Beetles of Eastern North America

Beetles of Eastern North America

Arthur V. Evans
Copyright Date: 2014
Pages: 560
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt6wpzmc
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    Beetles of Eastern North America
    Book Description:

    Beetles of Eastern North Americais a landmark book--the most comprehensive full-color guide to the remarkably diverse and beautiful beetles of the United States and Canada east of the Mississippi River. It is the first color-illustrated guide to cover 1,406 species in all 115 families that occur in the region--and the first new in-depth guide to the region in more than forty years. Lavishly illustrated with over 1,500 stunning color images by some of the best insect photographers in North America, the book features an engaging and authoritative text by noted beetle expert Arthur Evans.

    Extensive introductory sections provide essential information on beetle anatomy, reproduction, development, natural history, behavior, and conservation. Also included are tips on where and when to find beetles; how to photograph, collect, and rear beetles; and how to contribute to research. Each family and species account presents concise and easy-to-understand information on identification, natural history, collecting, and geographic range. Organized by family, the book also includes an illustrated key to the most common beetle families, with 31 drawings that aid identification, and features current information on distribution, biology, and taxonomy not found in other guides.

    An unmatched guide to the rich variety of eastern North American beetles, this is an essential book for amateur naturalists, nature photographers, insect enthusiasts, students, and professional entomologists and other biologists.

    Provides the only comprehensive, authoritative, and accessible full-color treatment of the region's beetlesCovers 1,406 species in all 115 families east of the Mississippi RiverFeatures more than 1,500 stunning color images from top photographersPresents concise information on identification, natural history, collecting, and geographic range for each species and familyIncludes an illustrated key to the most common beetle families

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5182-9
    Subjects: Zoology, Biological Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. PREFACE
    (pp. 7-7)
  4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. 8-8)
  5. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
    (pp. 9-10)
  6. INTRODUCTION TO BEETLES
    (pp. 11-52)

    Although colors and patterns are sometimes useful, beetles are classified and more reliably identified on the basis of their anatomical features. Therefore, a basic understanding of beetle anatomy (Fig. 1) is essential for better understanding of not only their evolutionary relationships, but also the terminology used in the family diagnoses and species accounts that appear in this book.

    Adult beetles are covered and protected by a highly modifiedexoskeletonthat functions as both skeleton and skin. Internally, the exoskeleton serves as a foundation for powerful muscles and organ systems, while externally providing a platform for important sensory structures connecting them...

  7. ILLUSTRATED KEY TO THE COMMON BEETLE FAMILIES OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA
    (pp. 53-57)
  8. Beetles of Eastern North America
    • RETICULATED BEETLES, FAMILY CUPEDIDAE (CUE-PEH-DIH-DEE)
      (pp. 60-60)

      Adult cupedids are slender, parallelsided, strongly flattened, roughly sculpted, and clothed in broad, scalelike setae. Head and pronotum narrower than elytra. Antennae thick, filiform with 11 antennomeres. Prothorax distinctly margined or keeled on sides, underside with grooves to receive legs. Elytra broader than prothorax, strongly ridged with square punctures between. Tarsal formula 5-5-5; claws simple. Abdomen with five overlapping ventrites.

      net-winged beetles (Lycidae) – head not visible from above (p.229)

      hispine leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) – antennae short, clavate; head narrower than pronotum (p.429)

      Adult cupedids are found in late spring and summer by chopping into old decaying logs and...

    • TELEPHONE-POLE BEETLES, FAMILY MICROMALTHIDAE (MY-KRO-MAL-THIH-DEE)
      (pp. 61-61)

      Adult micromalthids are elongate, somewhat flattened, with large head and bulging compound eyes broader than pronotum, mouthparts directed forward (prognathous), antennae moniliform, with 11 short, bead-shaped antennomeres. Pronotum narrower than head, widest in front. Elytra straight-sided, short, leaving five abdominal ventrites exposed. Legs slender, with tarsal formula 5-5-5, and claws simple. Abdomen with six ventrites, ventrites 3–5 of male each with large central cavity filled with setae.

      rove beetles (Staphylinidae) – elytra usually shorter; antennae not moniliform (p.124)

      small soldier beetles (Cantharidae) – antennae filiform (p.238)

      checkered beetles (Cleridae) – antennae never moniliform (p.263)

      soft-winged flower beetles (Melyridae) –...

    • MINUTE BOG BEETLES, FAMILY SPHAERIUSIDAE (SFER-EE-OO-SIH-DEE)
      (pp. 62-62)

      Adult sphaeriusids are broadly oval, and shiny; underside mostly flat. Head large with mouthparts directed forward, partly visible from underneath pronotum, eyes prominent, antennae with 11 antennomeres and a cone-shaped club, last antennomere with long bristles. Prothorax short, with pronotum narrowed in front and widest at elytra, underside with mesosternum small and fused with metasternum to form a large plate. Elytra very convex and cover abdomen. Abdomen with three ventrites, first and last wide and long, middle narrow. Middle legs widely separated at base, hind legs nearly touching at base with coxal plates large and covering femora and first abdominal...

    • GROUND, TIGER, AND WRINKLED BARK BEETLES, FAMILY CARABIDAE (KUH-RAB-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 63-94)

      Carabids are elongate, flattened or almost cylindrical, generally hairless and somewhat tapered at both ends. Usually uniformly shiny and dark, sometimes brownish or pale, metallic, or bi- or tricolored, often with brightly marked patterns of yellow or orange on the elytra; tiger beetles often with bold white or yellow, enamel-like markings on otherwise metallic elytra. Mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Antennae threadlike (filiform) or beadlike (moniliform) with 11 antennomeres. Pronotum usually narrower than elytra, with sides sharply margined (less so in tiger beetles). Scutellum visible except in round sand beetles (Omophron). Elytra always completely covering the abdomen and fused in flightless...

    • WHIRLIGIG BEETLES, FAMILY GYRINIDAE (JYE-RIN-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 94-95)

      Adult gyrinids are oval, flattened, and uniformly shiny or dull black, or white underneath (Spanglerogyrus). Combined margins of the head, thorax, and abdomen form a continuous outline. Mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Antennae short, clubbed, with 8–11 antennomeres. Compound eyes distinctly divided. Scutellum visible (Gyrinus, Spanglerogyrus) or not (Dineutus, Gyretes). Elytra smooth (margins lined with pubescence inGyretes) and do not completely cover the abdomen. Front legs raptorial, adapted for grasping prey. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, middle and hind legs flattened and paddlelike. Abdomen has six ventrites.

      The completely divided eyes, paddlelike legs, and habits of whirligigs are distinctive.

      Rapidly sweeping...

    • CRAWLING WATER BEETLES, FAMILY HALIPLIDAE (HA-LIP-LIH-DEE)
      (pp. 96-97)

      Adult haliplids are yellowish or brownish yellow with black spots and oval bodies broadly tapered at each end. Mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres, 1–2 short and broad, 3–11 longer and filiform. Prothorax widest at base and keeled below, with margins rounded (Haliplus, Peltodytes), or parallel-sided (Brychius); pronotum unmarked or with two distinct black spots at base (Peltodytes). Scutellum not visible. Elytra cover abdomen completely; each elytron with 10 or more rows of large, dark punctures. Tarsal formula 5-5-5. Abdomen mostly concealed by large, flattened coxal plates of hind legs, one or more ventrites exposed.

      burrowing...

    • BURROWING WATER BEETLES, FAMILY NOTERIDAE (NO-TAIR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 97-98)

      Adult noterids are small, smooth, shiny, streamlined, broadly to elongate oval, flat underneath and convex to strongly convex above, reddish brown to black. Serrate antennae with 11 antennomeres. Pronotum widest at base. Scutellum not visible. Front tibiae usually with a strong hook or curved spine. Tarsal formula 5-5-5. Hind tarsi usually with 2 equally curved claws. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      crawling water beetles (Haliplidae) – head small and hind coxae expanded, covering most of abdomen (p.96)

      predaceous diving beetles (Dytiscidae) – larger, scutellum usually visible (p.99)

      water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae) – antennae clubbed; mouthparts (maxillary palps) long; underside flat, sometimes...

    • PREDACEOUS DIVING BEETLES, FAMILY DYTISCIDAE (DYE-TISS-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 99-104)

      Adult dytiscids are oval, streamlined, and usually reddish brown to black or pale, with or without distinct markings. Mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Antennae with 11 moniliform antennomeres. Pronotum widest at base. Scutellum visible or not. Elytra usually smooth and polished, sometimes pitted, sparsely hairy, or grooved, and always completely covering abdomen. Tarsal formula is 5-5-5, sometimes appearing 4-4-4. Claws equal or unequal in size, never toothed. Abdomen with six ventrites.

      whirligig beetles (Gyrinidae) – eyes divided; antennae clubbed (p.94)

      crawling water beetles (Haliplidae) – head small and hind coxae expanded, covering most of abdomen (p.96)

      burrowing water beetles (Noteridae) –...

    • WATER SCAVENGER BEETLES, FAMILY HYDROPHILIDAE (HI-DRO-FIL-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 105-110)

      Adult hydrophilids are mostly broadly oval, distinctly convex on top and flattened underneath. Dorsal surface black, black with brownish markings, or rarely greenish or with cream markings. Mouthparts are directed downward (hypognathous). Antennae with 6–10 antennomeres, last three forming a variable club usually nested within a cup-shaped antennomere. Maxillary palps of aquatic species often exceed length of antennae, but usually equal in length or shorter in terrestrial species. Pronotum broader than head and usually wider than long. Scutellum visible. Elytra widest at middle and broader at base than pronotum, surface smooth or rough and sometime covered with rows of...

    • CLOWN BEETLES, FAMILY HISTERIDAE (HISS-TAIR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 110-114)

      Most adult histerids are small, oval, convex or flat, shiny black, sometimes with distinct red markings, or reddish, metallic blue, or green. Head with prominent and relatively large mandibles. Geniculate (elbowed) antennae with 11 antennomeres, elbowed, 9–11 fused to form a compact club often clothed in patches of sensory hairs. Scutellum usually visible. Elytra usually distinctly grooved and/or punctured, short, appearing cut off to expose last two abdominal tergites. Coxae widely separated, tarsal formula 5-5-5 or 5-5-4, with claws usually equal in size and simple. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      some water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae) – elytra completely covering abdomen;...

    • MINUTE MOSS BEETLES, FAMILY HYDRAENIDAE (HI-DREEN-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 114-115)

      Adult hydraenids are black to yellowish brown, sometimes with metallic reflections. Head with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous), maxillary palps long, and eyes prominent. Antennae with nine antennomeres, last five forming club clothed in velvety pubescence. Thorax broader than head. Scutellum small and visible. Elytra completely conceal abdomen, surface with rows of punctures. Legs short and stout, or long and slender; tarsal formula 5-5-5 with first three tarsomeres short, last tarsomere long, sometimes appearing 4-4-4 or 3-3-3. Abdomen with seven ventrites, sometimes withdrawn into six.

      water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae) – usually larger; abdomen with five ventrites (p.105)

      riffle beetles (Elmidae) –...

    • FEATHERWING BEETLES, FAMILY PTILIIDAE (TIH-LEE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 115-116)

      Adult ptiliids are minute, moderately to strongly convex, yellow, brown, reddish brown, or blackish, and somewhat pubescent. Clubbed antennae with 8–11 antennomeres, 1–2 enlarged, last two or three form loose club, each with a whorl of setae. Elytra long, completely covering abdomen, or short and exposing three to five abdominal tergites. Abdomen with six ventrites. Tarsal formula 3-3-3, tarsomere 1 short, second very small, 3 long and slender; claws equal or nearly equal in length and simple.

      limulodine rove beetles (Staphylinidae) – abdomen tapered at tip (p.129)

      minute beetles (Clambidae) – capable of partly rolling up (p.179)

      minute...

