights, and Self-Government
      (pp. 319-348)

      WHEN MARSHALL (1965) analyzed the evolution of citizenship in England, he identified three components that he called civil, political, and social citizenship and that were associated with the institutions of the judicial system, parliamentary democracy, and the welfare state. Had he forgotten about cultural citizenship? Is there a need for supplementing the traditional conception of liberal citizenship with cultural minority rights? A growing number of liberal intellectuals seem to say no. After two decades when multiculturalism was very much the zeitgeist, a certain fatigue and impatience have set in. In the United States, affirmative action and bilingual education programs have...

    • CHAPTER TWELVE Integration Policy and Integration Research in Europe: A Review and Critique
      (pp. 349-400)

      DESPITE THE QUANTITY of research on postwar immigration in Europe, there are in fact no fully satisfactory examples of cross-national comparative research on the integration of immigrants, able to span the different experiences and national conceptualizations of such complex processes of social change in European countries. Why is this? How can research on this question be developed? Drawing on my research and experience in four western European countries—Belgium, France, Britain, and the Netherlands—with additional reference to Austria, Germany, and Scandinavia, I review current European integration research. My aim is not simply to synthesize studies of integration strategies in...

  11. About the Authors
    (pp. 401-404)
  12. Index
    (pp. 405-410)
    (pp. 411-411)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 412-412)