    • PRIMITIVE CARRION BEETLES, FAMILY AGYRTIDAE (UH-JER-TIH-DEE)
      (pp. 117-117)

      Adult agyrtids are somewhat oval and flattened, yellowish to dark reddish brown, and the dorsum without any setae. Mouthparts with prominent mandibles directed forward (prognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres, clavate, club with fine antennomeres clothed in velvety setae, 8 never smaller than 7 or 9. Surface of pronotum smooth, without pits and margins broadly flattened. Each elytron with nine rows of large, distinct, and deep punctures, and apex broadly rounded with short, sharp tooth at suture; abdomen completely covered. Tarsal formula 5-5-5. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      carrion beetles (Silphidae) – elytra with punctures and/or ribs, never with distinct grooves (p.120)...

    • ROUND FUNGUS BEETLES, FAMILY LEIODIDAE (LIE-OH-DIH-DEE)
      (pp. 118-120)

      Most adult leoidids are best distinguished from other small, oval beetles by the noticeably smaller eighth antennomere. Broadly oval to somewhat elongate, slightly flattened to very convex. Head partly visible from above, with distinctly clubbed antennae, club usually with five antennomeres and interrupted (not inColon) by reduced antennomere 8. Prothorax with sides strongly keeled. Prothorax and elytra often granular or finely wrinkled across surface. Elytra long, covering abdomen (exceptPlatypsyllus). Legs with usually front tarsi expanded (male) or narrow (female), tarsal formula usually 5-5-5, sometimes 3-3-3; also 5-5-4 (maleAgathidium, Anistoma, Stetholiodes), 5-4-4 (Cainosternum), or 4-4-4 (femaleAgathidium, Anistoma,...

    • BURYING AND CARRION BEETLES, FAMILY SILPHIDAE (SIL-FIH-DEE)
      (pp. 120-123)

      Adult silphids are somewhat to strongly flattened and mostly black, sometimes with yellow, orange, or reddish markings on the pronotum and elytra. Head and mouthparts are directed forward (prognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres and gradually (clavate) or abruptly clubbed (capitate), clubs covered with velvety setae. Pronotum broader than head with edges sharply margined. Scutellum visible. Elytral surface never grooved, either smooth (Nicrophorus), or rough, sometimes with three longitudinal ridges or branched ribs (Silphinae). Apices of elytra either rounded, drawn out into sharp points, or appear as though they have been squarely cut off (truncate) and exposing one or more abdominal...

    • ROVE BEETLES, FAMILY STAPHYLINIDAE (STAFF-EH-LIN-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 124-142)

      Adult staphylinids are incredibly diverse in form and habit. The majority of species are distinguished from other families of beetles by their long, slender, nearly parallel-sided, and flexible abdomens, threadlike (filiform) or gradually clubbed (clavate) antennae, and short elytra exposing five to six abdominal tergites.BaeoceraandScaphidiumare small, broadly oval, compact, and leggy with elytra exposing one or two abdominal tergites. Other very small species are elongate-oval with distinctly clubbed antennae, more compact and rigid bodies, with short elytra generally exposing three to five abdominal tergites (Pselaphinae), or covering the abdomen entirely (Scydmaeninae). Tarsal formula usually 5-5-5, 3-3-3...

    • STAG BEETLES, FAMILY LUCANIDAE (LOO-KAN-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 142-144)

      Adults lucanids are robust, oval (Nicagus) or elongate, somewhat flattened to nearly cylindrical (Ceruchus), usually dull, shiny black or reddish brown, sometimes with a hint of a greenish sheen (Platycerus). Head and mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Mandibles of both males and females prominent and visible from above (exceptNicagus), usually more developed in males. Lamellate antennae with 10 antennomeres, straight with last three antennomeres forming club (Ceruchus, Nicagus), or elbowed (geniculate) at first antennomere and with club of three or four antennomeres (Lucanus, Dorcus, Platycerus); club antennomeres thick, velvety (except inCeruchus) and do not form a compact club (loose...

    • BESS BEETLES, FAMILY PASSALIDAE (PAH-SAL-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 145-145)

      Adult passalids are large, shiny black, with horned heads in both sexes, and deeply grooved elytra are distinctive in the region. Head with conspicuous mandibles directed forward (prognathous). Lamellate antennae with 10 thick antennomeres curved, 8–10 not forming a compact club. Pronotum shallowly grooved down middle, loosely attached to rest of body. Straight-sided elytra deeply grooved and completely cover abdomen. Legs stout with tarsal formula 5-5-5, and claws simple and equal. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      stag beetles (Lucanidae) – large species with geniculate antennae; head without horn (p.142)

      Bess beetles are found year-round but reach their peak of activity...

    • ENIGMATIC SCARAB BEETLES, FAMILY GLARESIDAE (GLAH-REES-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 146-146)

      Adult glaresids are small, oblong-oval, and light brown, with moderately dense short setae. Head without horns or bumps, mandibles barely projecting beyond clypeus; clubbed antennae with 10 antennomeres, 8–10 forming a compact, velvety club; eyes divided by narrow strip of cuticle (canthus). Scutellum visible. Elytra convex, long and fully concealing abdomen, each with 10 distinct ridges. Wings developed. Abdomen with five ventrites. Legs with meso- and metatibiae with two apical spurs, metafemora and metatibia enlarged, obscuring abdomen, tarsal formula 5-5-5, claws equal and simple.

      hide beetles (Trogidae) – larger; eyes not divided by canthus (p.147)

      earth-boring scarab beetles (Geotrupidae)...

    • HIDE BEETLES, FAMILY TROGIDAE (TRO-GIH-DEE)
      (pp. 147-149)

      Adult trogids are oval or somewhat parallel-sided, convex, rough, reddish brown, browngray, or black, often encrusted with dirt, or a gray or brown crust that forms a subtle pattern; underside flat. Head with mandibles inconspicuous and directed downward (hypognathous), eyes not divided by strip of cuticle (canthus). Lamellate antennae with 10 antennomeres, 8–10 forming a compact, velvety club. Pronotum squarish or rectangular with sharp side margins. Scutellum visible, arrowhead-shaped (Omorgus) or oval (Trox). Elytra strongly ridged or covered with rows of small raised bumps; completely conceal abdomen. Legs with tarsal formula 5-5-5, with all claws equal and simple, not...

    • EARTH-BORING SCARAB BEETLES, FAMILY GEOTRUPIDAE (JEE-OH-TROOP-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 149-152)

      Adult geotrupids are oval or round, strongly convex or hemispherical, yellowish or reddish brown, brown, black, shiny black with metallic reflections, or metallic blue, green, or purple. Head with conspicuous mandibles prognathous, often with distinct horn, tubercle, or ridge. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, 9–11 forming a compact club, 9 large, cup-shaped, with club equal in length to all previous articles combined (Bolbocerosoma, Bradycinetulus, Eucanthus, Odonteus), or small, about half as long (Geotrupes, Mycotrupes, Peltotrupes). Pronotum broad, convex, wider or subequal to elytra, with or without tubercles, ridges, horns, grooves, and excavations. Scutellum visible. Elytra convex, smooth, or distinctly striate,...

    • SAND-LOVING SCARAB BEETLES, FAMILY OCHODAEIDAE (O-KO-DEE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 152-153)

      Adult ochodaeids are round, somewhat convex, reddish brown, and covered with short erect hairs. Head with eyes bulging and distinct mandibles directed forward (prognathous); clypeus with (Neochodaeus) or without (Xenochodaeus) central tubercle. Lamellate antennae with 10 antennomeres, 8–10 forming compact, velvety club, 8 somewhat cup-shaped and surrounding 9 and 10. Scutellum visible and rounded. Elytra with rows of punctures along entire length; spaces between rows with smaller punctures, each with a small bump in front armed with a stiff hair. Meso- and metatibial spurs finely notched or pectinate. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, claws simple, equal. Abdomen with six ventrites, penultimate...

    • SCAVENGER AND PILL SCARAB BEETLES, FAMILY HYBOSORIDAE (HI-BO-SOR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 153-154)

      Adult hybosorids are shiny light brown, black, greenish black, or purplish, sometimes with a metallic luster, oval and convex (Hybosorus);CeratocanthusandGermarosteshave retractile appendages and can roll up into a compact ball. Head with distinct mandibles directed forward (prognathous). Lamellate antennae with 9–10 antennomeres, last three forming compact, velvety club, last two surrounded by somewhat cup-shaped antennomere. Scutellum visible. Elytra smooth or with rows of linear punctures, completely covering abdomen. Legs with meso- and metatibial spurs simple; tarsal formula 5-5-5, claws simple, equal. Abdomen with six ventrites.

      Earth-boring scarab beetles (Geotrupidae) – antennae with 11 antennomeres (p.149)...

    • BUMBLE BEE SCARABS, FAMILY GLAPHYRIDAE (GLA-FEER-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 155-155)

      Adult glaphyrids are elongate with long yellowish-orange or pale yellowish setae. Head with mouthparts directed downward. Lamellate antennae with 10 antennomeres, 8–10 forming compact, velvety club. Pronotum convex, somewhat rectangular. Scutellum visible and triangular. Elytra short, smooth, somewhat transparent, and diverging along suture (L. vulpina) or not (L. lupina); last abdominal tergite (pygidium) is completely exposed. Tarsi 5-5-5, claws equal, toothed. Abdomen with six ventrites.

      scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae) – elytra long and never divergent, pygidium not completely exposed above (p.156)

      Bumble bee scarabs are collected on the wing or while resting on the ground or on vegetation in riparian...

    • SCARAB BEETLES, FAMILY SCARABAEIDAE (SCARE-EH-BEE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 156-177)

      Adult scarabs are oval-oblong, somewhat flattened or cylindrical, and mostly black, brown, yellowish brown, occasionally green, metallic, or scaled with blotched or striped patterns. Head with mouthparts inconspicuous, mandibles visible or not, and weakly directed downward (hypognathous), sometimes with a small tubercle or distinctive horn. Lamellate antennae with 8–10 antennomeres, last 3–7 flat antennomeres (lamellae) can spread out fanlike or form a compact, usually bare or sometimes velvety (dung scarabs) club. Pronotum variable, with or without horns, tubercles, and excavations; sides always distinctly margined. Scutellum hidden (Canthon, Deltochilum, Melanocanthon, Pseudocanthon, Copris, Ateuchus, Dichotomius, Euoniticellus, Digitonthophagus, Onthophagus, Phanaeus) or...

    • PLATE-THIGH BEETLES, FAMILY EUCINETIDAE (YOU-SIH-NET-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 178-178)

      Adult eucinetids are elongate-oblong, brownish yellow to black, sometimes with tips of elytra reddish. Head small, partially visible from above (Tohlezkus) or not, with mouthparts strongly directed downward and backward and resting on bases of forelegs. Serrate antennae with 11 antennomeres gradually expanding toward tips. Prothorax short, broad, with coxal cavities open, not completely surrounded by cuticle, open behind. Elytra completely cover abdomen with surface punctate, sometimes with punctures arranged in fine transverse lines rather than rows (Eucinetus), folded under portion of side margin (epipleuron) is short (Eucinetus, Nycteus) or runs along entire length of elytron (Tohlezkus). Tarsi 5-5-5, middle...

    • MINUTE BEETLES, FAMILY CLAMBIDAE (CLAM-BIH-DEE)
      (pp. 179-179)

      Adult clambids are very small, oval, convex, yellowish brown to black, and capable of partially rolling up into a ball; surface of pronotum and elytra clothed in pubescence. Head with eyes partially or completely divided. Abruptly clubbed (capitate) antennae with 10 antennomeres attached closely to eyes, 9–10 forming clubs. Pronotum short, broader than head, sides spread out and flattened (explanate), and slightly overlapping elytra. Elytra at widest point slightly wider than prothorax, completely covering abdomen, flight wings fringed with setae. Legs with hind coxal plates expanded, partially covering hind legs, femora swollen, tibiae and tarsi slender, tibia without apical...

    • MARSH BEETLES, FAMILY SCIRTIDAE (SIR-TIH-DEE)
      (pp. 180-183)

      Adult scirtids are elongate-oval to nearly circular, somewhat convex, black, brown, yellowish brown to pale yellow, sometimes with red or orange markings. Head large with bulging eyes on sides and usually concealed by pronotum with mouthparts directed downward and backward. Antennae filiform or subserrate with 11 antennomeres. Pronotum always very short, sides flattened and spread out. Scutellum triangular. Elytra punctate, covering abdomen, tips rounded. Legs with hind femora sometimes enlarged (Ora, Scirtes), tarsal formula 5-5-5 with fourth tarsomere bilobed and claws simple. Abdomen with five ventrites, first two sometimes fused togther.

      plate-thigh beetles (Eucinetidae) – hind coxae expanded (p.178)

      ptilodactylid...

    • CICADA PARASITE BEETLES, FAMILY RHIPICERIDAE (RIP-IH-SAIR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 183-184)

      Adult rhipicerids are long, convex, coarsely and deeply punctured, reddish brown to black beetles. Head with mouthparts directed somewhat downward (hypognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres distinctly fan-shaped (flabellate) in males, more or less serrate in females. Pronotum narrowed behind head, becoming wider behind, but narrower than base of elytra. Scutellum visible. Elytra long, completely concealing abdomen, surface vaguely ribbed and coarsely pitted. Legs with tarsal formula 5-5-5, each tarsomere distinctly heart-shaped and padded, and claws equal and simple. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      The fan-shaped antennae of the male, elongate body form, and lobed and padded tarsi are distinctive.

      Look out...

    • METALLIC WOOD-BORING OR JEWEL BEETLES, FAMILY BUPRESTIDAE (BOO-PRESS-TIH-DEE)
      (pp. 184-194)

      Adult buprestids are elongate, broadly flattened or narrowly cylindrical, and have rigid bodies; usually metallic, or black with yellow markings above, and usually iridescent underneath. Head tucked inside slightly broader prothorax with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous). Antennae serrate with 11 antennomeres. Scutellum visible or not. Elytra smooth, ribbed, or sculptured and usually almost completely conceal abdomen. Legs with tarsal formula 5-5-5, claws equal in size and simple, lobed, or notched. Abdomen with five ventrites, first two fused together.

      false click beetles (Eucnemidae) – never metallic; body distinctly flexible between prothorax and elytra (p.210)

      click beetles (Elateridae) – body distinctly flexible...

    • PILL OR MOSS BEETLES, FAMILY BYRRHIDAE (BEER-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 195-196)

      Adult byrrhids are broadly oval, convex above and below, compact, upper surface often with scales, setae, or bristles. Head often concealed from above, with mouthparts directed downward. Gradually (clavate) or abruptly (capitate) clubbed, or somewhat threadlike (subfiliform) antennae with 11 antennomeres. Elytra cover abdomen. Underside usually with depressions to receive legs. Tarsi 4-4-4, 5-5-5, tarsomeres usually increasingly larger from 1 to 3, 4 small, 5 long, simple or with pads underneath; claws simple. Abdomen with five ventrites, first two fused.

      round fungus beetles (Leiodidae) – dorsal surface without setae or scales (p.118)

      wounded-tree beetles (Nosodendridae) – flattened fore legs (p.244)...

    • RIFFLE BEETLES, FAMILY ELMIDAE (EL-MIH-DEE)
      (pp. 196-198)

      Adults elmids are elongate or oval, with long legs and large claws and underside clothed in thick silvery gray pile; some species have faint or distinct yellowish or reddish markings on elytra. Head with mouthparts directed downward, often hidden from above. Antennae long, filiform or clavate, with 8–11 antennomeres. Prothorax broader than head, broadly pointed in front, often notched or slightly serrate toward sides, with ridges on top. Scutellum small, suboval, triangular, or pentagonal. Elytra pitted, rough, sometimes ribbed, and completely conceal abdomen. Legs generally long and not modified for swimming; tarsal formula 5-5-5, first tarsomere nearly subequal to...

    • LONG-TOED WATER BEETLES, FAMILY DRYOPIDAE (DRY-OH-PIH-DEE)
      (pp. 198-199)

      Adult dryopids are elongate, oval, dull dark gray, brown, or nearly black, and densely clothed in coarse or fine setae; upper surfaces often encrusted with minerals. Head hypognathous and distinctly retracted into prothorax. Antennae short with 11 antennomeres, 2 greatly expanded into an earlike process that nearly covers rest of antenna (Helichus) or not (Pelonomus), 4–11 expanded sideways to form a loose club. Pronotum wider than head, without broad projection in front. Elytra completely conceal abdomen. Legs long, slender, not modified for swimming, tarsal formula 5-5-5, last tarsomere long with unusually long and simple claws. Abdomen with five ventrites....

    • TRAVERTINE BEETLES, FAMILY LUTROCHIDAE (LU-TROCK-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 200-200)

      Adult lutrochids are oval and strongly convex, yellowish, and densely pubescent and punctate. Head broad, with mouthparts directed downward. Antennae short, with 11 antennomeres, 1–2 broad, conspicuously setose, and subequal to combined length of remaining antennomeres. Pronotum wider than head, but narrower than base of elytra. Elytra densely punctate and setose, and completely cover abdomen. Legs with femora grooved to receive tibiae, tarsal formula 5-5-5, last tarsomere long, and claws simple. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      minute moss beetles (Hydraenidae) – maxillary palps elongate (p.114)

      riffle beetles (Elmidae) – antennae long, with most antennomeres longer than wide (p.196)

      minute marsh-loving...

    • MINUTE MARSH-LOVING BEETLES, FAMILY LIMNICHIDAE (LIM-NICK-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 201-201)

      Adult limnichids are oval, convex, uniformly brownish to blackish, or colorful and clothed in fine grayish pubescence or scalelike setae. Head small, hypognathous, retracted deep inside prothorax, with eyes visible from above (Limnichites) or not (Eulimnichus). Antennae short and clavate, with 11 antennomeres, most antennomeres broad, 2 large, 3–8 smaller and nearly moniliform, 9–11 gradually larger and forming loose club (clavate). Pronotum convex with sides sharply margined and converging toward head. Elytra punctate and completely covers abdomen, setae uniform (Eulimnichus,Limnichites), or mixed with reclining and erect setae (Limnichoderus). Legs slender, tarsal formula 5-5-5. Abdomen with five ventrites....

    • VARIEGATED MUD-LOVING BEETLES, FAMILY HETEROCERIDAE (HET-ERO-SAIR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 202-203)

      Adult heterocerids are long, robust, somewhat flattened, usually dark (Tropicus pusillusis pale), covered with dense silky pubescence, and often with contrasting dark and light zigzag markings on elytra. Head prognathous with prominent, flattened mandibles, especially males. Antennae short, usually with 11 antennomeres (9 inTropicus), 5–11 form an oblong and serrate club. Pronotum broader than head and narrower or equal to base of elytra. Scutellum visible. Elytra completely cover abdomen, with (Heterocerus) or without (Tropicus) three irregular bands. Legs, especially front pair, with rakelike rows of spines, tarsal formula 4-4-4, claws large, slender, and simple. Abdomen with five...

    • WATER PENNY BEETLES, FAMILY PSEPHENIDAE (SEH-FEN-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 203-204)

      Adult psephenids are oval, slightly flattened, brownish to blackish. Head partly retracted inside prothorax, with mouthparts directed somewhat downward and mandibles concealed. Antennae long with 11 moniliform, serrate, or pectinate antennomeres. Scutellum visible. Elytra soft and leathery, completely covering abdomen. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, with claws equal in size and simple, toothed, or notched at tip. Abdomen with five to seven ventrites.

      marsh beetles (Scirtidae) – tarsi with fourth tarsomere deeply lobed (p.180)

      ptilodactylid beetles (Ptilodactylidae) – larger, elongate; antennae inserted below eyes (p.204)

      AdultPsephenusare found during the day in riffles on exposed rock surfaces as they search for...

    • PTILODACTYLID BEETLES, FAMILY PTILODACTYLIDAE (TIE-LO-DACK-TIL-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 204-205)

      Adult ptilodactylids are elongateoblong, nearly parallel-sided, uniformly yellowish brown to brown or partly blackish (Anchytarsus,Ptilodactyla) or bicolored (Paralichus), and moderately clothed in dense setae. Head distinctly hypognathous, mostly concealed from above, with bulging eyes. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, pectinate (malePtilodactyla), filiform (femalePtilodactyla, allAnchytarsus), or serrate (Paralichus). Pronotum broad at base with margin finely notched, narrowed and rounded toward head, with sides rounded (Anchytarsus), partially (Ptilodactyla), to completely (Paralichus) margined. Scutellum somewhat triangular, basal margin simple or finely notched. Elytra punctostriate or not, never ribbed, rounded apically, and completely covering abdomen. Legs slender, tarsal formula 5-5-5, fourth...

    • CHELONARIID BEETLES, CHELONARIIDAE (KEY-LO-NAR-EE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 206-206)

      Chelonariids are oval, compact, shiny, hard-bodied, red-brown to dark brown, and seedlike in appearance, with the basal margin of the pronotum finely notched, or crenulate. Head concealed within pronotum. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, 1–4 small, 2–3 enlarged, 5–10 serrate, 11 broad; basal antennomeres received in grooves underneath prothorax. Pronotum with sharp and continuous lateral and anterior margins, with anterior margin extending over head, and posterior margin finely notched (crenulate). Scutellum small, crenulate in front. Elytra tightly cover abdomen, with surface punctate. Legs capable of tightly retracting against body in thoracic depressions; front tibiae broad, flat, tarsal formula...

    • CALLIRHIPID BEETLES, FAMILY CALLIRHIPIDAE (CAL-LIH-RIP-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 207-207)

      Adult callirhipids are elongate, somewhat convex, and uniformly blackish or dark reddish brown. Head with thickened ridge between eyes and distinct mandibles directed downward (hypognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres, strongly serrate (female) or pectinate (male), and attached to a prominence on head between large eyes. Prothorax about one-third wider than long, narrower in front, posterior margin sinuate, not as wide as elytra; surface with a distinct or vague pit and depression on either side of midde. Scutellum round. Elytra long, straight-sided, extending beyond outline of abdomen; each elytron rounded at tip, surface vaguely ridged, spaces between ridges coarsely and irregularly...

    • ARTEMATOPODID BEETLES, FAMILY ARTEMATOPODIDAE (AR-TEH-MAH-TO-POD-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 208-208)

      Adult artematopodids are elongate, strongly convex, clothed in erect setae, and somewhat resemble click beetles (Elateridae). Head lacks distinct ridge along front margin. Antennomeres 2–4 very short and combined not longer than 5 (Macropogon), or 2–3 short and combined equal to 4 (Eurypogon). Prothorax with backward directed process and corresponding mesothoracic groove weakly developed. Elytra each tipped with a tonguelike process underneath. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, two or more tarsomeres lobed beneath, claws simple. Abdomen with 4–5 connate, or fused ventrites.

      ptilodactylid beetles (Ptilodactylidae) – males with pectinate antennae (p.204)

      rare click beetles (Cerophytidae) – hind trochanters very...

    • RARE CLICK BEETLES, FAMILY CEROPHYTIDAE (SAIR-O-FYE-TIH-DEE)
      (pp. 209-209)

      Adult cerophytids are elongate, somewhat convex, and moderately clothed in dark setae. Head with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous), bulging between eyes, deeply set inside prothorax and partly visible from above. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, strongly serrate (female) or pectinate (male), bases narrowly separated on bulge between eyes. Prothorax convex and loosely connected to body. Scutellum small and triangular. Elytra long, straight-sided with rows of deep and rectangular punctures; abdomen completely covered. Legs do not retract into grooves; hind trochanters very long, almost as long as femora; tarsal formula 5-5-5, tarsomeres 2–4 with pads underneath, 3 shallowly and 4 deeply...

    • FALSE CLICK BEETLES, FAMILY EUCNEMIDAE (YUKE-NEM-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 210-211)

      Adult eucnemids are long, convex, sometimes nearly cylindrical, brownish to blackish beetles. Head partially retracted inside prothorax, with mouthparts directed strongly downward (hypognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres and moniliform, filiform, or with last seven or eight antennomeres serrate or pectinate. Prothorax broader than head and elytra. Scutellum visible, oval to broadly oval, or triangular. Elytra parallel-sided, rows of punctures with smooth spaces between, rounded at tips, and completely cover the abdomen. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, tarsomere 4 sometimes lobed, with claws equal, simple, toothed, or comblike. Abdomen with five fused ventrites.

      metallic wood-boring or jewel beetles (Buprestidae) – most shiny or...

    • THROSCID BEETLES, FAMILY THROSCIDAE (THROSS-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 211-212)

      Adult throscids are oblong to somewhat elongate, moderately convex, reddish brown to black, and covered with fine, pale pubecscence. Head with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous), deeply inserted in prothorax, with eyes coarsely faceted and deeply notched to nearly divided, labrum distinct. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, narrowly expanded to loosely clubbed, or clavate, antennae received by grooves on underside of prothorax. Prothorax narrowed toward head, pronotum tightly fitted against elytra, posterior angles directed backward. Scutellum small, triangular. Elytra shallowly grooved and punctured, rounded at tips, and completely covering abdomen. Underside of metathorax smooth on sides (Trixagus), or with deep oblique grooves...

    • CLICK BEETLES, FAMILY ELATERIDAE (EL-UH-TARE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 213-229)

      Adult elaterids are long, somewhat flattened, and mostly brownish or black, although many are quite colorful, sometimes with distinct markings, or with a metallic upper surface (Chalcolepidius, Nitidolimonius); often clothed in setae or scales; prothorax is large and loosely hinged to rest of body. Head with mandibles exposed or not, clypeus absent, and labrum distinct. Antennae with 11 antennomeres serrate to pectinate and attached near eyes. Prothorax flattened and ridged on sides with sharp, backward-pointing posterior angles, occasionally with grooves or depression underneath to accommodate antennae and legs; sometimes with pair of light organs on pronotum (Deilelater). Scutellum visible. Elytra...

    • NET-WINGED BEETLES, FAMILY LYCIDAE (LIE-SIH-DEE)
      (pp. 229-233)

      Adult lycids are soft-bodied and flattened, with coarsely sculptured and loose-fitting elytra black and often marked with red or orange markings. Head with sometimes beaklike (Lyconotus) mouthparts directed downward and partially covered by pronotum. Antennae with 11 flattened antennomeres, weakly to strongly serrate or pectinate (Caenia). Pronotum flattened, bell-shaped, margins distinct, concealing head from above. Elytra nearly straight-sided or expanded past the middle and extend beyond outline of abdomen; surface with network of long ridges connected by less distinct cross-ridges. Legs with basal segments (coxae) widely separated; tarsal formula 5-5-5, tarsomeres 1–4 with dense pubescence underneath, claws simple and...

    • GLOWWORMS, FAMILY PHENGODIDAE (FEN-GO-DIH-DEE)
      (pp. 233-234)

      MalePhengodesare elongate, flattened, pale orangish or orangish brown, with conspicuous sickle-shaped mandibles, plumose antennae, and short elytra. Head distinct, with mouthparts directed forward (prognathous) and narrower than prothorax. Antennae with 12 antennomeres, 4–11 bipectinate, each with two long and curled appendages. Pronotum flat, narrowed toward head, and sharply margined or keeled on each side. Scutellum visible. Elytra smooth, short with three or more abdominal segments exposed, paddle-shaped, broadest at base and strongly narrowed toward tips. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, claws equal and simple. Abdomen with seven ventrites.

      net-winged beetles (Lycidae) – antennae with 11 articles, never bipectinatet; head...

    • FIREFLIES, LIGHTNINGBUGS, AND GLOWWORMS, FAMILY LAMPYRIDAE (LAM-PEER-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 234-236)

      Lampyrids are soft-bodied and flattened, with the head covered by the pronotum that is nearly as wide as elytra. Head with mouthparts directed downward and eyes relatively large, especially in male. Antennae with 11 antennomeres threadlike (filiform) or saw-toothed (serrate). Pronotum flattened and distinctly margined or keeled on sides. Scutellum visible. Elytra with surface sometimes weakly ridged, with side margins nearly parallel, widest at middle, and almost or completely conceal abdomen. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, tarsomere 4 heart-shaped; claws equal in size and usually simple (exceptions being the anterior half of claw is cleft inPhoturisandMicronaspis). Abdomen with seven...

    • FALSE SOLDIER AND FALSE FIREFLY BEETLES, FAMILY OMETHIDAE (OH-MEETH-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 237-237)

      Adult omethids are elongate and soft-bodied. Head with labrum distinct and hardened. Antennae are either simple (Omethes) or modified with two antennomeres enlarged and excavated (Blatchleya). Tarsi 5-5-5, tarsomeres 3–4 bilobed. Abdomen with 7–8 ventrites, above with tergites lacking paired glandular openings, below without luminous organs.

      net-winged beetles (Lycidae) – elytra with network of raised ridges (p.229)

      glowworms (Phengodidae) – antennae of male distinctly plumose; females larviform (p.233)

      fireflies (Lampyridae) – head partially or completely covered above by pronotum (p.234)

      soldier beetles (Cantharidae) – clypeus membranous, not hard or distinct; only tarsomere 4 bilobed (p.238)

      Omethids are seldom...

    • SOLDIER BEETLES, FAMILY CANTHARIDAE (CAN-THAR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 238-243)

      Adult cantharids are long, soft-bodied beetles, many of which resemble fireflies (Lampyridae), but their head is not completely concealed under the pronotum. Head with mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Head with labrum membranous or hidden under clypeus. Antennae long, usually filiform, sometimes serrate or pectinate, with 11 antennomeres. Pronotum flat, sharply margined or keeled along sides, usually broader than head, and partially conceals head (e.g.,Chauliognathus,Pacificanthia,Rhagonycha) or not (e.g.,Dichelotarsus,Podabrus); sides sometimes notched or otherwise distinctly modified (Ditemnus,Silis). Soft elytra are short (Malthinus,Trypherus), or long, parallel-sided, and nearly or completely conceal abdomen. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, tarsomere...

    • TOOTH-NECK FUNGUS BEETLES, FAMILY DERODONTIDAE (DARE-OH-DONT-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 243-244)

      The combination of a pair of ocelli on head, antennae with loose club with three antennomeres, and serrate pronotal side margins (Derodontus), coarse surface sculpturing, rows of large and close-set punctures on elytra, and open middle coxal cavities are characteristic of adult derodontids. Abdomen with five ventrites free (Derodontus) or with 1–2 fused (Laricobius).

      fruitworm beetles (Byturidae) – lack distinct rows of punctures on elytra (p.274)

      silken fungus beetles (Cryptophagidae) – lack ocelli and squarish elytral punctures (p.283)

      minute bark beetles (Cerylonidae) – antennae captitate (p.307)

      hairy fungus beetles (Mycetophagidae) – lack ocelli (p.323)

      Derodontids are infrequently collected.Derodontus...

    • WOUNDED-TREE BEETLES, FAMILY NOSODENDRIDAE (NO-SO-DEN-DRIH-DEE)
      (pp. 244-245)

      Adult nosodendrids are oval, compact, convex, black, with ability to retract appendages tightly against the body, flattened front legs with tibiae held in front of femur at rest, and distinct club with three antennomeres protected in cavities underneath the prothorax between the prolegs and sides. Abdomen with five ventrites not fused.

      round fungus beetles (Leiodidae) – antennae loosely clavate (p.118)

      marsh beetles (Scirtidae) – antennae filiform to weakly serrate (p.180)

      pill beetles (Byrrhidae) – antennae filiform or clavate; dorsal surface scaled (p.195)

      Chelonarium(Chelonariidae) – mouthparts elongate; elytra with patches of setae (p.206)

      death-watch beetles (Ptinidae) – antennae longer, club...

    • JACOBSONIID BEETLES, FAMILY JACOBSONIIDAE (JAY-KOB-SOHN-EE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 245-245)

      Jacobsoniids are very small, elongate, narrow, yellowish brown, with an elongate pronotum narrowed behind and no visible scutellum, mesosternum as long or slightly longer than combined length of all five abdominal ventrites, and a tarsal forumula of 3-3-3.

      The combination of small size, lack of visible scutellum, long mesosternum, and tarsal formula are characteristic of adult jacobsoniids and distinctive.

      AdultDerolathrushave been collected in flight intercept traps, from leaf litter extractions, under bark, and on fungal fruting bodies and rotten palm trunks. In Florida, specimens ofD. cavernicoluswere extracted from bat guano collected in a cave and in...

    • SKIN BEETLES, FAMILY DERMESTIDAE (DER-MESS-TIH-DEE)
      (pp. 246-248)

      Adult dermestids are usually oblong or oval, compact, robust, and clothed in black, brown, tan, and white setae or scales, and have a single simple eye (ocellus) between the compound eyes. Head retracted within prothorax, with or without (Dermestes) ocellus, and mouthparts directed downward. Antennae with 11 (nine inDearthrus) antennomeres, 9–11, sometimes more, forming loose or compact club, or not (Thylodrias). Pronotum broader than long, narrowed to head, underside with grooves to receive antennae. Elytra clothed in setae or scales, and completely covering abdomen, or absent (femaleThylodrias). Hind legs with coxae excavated to receive femora, tarsal formula...

    • ENDECATOMID BEETLES, FAMILY ENDECATOMIDAE (EN-DEH-KAH-TOE-MIH-DEE)
      (pp. 249-249)

      Adult endecatomids are oblong, convex, and somewhat cylindrical; dorsal surface smooth with scattered miscroscopic bumps, each bearing a stout seta, and the side margins of pronotum flattened and fringed with stiff setae.

      hide beetles (Trogidae) – antennae lamellate (p.147)

      twig and branch borers (Bostrichidae) – side of pronotum not expanded; elytral surface not smooth with scattered setose bumps (p.250)

      some death-watch beetles (Ptinidae) – antennae long (p.252)

      Look forEndecatomuson bracket fungi and on dead or dying trees at night; also attracted to light....

    • BOSTRICHID BEETLES, FAMILY BOSTRICHIDAE (BAW-STRICK-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 250-252)

      Most adult bostrichids are distinguished from other beetles in eastern North America by their narrow to broadly cylindrical bodies, strongly convex and hoodlike pronotum, and downward-deflected head not visible from above. Powder-post beetles (Lyctus,Trogoxylon) have completely exposed heads with a somewhat flattened prothorax with distinctly margined or keeled sides. Head with mandibles exposed and clubbed antennae with 11 antennomeres, those of club often enlarged on one side. Hoodlike pronotum sometimes rough, toothed, or with hornlike projections in front. Elytra parallel-sided, coarsely or finely punctate, with rows of punctures or ridges, sharp bumps or spines on tips, and completely concealing...

    • DEATH-WATCH AND SPIDER BEETLES, FAMILY PTINIDAE (TIN-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 252-258)

      Adult ptinids are short with head strongly pointed down and a hoodlike prothorax, or spiderlike with head directed somewhat downward, head and prothorax either narrower than elytra or about the same width, very convex elytra, and long legs and antennae; legs often fit in grooves on underside. Antennae usually with 11 antennomeres; club, if present, lopsided, especially in male. Often clothed in fine scales or setae. Elytra with surface smooth or rough, with grooves or rows of punctures present or absent. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, claws equal and simple. Abdomen usually with five ventrites.

      skin beetles (Dermestidae) – antennae with symmetrical...

    • SHIP-TIMBER BEETLES, FAMILY LYMEXYLIDAE (LIE-MEH-ZYE-LIH-DEE)
      (pp. 258-259)

      Adult lymexylids are elongate, narrow, and nearly cylindrical (Melittomma) or somewhat flattened (Elateroides), with short filiform or serrate antennae, expanded and fanlike maxillary palps (male), and long, cylindrical, and projecting prothoracic coxae. Elytra long, without grooves, sometimes weakly ridged, loose-fitting, with parallel sides, and covering most of abdomen. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, tarsi slender, claws equal in size and simple. Abdomen with five (Melittomma, maleElateroides) or six (femaleElateroides) ventrites.

      some fireflies (Lampyridae) – antennae long, filiform (p.234)

      some soldier beetles (Cantharidae) – antennae long, filiform (p.238)

      some blister beetles (Meloidae) – antennae long, filiform; tarsi 5-5-4 (p.365)

      some longhorn...

    • BARK-GNAWING BEETLES AND CADELLES, FAMILY TROGOSSITIDAE (TRO-GO-SIT-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 259-262)

      Some adult trogossitids are elongate, parallel-sided, and somewhat convex to slightly flattened (Temnoscheila,Tenebroides), or cylindrical (Airora) with head and prothorax narrowly and loosely attached to the rest of the body, while others are oblong or oval and flattened (Calitys,Grynocharis,Peltis), or round and convex (Thymalus). Head with mandibles directed forward or slightly down. Clubbed antennae with 11 antennomeres, 9–11 forming lopsided club. Prontum wider than head, squarish, or wider than long. Elytra completely covers abdomen. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, tarsomere 1 usually very small, with claws equal in size and simple. Abdoment with five ventrites not fused.

      some...

    • CHECKERED BEETLES, FAMILY CLERIDAE (KLAIR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 263-271)

      Adult clerids are typically elongate, narrow, somewhat cylindrical, robust, covered in bristly setae, and have broad heads with bulging eyes and a pronotum narrower than elytra, and elytra that are sometimes brightly or distinctly marked. Head with mouthparts directed downward, wide as or wider than prothorax. Antennae with 9–11 antennomeres that may be gradually and loosely to abruptly and compactly clubbed, filiform, serrate, pectinate, flabellate, or spatulate. Pronotum usually longer than wide, narrower than base of elytra. Elytra almost or completely concealing abdomen. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, setal-bearing pad between claws present, with claws equal in size and simple or...

    • SOFT-WINGED FLOWER BEETLES, FAMILY MELYRIDAE (MEH-LEER-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 271-273)

      Adult melyrids in eastern North America are typically blue, black, or green with red, yellow, or orange markings. Head broad with bulging eyes, more or less hidden under pronotum. Filiform antennae appear to have 10 antennomeres, but actually have 11, 2 partially hidden within 1 (Collops), or distinctly with 11 antennomeres. Prothorax wider than long, with sides sharply margined or keeled. Elytra soft, loose fitting, and almost always widest at rear. Tarsal formula 5-5-5 (maleCollops4-5-5), with claws equal and simple or toothed. Abdomen with five or six ventrites, sometimes with eversible vesicles along sides.

      Micromalthus(Micromalthidae) – antennae...

    • FRUITWORM BEETLES, FAMILY BYTURIDAE (BY-TUR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 274-274)

      Adult byturids are robust with platelike lobes on the second and third tarsomeres and clubbed antennae, moderately clothed in long and dense setate, and are usually uniformly yellowish, reddish brown, to blackish. Head inserted to eyes inside prothorax with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous). Antennae 11 antennomeres, 9–11 forming club. Prothorax wider than head and almost equal in width to base of elytra. Scutellum small. Elytra with scattered punctures, straight-sided, uniformly colored or sometimes with faint and oblique bands, and completely cover abdomen. Legs with femora moderately swollen, tibiae slender; tarsal formula 5-5-5 with tarsomeres 2–3 broadly lobed beneath,...

    • CRYPTIC SLIME MOLD BEETLES, FAMILY SPHINDIDAE (SFIN-DIH-DEE)
      (pp. 275-275)

      Adult sphindids are cylindrical, parallel-sided, with head partially visible from above, antennae with 10–11 antennomeres with gradual club (clavate) with two or three pubescent antennomeres, pronotum convex and wide as elytra, elytra with rows of large, deep punctures. Tarsal formula 5-5-5 (female) or 5-5-4 (male). Abdomen with five distinct ventrites.

      branch and twig borers (Bostrichidae) – antennal club lopsided (p.250)

      death-watch beetles (Ptinidae) – antennal club lopsided (p.252)

      minute tree fungus beetles (Ciidae) – elytra usually without grooves or rows of punctures (p.326)

      bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae; Scolytidae) – antennal club ball-like with one antennomere (p.469)

      Cryptic slime...

    • FALSE SKIN BEETLES, FAMILY BIPHYLLIDAE (BI-FIL-LIH-DEE)
      (pp. 276-276)

      Adult biphyllids are oblong-oval, somewhat convex, strongly pubescent with a mixture of setae on dorsal surface that lie flat on body surface or stand more erect in rows on pronotum and elytra, slender lobes on tarsomeres 2 and 3, and oblique lines on first abdominal ventrite that converge between hind legs; light brown to blackish brown. Head with mouthparts directed forward and inserted in prothorax to base of eyes. Antennae with 11 antennomeres with 9–11 forming club, attached in front of eyes. Prothorax broad, wider than head, slightly narrower than elytra at base, with a pair of ridges along...

    • PLEASING FUNGUS AND LIZARD BEETLES, FAMILY EROTYLIDAE (ERO-TIL-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 277-280)

      Adult erotylids are elongate-oval, broadly oval, or slender and straight-sided, reddish brown or black, sometimes with contrasting colors and markings. Head retracted inside pronotum with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres, with last three or four to five (lizard beetles) forming a club. Pronotum variable in shape and distinctly margined. Scutellum visible. Elytra smooth, sometimes with rows of pits, and completely conceal abdomen. Legs with tarsal formula 5-5-5, with fourth tarsomere sometimes reduced, appearing 4-4-4, first three tarsomeres are more or less broad with brushy pads below, claws are equal in size and simple. Abdomen with five distinct...

    • ROOT-EATING BEETLES, FAMILY MONOTOMIDAE (MO-NO-TOME-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 281-282)

      Adult monotomids are elongate, narrow, parallel-sided, with last abdominal segment exposed beyond tip of elytra. Antennae with 10 antennomeres, last one or two forming antennal club. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      sap beetles (Nitidulidae) – clubbed antennae with 11 antennomeres, club with 3 antennomeres (p.295)

      palmetto beetles (Smicripidae) – mandibles clearly visible; clubbed antennae with 11 antennomeres, club with 3 antennomeres (p.305)

      zopherid beetles (Zopheridae) – tip of abdomen not exposed (p.340)

      Look carefully for monotomids in rotting wood or under stones. Species that frequent decomposing plant debris may be found in stacks of hay and compost heaps. Some species living...

    • SILKEN FUNGUS BEETLES, FAMILY CRYPTOPHAGIDAE (KRYPT-O-FAJ-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 283-285)

      Adult cryptophagids are elontate-oval to oval, robust, with surface frequently clothed in long, silky setae. Antennal club loose, with three antennomeres. Pronotum sometimes with irregular margins on sides and often with a pair of depressions along base. Elytra with irregular punctures and lack grooves or rows of punctures. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, sometimes 5-5-4 in males. Abdomen with five ventrites, first ventrite longer than remaining four.

      round fungus beetles (Leiodidae) – club with five antennomeres, 8 usually small (p.118)

      tooth-neck fungus beetles (Derodontidae) – elytra with distinct squarish punctures (p.243)

      fruitworm beetles (Byturidae) – abdominal ventrites all of equal length, tarsomeres...

    • SILVANID FLAT BARK BEETLES, FAMILY SILVANIDAE (SIL-VAN-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 285-287)

      Adult silvanids are small, elongate, parallel-sided to slightly oval in outline, and somewhat flattened with the sides of the pronotum distinctly margined, wavy, or toothed; most lack conspicuous setae. Head broad, with mouthparts directed forward, usually distinctly narrowed behind eyes. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, usually long and mostly filiform (Telephanus,Uleiota), or shorter with moniliform antennomeres and distinct club (Cathartosilvanus,Nausibius,Oryzaephilus,Silvanus). Prothorax longer than wide. Elytra long, distinctly pitted or rough, and cover abdomen completely. Tarsal formula is 5-5-5 (4-4-4 inUleiota), with claws equal and simple. Abdomen with five distinct ventrites.

      root-eating beetles (Monotomidae) – antennae with...

    • FLAT BARK BEETLES, FAMILY CUCUJIDAE (KOO-KOO-JIH-DEE)
      (pp. 288-288)

      Adult cucujids are strongly flattened and somewhat rectangular in outline. Head is broad and triangular, with mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres, moniliform. Pronotum shorter than wide or squarish. Scutellum is small. Elytra straight-sided and completely conceal abdomen; surface flat and finely punctured. Tarsal formula of male is 5-5-4, female 5-5-5; claws equal and simple. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      silvanid beetles (Silvanidae) – less flattened; antennae clubbed or filiform; pronotum usually longer than wide; tarsi 5-5-5 in both sexes (p.285)

      parasitic flat bark beetles (Passandridae) – pronotum longer than wide; tarsi 5-5-5 in both sexes (p.289)

      lined flat...

    • PARASITIC FLAT BARK BEETLES, FAMILY PASSANDRIDAE (PAS-SAN-DRIH-DEE)
      (pp. 289-289)

      Adult passandrids are elongate, strongly flattened (Catogenus) or nearly cylindrical in cross section (Taphroscelidia), dark reddish brown, with more or less distinct punctate elytral grooves. Head with mouthparts directed forward (prognathous), rounded plates (genae) that conceal maxillae, and distinct lines and grooves; underside with gular sutures confluent. Moniliform antennae with 11 antennomeres. Pronotum longer than wide, slightly narrower at base than elytra. Scutellum small, visible. Elytra long, straight-sided, with punctate grooves, and completely covering abdomen. Legs stout, tarsal formula 5-5-5 in both sexes, tarsomeres not lobed underneath, claws simple and equal. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      wrinkled bark beetles (Carabidae) –...

    • SHINING FLOWER AND SHINING MOLD BEETLES, FAMILY PHALACRIDAE (FUH-LACK-RIH-DEE)
      (pp. 290-291)

      Adult phalacrids are small, broadly oval to nearly circular, and have a continuous body outline, very convex above and flat below, shiny brownish or black without dorsal hairs. Head with eyes not prominent, surface smooth, and visible from above with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres, 9–11 forming elongate club, 11 largest. Scutellum somewhat large, triangular. Elytra completely cover abdomen, one or two grooves near suture or absent, and tips rounded. Legs with tarsal formula 5-5-5, 1–3 broad and hairy underneath, 4 small and obscure, claws with tooth or broadly expanded at base. Abdomen with five...

    • LINED FLAT BARK BEETLES, FAMILY LAEMOPHLOEIDAE (LEE-MO-FLO-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 291-293)

      Adult laemophloeids are usually flattened or somewhat cylindrical (Narthecius) with a pair of fine lines or grooves along sides of pronotum and usually on head (absent inLathropus). Head broad with sides bordered by carina or groove, widest across round or oval eyes, mandibles stout to elongate, directed forward (prognathous) and sometimes visible from above. Antennae usually filiform with 10 antennomeres. Scutellum broad to triangular. Elytra usually with ridge running from humerus, with side margins (epipleural fold) moderate to broad and complete from base to tip. Legs with tarsal formula in females 5-5-5, mostly 5-5-4 in males; first tarsomere shortest;...

    • SHORT-WINGED FLOWER BEETLES, FAMILY KATERETIDAE (KAT-ER-ET-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 293-294)

      Adult kateretids are somewhat elongate, oval, with maxilla with two lobes (galea, lacinia) and weak antennal club with three antennomeres. Tarsal formula 5-5-5. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae) – long maxillary palps, clavate antennal club (p.105)

      clown beetles (Histeridae) – antennae elbowed; elytra short, lined with rows of punctures and cover all but last two abdominal tergites (p.110)

      round fungus beetles (Leiodidae) – elytra grooved; antennomere 8 small (p.118)

      some rove beetles (Staphylinidae) – antennae usually not distinctly clubbed; elytra with rows of punctures or distinctly ridged (p.124)

      marsh beetles (Scirtidae) – antennae filiform or serrate; elytra...

    • SAP BEETLES, FAMILY NITIDULIDAE (NIH-TIH-DEW-LIH-DEE)
      (pp. 295-303)

      Adult nitidulids are elongate and robust or broadly oval and hemispherical or slightly flattened, with distinctly clubbed antennae with the clubs usually ball-shaped and often short elytra exposing one to three abdominal tergites. Head with mouthparts directed forward. Clubbed antennae with 11 antennomeres, usually 9–11 forming club. Pronotum wider than long, front margin deeply and broadly notched, with side sharply margined or keeled. Elytra usually short and without grooves, tips appear cut off or individually rounded at tips. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, with tarsomeres broad, 4 small. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae) – long palps, clavate antennal...

    • CYBOCEPHALID BEETLES, FAMILY CYBOCEPHALIDAE (SYE-BO-SEH-FAL-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 304-304)

      Adult cybocephalid beetles are ovate, very convex, black or bicolored, and capable of contracting all appendages tight against body. Head broad and deflected down. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, longer than width of head, antennal club flat with antennomeres. Pronotum with sides short, margined base covering base of elytra. Underside of thorax impressed to receive middle and hind legs. Scutellum large, triangular. Elytra long, nearly covering tip of abdomen. Legs with tibiae simple, tarsal formula 4-4-4, with each tarsomere slightly expanded underneath, second and third tarsomeres bilobed, and claws simple. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      Agathidium(Leiodidae) – tarsi 5-5-4 (male), 5-4-4...

    • PALMETTO BEETLES, FAMILY SMICRIPIDAE (SMICK-RIP-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 305-305)

      Adult smicripids are small, elongate, parallel-sided, and flattened, with last of five abdominal ventrites equal in length to that of previous ventrites combined. Head not narrowed behind eyes, antennae with 11 antennomeres, 9–11 forming distinct club, maxilla with single lobe (lacinia), plate surrounding bases of front legs open behind, and elytra short and exposing last two abdominal segments, including pygidium.

      rove beetles (Staphylinidae) – antennae filiform (p.124)

      root-eating beetles (Monotomidae) – antennal club consisting of one or two antennomeres (p.281)

      sap beetles (Nitidulidae) – last abdominal ventrite not longer than previous two ventrites combined (p.295)

      Look forSmicripson...

    • BOTHRIDERID BEETLES, FAMILY BOTHRIDERIDAE (BAW-THRIH-DARE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 305-306)

      Adult bothriderids are long and narrow and somewhat flattened or cylindrical, or oblongoval and somewhat convex (Prolyctus) and nearly three times longer than wide. Head broad and flattened with mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Antennae with 10 (Oxylaemus) or 11 antennomeres, club with one (Oxylaemus) or two antennomeres; attachment point of antennae visible from above. Prothorax longer than wide. Scutellum visible. Elytra punctured, with ridges (Bothrideres, Proclytus) or without (Annomatus, Oxylaemus). Legs with tarsal formula 4-4-4. Abdomen with five distinct ventrites.

      wrinkled bark beetles (Carabidae) – antennae moniliform; tarsi 5-5-5 (p.63)

      powder-post beetles (Bostrichidae: Lyctinae) – head hypognathous; tarsi 5-5-5 (p.250)...

    • MINUTE BARK BEETLES, FAMILY CERYLONIDAE (SAIR-EE-LON-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 307-308)

      Adult cerylonids are elongate, robust, somewhat flattened, often oval, and mostly smooth and shining. Antennae usually with 10 antennomeres, last one or two forming a distinct club. Elytra almost always grooved with rows of punctures. Legs with tarsal formula 4-4-4, rarely 3-3-3, tarsi simple.

      round fungus beetles (Leiodidae) – antennomere 8 small (p.118)

      powder-post beetles (Bostrichidae) – sides of body nearly parallel (p.252)

      root-eating beetles (Monotomidae) – tip of abdomen exposed beyond elytra (p.281)

      small handsome fungus beetles (Endomychidae) – antennal club with three antennomeres (p.308)

      hairy fungus beetles (Mycetophagidae) – pronotum with basal pair of grooves; antennal club usually...

    • HANDSOME FUNGUS BEETLES, FAMILY ENDOMYCHIDAE (EN-DOE-MY-KIH-DEE)
      (pp. 308-310)

      Adult endomychids are distinguished by a pair of distinct basal grooves that flank the midline of the pronotum. They are broadly rounded, oval, or elongateoval, and sometimes moderately flattened. Clubbed antennae with 11 antennomeres, 9–11 forming loose club. Elytra are irregularly punctured, sometimes setose, and completely conceal abdomen. Tarsal formula appears 3-3-3, but is actually 4-4-4, tarsomeres 1–2 strongly bilobed beneath. Abdomen with five or six ventrites.

      pleasing fungus beetles (Erotylidae) – front angles of pronotum not extended forward; elytra with rows of punctures; tarsi appear 5-5-5 (p.277)

      minute bark beetles (Cerylonidae) – never black; last palpomere small...

    • LADY BEETLES, FAMILY COCCINELLIDAE (COX-SIN-EL-LIH-DEE)
      (pp. 311-319)

      Many adult coccinellids are conspicuously marked in red and black and are typically oval and convex to strongly hemispherical in profile. Head shallowly or deeply inserted within prothorax. Antennae clavate with 7–11 antennomeres, ending in a loose or compact club. Prothorax convex, wider than long, distinctly margined or keeled along sides. Scutellum small, triangular. Elytra without grooves or rows of punctures, covering abdomen entirely. Underside flat. Tarsi usually 4-4-4, may appear 3-3-3. Abdomen with five to seven ventrites visible, first ventrite with at least one distinct line behind base of hind legs (absent inColeomegilla).

      round fungus beetles (Leiodidae)...

    • MINUTE HOODED AND FUNGUS BEETLES, FAMILY CORYLOPHIDAE (KOR-EE-LOAF-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 320-321)

      Adult corylophids are very small, oval to almost circular in outline, with head often covered from above by sharp front margin of pronotum. Clubbed antennae with 9–11 antennomeres, last three forming distinct club. Front coxal cavities closed, bases of front legs completely surrounded by thoracic plate. Legs with tarsal formula 4-4-4. Abdomen with six ventrites, pygidium exposed.

      Many families have species with similar body form, but none have the pronotum extending over the headanddistinctly clubbed antennae.

      Look for corylophids under bark, on flowers and foliage, and in accumulations of rotting vegetation, including leaf litter, hay stacks, cut...

    • MINUTE BROWN SCAVENGER BEETLES, FAMILY LATRIDIIDAE (LAT-RIH-DIE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 322-323)

      Adult latridiids are small, elongateoval, usually widest at middle, somewhat convex, sometimes setose, with 10–11 antennomeres, the last two or three forming a gradual club, pronotum usually narrower than base of elytra, basal elytral angles often rounded, elytra grooved, and a tarsal formula of 3-3-3

      tooth-neck fungus beetles (Derodontidae) – antennal club week; elytra with large punctures, not grooved (p.243)

      root-eating beetles (Monotomidae) – elytra shorter, exposing last abdominal tergite (p.281)

      silken fungus beetles (Cryptophagidae) – larger; pronotum as wide as base of elytra (p.283)

      minute bark beetles (Cerylonidae) – pronotum nearly as wide as base of elytra (p.307)...

    • HAIRY FUNGUS BEETLES, FAMILY MYCETOPHAGIDAE (MY-SEE-TOE-FAY-JIH-DEE)
      (pp. 323-325)

      Most adult mycetophagids are oblong to somewhat ovate, slightly flattened, clothed in pubescence, and dark brown with orange or yellowish markings on elytra. Antennae clubbed, clubs gradual with up to five antennomeres. Pronotum with sides continuous with elytra, usually with a pair of depressions at base. Tarsal formula 4-4-4, sometimes 3-4-4 (males). Abdomen with five distinct ventrites.

      small carrion beetles (Leioidae) – weak antennal club with antennomere 8 small (p.118)

      variegated mud-loving beetles (Heteroceridae) – antennae filiform or serrate (p.202)

      fruitworm beetles (Byturidae) – color uniform; tarsomeres 2–3 distinctly lobed (p.274)

      false skin beetles (Biphyllidae) – color uniform; first...

    • ARCHEOCRYPTICID BEETLES, FAMILY ARCHEOCRYPTICIDAE (AR-KEY-OH-CRYP-TISS-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 325-326)

      Adult archeocrypticids are very small, oval, strongly convex, and sparsely clothed in fine, recumbent setae. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, 9–11 forming a gradual club, with bases hidden from above. Underside of prothorax with process extending backward between coxae partially closing coxal cavities. Elytra with rows of fine punctures. Tarsal formula is 5-5-4, with claws simple. Abdomen with five ventrites, first two ventrites fused.

      some pleasing fungus beetles (Erotylidae) – antennae abruptly clubbed (p.277)

      Hyporhagus(Zopheridae) – abdomen with first four ventrites fused (p.343)

      some darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) – prothorax without process underneath partially closing coxal cavities (p.344)

      Enneboeusare...

    • MINUTE TREE-FUNGUS BEETLES, FAMILY CIIDAE (SEE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 326-327)

      Adult ciids are small, elongate to oval, convex, cylindrical, with the head more or less hidden from above. Antennae short, with 8–10 antennmeres with last two or three forming a loose symmetrical club. Pronotum not or slightly narrower than elytra. Elytra not grooved and with erect setae. Tarsal formula 4-4-4. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      branch and twig borers (Bostrichidae) – antennal club lopsided (p.250)

      death-watch beetles (Ptinidae) – antennal club lopsided (p.252)

      cyptic slime mold beetles (Sphindidae) – elytra with coarsely punctured grooves (p.275)

      bark beetles (Curculionidae) – antennal club large, apparently with one antennomere (pp.497–500)

      Ciids are...

    • POLYPORE FUNGUS BEETLES, FAMILY TETRATOMIDAE (TET-TRA-TOME-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 327-329)

      Adult tetratomids are oblong to ovate, somewhat flattened, and pubescent with notched eyes. Antennal bases slightly hidden or visible from above. Bases of front legs separated by prosternal process. Tarsal formula 5-5-4, with tarsomeres not lobed underneath. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      plate-thigh beetles (Eucinetidae) – hind coxal plates covering part of abdomen; elytra crossed with fine wrinkles; tarsi 5-5-5 (p.178)

      Mycetophagus(Mycetophagidae) – tarsi 4-4-4, 3-4-4 (p.323)

      false darkling beetles (Melandryidae) – middle tibia as long as femur or first tarsomere, if shorter then spurs at least one-third length of tibia (p.329)

      comb-clawed beetles (Tenebrionidae: Alleculinae) – claws pectinate (pp.351–...

    • FALSE DARKLING BEETLES, FAMILY MELANDRYIDAE (MEL-AN-DRY-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 329-332)

      Adult melandryids are structurally diverse and difficult to characterize, and are elongate and slender or broad and oval. Antennal bases slightly visible from above. Middle tibia long as femur or first tarsomere, or shorter with long tibial spurs one-third or more of length of tibia. Tip of maxillary palp usually large and hatchet- or knife-shaped. Abdomen with five ventrites, first two fused.

      ground beetles (Carabidae) – tarsi 5-5-5 (p.63)

      polypore fungus beetles (Tetratomidae) – tarsomeres not lobed underneath; procoxae separated by process (p.327)

      tumbling flower beetles (Mordellidae) – humpbacked; abdomen pointed (p.333)

      comb-clawed beetles (Tenebrionidae) – pronotum without pits; claws...

    • TUMBLING FLOWER BEETLES, FAMILY MORDELLIDAE (MOR-DEL-LIH-DEE)
      (pp. 333-337)

      The humpbacked and wedge-shaped body form, long, narrow, pointed abdomen extending well beyond elytra, and jumping behavior of adult mordellids are distinctive. Adults are mostly black, sometimes with distinct patterns of setae. Head short, with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres, antennomeres serrate, clavate, or filiform. Pronotum small, narrowed toward head, and distinctly margined. Scutellum visible. Elytra smooth and narrowed behind and completely conceal all but part of the last abdominal ventrite, surface clothed in fine hair and frequently patterned with lighter colored hair to form lines, bands, or spots. Hind legs long, tarsal formula 5-5-4, claws equal...

    • RIPIPHORID BEETLES, FAMILY RIPIPHORIDAE (RIP-IH-FOR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 338-340)

      Adult ripiphorids are elongate-oval (Pelecotoma), wedge-shaped (Macrosiagon) with black and orange, red, or yellow coloration, or flylike (Pirhidius, Ripiphorus). Head with mouthparts directed downward. Antennae with 11 antennomeres (10 in someRipiphorusfemales), antennomeres flabellate, pectinate, or serrate; males typically have more elaborate antennomeres than females. Pronotum large, bell-shaped, narrowest behind head, and without lateral keeled margins. Scutellum visible (Pelecotoma), highly modified (Perhidius, Ripiphorus), or completely or partly covered by extended margin of the pronotum (Macrosiagon). Elytra smooth, without grooves; cover abdomen entirely (Pelecotomus, Macrosiagon), with apices sometimes pointed (Macrosiagon), scalelike (Ripiphorus), or short and soft (Perhidius). Legs slender, tarsal...

    • ZOPHERID BEETLES, FAMILY ZOPHERIDAE (ZO-FAIR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 340-344)

      Adult zopherids are elongate and cylindrical to flattened and parallel-sided or oval (Hyporhagus), usually brown or black with vestiture or not, occasionally with subtle patterns of yellow, red, or gray. Head visible from above with eyes shallowly or deeply notched and mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Antennae with 9–11 antennomeres, bases concealed from above by front margin of head, are moderately to abruptly clubbed, club formed by two or three antennomeres. Pronotum square, elongate or transverse, margins expanded, smooth, finely toothed, or elaborately produced; procoxal cavities open or closed. Scutellum visible or not. Elytra usually parallel-sided and completely conceal the...

    • DARKLING BEETLES, FAMILY TENEBRIONIDAE (TEN-IH-BREE-ON-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 344-359)

      Adult tenebrionids are incredibly diverse in form, ranging from elongate and somewhat cylindrical or slightly flattened, to oblong to strongly oval and strongly convex to nearly hemispherical. Head has strongly notched eyes and antennae that typically have 11 antennomeres and are moniliform or clavate, with bases that are hidden from above by the expanded rim on the front of the head. Procoxal cavities are closed. Elytra completely conceal the abdomen, sometimes fused together, and are smooth, pitted, bumpy, grooved, or ridged; flight wings fully developed, reduced, or absent. Species with elytra partially or completely fused have their flight wings reduced...

    • SYNCHROA BARK BEETLES, FAMILY SYNCHROIDAE (SIN-KRO-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 359-360)

      Adult synchroids are elongate, narrow, and tapered on both ends like click beetles, but are distinguished by the antennal bases hidden from above, lack of thoracic clicking mechanism, possession of finely notched tibial spurs, and a 5-5-4 tarsal formula. Antennae filiform with 11 antennomeres. Prothorax slightly broader than head, widest at base, and equal to width of elytra. Elytra long and completely cover abdomen, with tips rounded. Legs slender, coxae of front legs widely separated (Synchroa) or nearly touching (Mallodrya), with first tarsomere longer than each of remaining tarsomeres. Abdomen with five ventrites, first two ventrites fused.

      click beetles (Elateridae)...

    • FALSE LONGHORN BEETLES, FAMILY STENOTRACHELIDAE (STE-NO-TRA-KIL-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 360-361)

      Adult stenotrachelids are elongate, usually narrowed at both ends, and somewhat convex with usually fine vestiture. Head elongate and diamond or bell-shaped, narrowed gradually (Cephaloon) or abruptly (Nematoplus) behind eyes and with a neck with mouthparts directed forward; eyes notched. Antennae attached between eyes, with 11 antennomeres, usually filiform with apical antennomeres sometimes thickened. Pronotum elongate and narrowed to head (Anelpistus, Cephaloon, Nematoplus) or squarish (Stenotrachelus), side margins completely ridged or keeled (Anelpistus, Stenotrachelus), incompletely ridged (Nematoplus), or without distinct margins (Cephaloon); prothoracic coxal cavities open behind. Elytra gradually narrowed toward tips, vaguely ridged and irregularly punctate, and completely covering...

    • FALSE BLISTER BEETLES, FAMILY OEDEMERIDAE (EE-DEH-MARE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 362-365)

      Adult oedemerids are elongate, slender, and soft-bodied beetles, with colors ranging from black, brown, or gray to yellowish brown, sometimes with yellow, red, or orange pronotum or markings on elytra. Head with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous). Antennae filiform, with 11 antennomeres. Pronotum with front margin slightly covering head, not keeled on sides, usually longer than wide, widest at front and narrowest at base. Elytra at base broader than pronotum, long, parallel-sided, and almost or completely conceal abdomen. Abdomen with five ventrites. Tarsal formula 5-5-4, next to last tarsomere wide and thickly setose underneath.

      soldier beetles (Cantharidae) – pronotum keeled, tarsi...

    • BLISTER BEETLES, FAMILY MELOIDAE (MEH-LO-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 365-369)

      Adult meloids are typically elongate, soft-bodied, black, gray, brownish, metallic blue or green, or a combination of black with yellow, orange, or red markings, with broad antlike head and short neck. Head with mouthparts directed downward (hypognathous). Antennae usually filiform or moniliform with 11 antennomeres; middle articles sometimes modified (maleMeloe). Pronotum usually narrower than both head and base of elytra, rounded on sides. Elytra soft, leathery, rolled over abdomen along sides, and usually loosely cover most of abdomen; elytra short and overlap at base inMeloe. Legs long, tarsal formula is 5-5-4, tarsi simple with pads or bilobed, claws...

    • PALM AND FLOWER BEETLES, FAMILY MYCTERIDAE (MIK-TARE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 369-370)

      Adult mycterids are very diverse in appearance and difficult to characterize as a family. Head elongate with short rostrum (Mycterus) or not. Body elongate and flat (Hemipeplus), somewhat oval and slightly flattened (Lacconotus), or stout and convex (Mycterus). Antennae with 11 antennomeres, each antennomere short and moniliform or somewhat triangular (Hemipeplus), slightly elongate (Lacconotus), serrate, or vaguely flabellate (Mycterus). Underside of prothorax with sunken area in front of legs. Elytra with apical patch underneath sometimes visible on surface as a different color. Abdomen with five ventrites, 1–2 fused.

      Hemipeplusspecies are similar to some silvanid flat bark (Silvanidae, p.285),...

    • CONIFER BARK BEETLES, FAMILY BORIDAE (BOR-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 371-371)

      Adult borids are distinguished by the hidden antennal bases from above and abrupt antennal club with three antennomeres, distinct ridge or keel along sides of prothorax, and lack of any conspicuous setae on the upper surface of the body. Body elongate, parallel-sided, and distinctly punctate. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, 9–11 each with kidney-shaped sensory patch. Elytra long and completely cover abdomen. Abdomen with five ventrites, 1–2 fused.

      some false darkling beetles (Melandryidae) – antennal bases visible from above (p.329)

      dead log beetles (Pythidae) – pronotum with distinct pair of impressions (p.372)

      fire-colored beetles (Pyrochroidae) – head usually with...

    • DEAD LOG BEETLES, FAMILY PYTHIDAE (PYTH-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 372-373)

      Adult pythids are elongate, about three times longer than wide, somewhat cylindrical or flattened, the dorsal surface with punctures of various depths. Head nearly square, slightly elongate, with small bulging eyes and mouthparts directed forward (prognathous). Antennae with 11 antennomeres, antennomeres moniliform except long third antennomere, and last three or four antennomeres slightly enlarged. Pronotum rounded or somewhat square, wider than long and widest at middle, surface evenly convex (Priognathus) to slightly flattened with vague or distinct pair of depressions (Pytho) with side margins rounded; front coxal cavities open between and behind. Scutellum small, triangular. Elytra elongate, more or less...

    • FIRE-COLORED BEETLES, FAMILY PYROCHROIDAE (PI-RO-KRO-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 373-375)

      Adult pyrochorids are elongate, weakly to moderately flattened, soft-bodied, and yellowish brown to black, often with reddish or orange pronotum. Head somewhat hypognathous, abruptly narrowed behind kidney-shaped eyes with distinct neck, eyes of males with distinct pits (Neopyrochroa,Schizotus) or not. Antennae long, with 11 antennomeres, mostly filiform to pectinate (females) to serrate or plumose (males). Prothorax narrower than elytra, elliptical in outline (Pedilus), or somewhat oval, without sharp side margins. Elytra usually dark and completely cover abdomen. Legs long, slender, tarsal formula 5-5-4, claws simple or distinctly toothed at base (Pedilus). Abdomen with six ventrites.

      glowworms (Phengodidae:Phengodes) –...

    • NARROW-WAISTED BARK BEETLES, FAMILY SALPINGIDAE (SAL-PINJ-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 376-376)

      Adult salpingids are difficult to characterize as a family and are elongate and convex or very flat (Inopeplus). Head with rostrum (Rhinosimus) or without, eyes usually present (absent inAglenus). Antennae filiform with 11 antennomeres, or clavate. Elytra long and cover abdomen, or short (Inopeplus) with three or four abdominal tergites exposed. Abdomen with five ventrites not fused.

      rove beetles (Staphylinidae) – antennae not clubbed (p.124)

      zopherid beetles (Zopheridae: Colydiinae) – eyes present (p.340)

      Mycterus(Mycteridae) – shiny and metallic; pronotum narrow at base (p.369)

      Look for narrow-waisted bark beetles on flowers and under bark, or find them by sweeping...

    • ANTLIKE FLOWER BEETLES, FAMILY ANTHICIDAE (AN-THISS-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 377-381)

      As their common name implies, adult anthicids are antlike in appearance. Head distinct, with neck. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, usually filiform, serrate, or weakly clubbed. Pronotum constricted or narrowed at base, sides not margined or keeled, with base narrower than base of elytra;MecynotarsusandNotoxushave a single prominent horn that projects over head. Elytra covered with short hairs and nearly or completely cover abdomen. Tarsal formula 5-5-4, tarsi slender, penultimate tarsomeres narrowly lobed beneath, claws simple to appendiculate. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      antlike stone beetles (Staphylinidae) – antennal club loosely formed with three or four antennomeres; abdomen with...

    • ISCHALIID BEETLES, FAMILY ISCHALIIDAE (ISS-KA-LEE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 382-382)

      AdultIschaliaare characterized by a pronotum with three angles along the base and distinct ridges along the rim and above the sides of each elytron, with the space between nearly vertical; flight wings are reduced. Antennae filiform. Pronotum with side margins ridged or keeled. Tibial spurs lacking. Abdomen with five distinct ventrites.

      The pronotal and elytra characters are unique.

      Adults are found year-round by sifting leaves and other decaying vegetation and by searching under boards....

    • ANTLIKE LEAF BEETLES, FAMILY ADERIDAE (A-DARE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 382-384)

      Adult aderids are small and antlike in form, with broad head bent downward and constricted at base, and eyes coarsely faceted, notched, hairy. Antennae filiform, clavate, or comblike (some males pectinate), with 11 antennomeres. Tarsi appear 4-4-3, actually 5-5-4, tarsomere 1 long, penultimate tarsomeres very short, third from last tarsomeres lobed underneath, claws simple. Abdomen with five ventrites, 1–2 fused.

      Pedilus(Pyrochroidae) – larger (p.373)

      antlike flower beetles (Anthicidae) – eyes not notched; abdominal ventrites 1–2 not fused (p.377)

      false flower beetles (Scraptiidae) – not antlike; abdominal ventrites not fused (p.384)

      orsodacnid leaf beetles (Orsodacnidae) – larger, tarsi...

    • FALSE FLOWER BEETLES, FAMILY SCRAPTIIDAE (SCRAP-TEE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 384-386)

      Adult scraptiids are mostly soft-bodied, sometimes distinctly clothed in setae, and have deeply notched eyes. Body elongate, parallel-sided to somewhat ovate, slightly flattened to moderately convex, with or without distinct vestiture on supper surface. Head not retracted within pronotum, with mouthparts directed downward. Antennae with 11 antennomeres beadlike or filiform, with or without distinct club. Prothorax widest at front, side margins often sharpest toward rear, sometimes with pair of small depressions near posterior margins, surface sometimes with fine transverse lines (Anaspis,Diclidia,Pentaria,Sphingocephalus). Elytra elongate to somewhat ovate with punctures (Allopoda,Canifa,Scraptia) or fine transverse lines (Anaspis,Diclidia,...

    • DISTENIID LONGHORN BEETLES, FAMILY DISTENIIDAE (DIS-TEN-EE-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 387-387)

      AdultElytrimitatrixare elongate, slender, dark brown to blackish, and densely covered with short gray pubescence. Head is extremely short in front of large, coarsely faceted eyes, clypeus and frons distinct and not in same plane, and mouthparts directed forward with mandibles strongly bowed and chisel-shaped. Antennae filiform, with 11 antennomeres usually bearing batches of long setae underneath, 3 more or less equal to 1. Pronotum with both raised calluses and distinct projections on sides. Elytra broadest at humeri, long and covering all of abdomen, each tipped with two sharp spines. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, apparently 4-4-4, tarsomere 4 very small...

    • LONGHORN BEETLES, FAMILY CERAMBYCIDAE (SAIR-AHM-BISS-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 388-428)

      Adult cerambycids are extremely variable in shape. They are usually robust, broad across base of elytra, with antennae at least half as long as body, eyes usually notched around antennal bases, and tarsi usually appearing 4-4-4, but actually 5-5-5 with tarsomere 4 small and tucked between lobes of heart-shaped 3. Abdomen with five ventrites.

      stag beetles (Lucanidae) – antennae with lopsided club (p.142)

      soldier beetles (Cantharidae) – tarsi distinctly 5-5-5: body and elytra soft (p.238)

      false longhorn beetles (Stenotrachelidae) – claws comblike; tarsi 5-5-4 (p.360)

      false blister beetles (Oedemeridae) – pronotum broadest in front; tarsi 5-5-4 (p.362)

      orsodacnid leaf beetles...

    • MEGALOPODID LEAF BEETLES, FAMILY MEGALOPODIDAE (MEG-AH-LO-PO-DIH-DEE)
      (pp. 428-428)

      The antennae of adultZeugophoraare short and not directed backward or set on bumps, attached low on head between mandibles and eyes, and all tibiae tipped with a pair of spurs. Antennae with 11 antennomeres, 5–11 almost serrate. Pronotum with sides distinctly angled at middle. Elytra covering abdomen, rounded at apices. Abdomen with five distinct ventrites, 1–4 each somewhat equal in length, 5 longer.

      orsodacnid leaf beetles (Orsodacnidae) – prothorax with broadly rounded sides (p.429)

      leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) – tibiae without or with inconspicuous spurs, or spurs only on hind legs (p.429)

      Adults are swept or beaten...

    • ORSODACNID LEAF BEETLES, FAMILY ORSODACNIDAE (OR-SO-DACK-NIH-DEE)
      (pp. 429-429)

      AdultOrsodacnestrongly resemble a leaf beetle (Chrysomelidae), but their antennae are short, attached low on head between mandibles and eyes, and are not directed backward or set on bumps, and all tibiae are tipped with a pair of spurs. Head with distinctly square labrum. Antennae filiform, with 11 antennomeres. Pronotum with sides rounded from above and not margined or keeled. Elytra covering abdomen, rounded at apices. Abdomen with 5 distinct ventrites, each somewhat equal in length.

      megalopodid leaf beetles (Megalopodidae) – prothorax distinctly angled at middle (p.428)

      leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) – tibiae without or with inconspicuous spurs, or spurs...

    • LEAF AND SEED BEETLES, FAMILY CHRYSOMELIDAE (KRY-SO-MEL-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 429-457)

      Adult chrysomelids are extremely variable in shape and difficult to characterize as a family. They are long and cylindrical, or compact, square or oval, convex to almost hemispherical, or flattened. Head with mouthparts directed downward, sometimes forward. Antennae with 11 antennomeres usually filiform, sometimes serrate, plumose, flabellate, or clavate. Pronotum triangular or rectangular, broader than head, usually keeled on sides, sometimes broadly flattened and expanded on sides. Elytra conceal abdomen (leaf beetles) or not (seed beetles). Hind legs sometimes enlarged for jumping. Tarsi appear 4-4-4, but are actually 5-5-5, tarsomere 4 small and hidden between lobes of heart-shaped 3, claws...

    • PINE FLOWER SNOUT BEETLES, FAMILY NEMONYCHIDAE (NE-MO-NICK-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 457-457)

      Adult nemonychids have straight, not elbowed antennae, an elongate rostrum with a distinct labrum and two distinct grooves on underside, maxillary palps with four flexible palpomeres, elytra without grooves or rows of punctures, and apical spurs on all tibiae. Rostrum becoming wider and antennae attached at tip. Pygidium hidden by elytra. Tarsi appear 4-4-4, actually 5-5-5, tarsomere 3 deeply lobed, 4 small.

      Mycterus(Mycteridae) – rostrum broad; antennae not clubbed; tarsi 5-5-4 (p.369)

      Rhinosimus(Salpingidae) – rostrum broad; antennae with loose club, tarsi 5-5-4 (p.376)

      fungus weevils (Anthribidae) – antennae long; tibiae with spurs; pygidium exposed (p.458)

      cycad weevils (Belidae)...

    • FUNGUS WEEVILS, FAMILY ANTHRIBIDAE (AN-THRIB-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 458-461)

      Adult anthribids have a broad, flat rostrum with grooves underneath, clubbed antennae that are straight and not elbowed, pronotum with sharp margin across base, pygidium not covered by elytra, and tarsomere 3 with spongy pubescent pad underneath. Abdomen underneath with ventrites 1–4 fused. Tarsi appear 4-4-4, actually 5-5-5.

      Mycterus(Mycteridae) – rostrum broad; antennae not clubbed; tarsi 5-5-4 (p.369)

      Rhinosimus(Salpingidae) – rostrum broad; antennae with loose club, tarsi 5-5-4 (p.376)

      pine flower snout weevils (Nemonychidae) – pygidium covered by elytra (p.457)

      cycad weevils (Belidae) – femora enlarged (p.462)

      leaf-rolling, tooth-nose, and thief weevils (Attelabidae) – antennae attached at...

    • CYCAD WEEVILS, FAMILY BELIDAE (BEL-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 462-462)

      Adult belids have clubbed antennae with 11 antennomeres, 9–11 forming loose club, pronotum with entire sides sharply margined or keeled, elytra short and exposing pygidium, legs short with greatly expanded front femora in males. Tarsi appearing 4-4-4, actually 5-5-5, tarsomeres 2–3 broadly lobed, claws simple. Abdomen with five distinct ventrites.

      The above diagnosis and the exclusive association of these beetles with cycads are definitive.

      Look forRhopalotriaon the reproductive structures of cycads....

    • LEAF-ROLLING AND THIEF WEEVILS, AND TOOTH-NOSE SNOUT BEETLES, FAMILY ATTELABIDAE (AT-TEH-LAB-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 462-465)

      Adult leaf-rolling weevils are more or less stout, broad across elytral bases, without setae; tooth-nose snout beetles are elongate (Eugnamptus) or very small and oval;Pterocolusis very small and broadly oval. Attelabids have clubbed antennae with 11 antennomeres, straight, not elbowed, 9–11 forming loose club. Rostrum long and slender (Eugnamptus) or short and broad, mandibles toothed only on inner margin (Himatolabus,Homoeolabus,Synolabus) or on the inner and outer margins. Pronotum distinctly narrower than base of elytra. Elytra cover the entire abdomen. Tarsi appearing 4-4-4, but are 5-5-5; tarsomere 4 small, partially hidden within lobes of heart-shaped tarsomere...

    • STRAIGHT-SNOUTED AND PEAR-SHAPED WEEVILS, FAMILY BRENTIDAE (BRENT-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 466-469)

      Adult brentids are difficult to characterize as a family. They are long, slender, and parallel-sided (Arrenodes,Brentus,Paratrachelizus,Stereodermus), stout and pear-shaped (Trichapionand relatives), antlike (Cylas), or large and robust with a short, broad rostrum (Ithycerus). Head with rostrum somewhat to very long, slender, and cylindrical; males (Arrenodes,Brentus,Paratrachelizus,Stereodermus) tend to have broader or longer rostra. Body lacks setae or scales, or with distinct, short pubescence (Ithycerus). Antennae usually straight, occasionally elbowed or geniculate (Nanodactylus,Nanophyes,Pseudotychius), and attached to sides at middle of rostrum. Legs with tarsal formula 5-5-5. Abdomen with first two ventrites fused and...

    • WEEVILS, AND SNOUT, BARK AND AMBROSIA BEETLES, FAMILY CURCULIONIDAE (CUR-CUE-LEE-ON-IH-DEE)
      (pp. 469-500)

      Adult curculionids are incredibly diverse and are broadly oval, long, and cylindrical to strongly humpbacked beetles. Rostrum is long and slender, short and broad, greatly reduced, or entirely absent. Surface sometimes scaled, with varied patterns of black, brown, or gray, sometimes with weak to decidedly metallic reflections. Eyes present, reduced, or very rarely absent. Clubbed and elbowed antennae have 11 antennomeres, 9–11 forming a compact club. Pronotum long or short, slightly wider than the head, without sharp margins or keels on sides. Scutellum small or hidden. Elytra rounded or parallel-sided, almost or completely concealing abdomen. Tarsal formula appearing 4-4-4,...

  9. Appendix: CLASSIFICATION OF THE BEETLES COVERED IN THIS BOOK
    (pp. 501-522)
  10. GLOSSARY
    (pp. 523-526)
  11. SELECTED REFERENCES AND RESOURCES
    (pp. 527-529)
  12. PHOTO AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS
    (pp. 530-536)
  13. INDEX
    (pp. 537-560)