Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume 2

Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume 2: The Revised Oxford Translation

Copyright Date: 1984
Pages: 1256
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  • Book Info
    Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume 2
    Book Description:

    The Oxford Translation of Aristotle was originally published in 12 volumes between 1912 and 1954. It is universally recognized as the standard English version of Aristotle. This revised edition contains the substance of the original Translation, slightly emended in light of recent scholarship; three of the original versions have been replaced by new translations; and a new and enlarged selection of Fragments has been added. The aim of the translation remains the same: to make the surviving works of Aristotle readily accessible to English speaking readers.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-3585-0
    Subjects: Philosophy

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-vii)
    (pp. vii-x)
    (pp. 1251-1271)
    E. S. Forster

    1 . Life is found in animals and plants; but while in animals it is clearly manifest, in plants it is hidden and not evident. For before we can assert the presence of life in plants, a long inquiry must be held¹ as to whether plants possess a soul and a distinguishing capacity for desire and pleasure and pain. Now Anaxagoras and Empedocles say that they are influenced by desire; they also assert that they have sensation and sadness and pleasure. Anaxagoras declared that plants are animals and feel joy and sadness, deducing this from the fall of their leaves;...

    (pp. 1272-1298)
    L. D. Dowdall

    1 . Men say that in Paeonia, on the mountain called Hesaenus, which forms the boundary between the Paeonian and Maedian districts, there is found a wild beast, which is called Bolinthos, but by the Paeonians is named Monaepos. They state that this in its general nature is similar to the ox, but surpasses it in size and strength, and moreover is distinguished from it by its mane; for like the horse it has a mane hanging down very thick from the neck, and from the crown of the head as far as the eyes. It has horns, not such...

    (pp. 1299-1318)
    E. S. Forster

    Our wonder is excited, firstly, by phenomena which occur in accordance with nature but of which we do not know the cause, and secondly by those which are produced by art despite nature for the benefit of mankind. Nature often operates contrary to human interest; for she always follows the same course without deviation, whereas human interest is always changing. When, therefore, we have to do something contrary to nature, the difficulty of it causes us perplexity and art has to be called to our aid. The kind of art which helps us in such perplexities we call Mechanical Skill....

    (pp. 1319-1527)
    E. S. Forster

    1 . Why is it that great excesses cause disease? Is it because they engender excess or defect, and it is in these after all that disease consists?

    2 . But why is it that diseases can often be cured if the patient indulges in excess of some kind? And this is the treatment used by some doctors; for they cure by the excessive use of wine or water or salt, or by over-feeding or starving the patient. Is it because the causes of the disease are opposites of one another, so that each reduces the other to the mean?...

    (pp. 1528-1536)
    H. H. Joachim

    Are there indivisible lines? And, generally, is there something partless in every class of quanta, as some say?

    For if, where ‘many’ and ‘large’ apply, so do their opposites, ‘few’ and ‘small’; and if that which admits practically an infinite number of divisions is many not few, then what is few and what is small will clearly admit only a finite number of divisions. But if the divisions are finite in number, there must be a part less magnitude. Hence in all classes of quanta there will be found something partiess, since in all of them ‘few’ and ‘small’ apply....

    (pp. 1537-1538)
    E. S. Forster

    Boreas. At Mallus this wind is called Pagreus; for it blows from the high cliffs and two parallel ranges known as the Pagrean Mountains. At Caunus it is called Meses; in Rhodes it is known as Caunias, for it blows from Caunus, causing storms in the harbour of that place. At Olbia, near Magydum in Pamphylia, it is called Idyreus; for it blows from an island called Idyris. Some people identify Boreas and Meses, amongst them the Lyrnatians near Phaselis.

    Caecias. In Lesbos this wind is called Thebanas; for it blows from the plain of Thebe, north of the Elaitic...

    (pp. 1539-1551)
    T. Loveday and E. S. Forster

    1 . Melissus says that, if anything is, it is eternal, since it is impossible that anything can come into being from nothing. For suppose that either all things or some things have come into being, in either case they must be eternal; for otherwise, in coming into being, they would do so out of nothing. For if all things come into being, then nothing can pre-exist; whilst if some things were ever and others are added, that which is must have become more and greater, and that by which it is more and greater must have arisen out of...

    (pp. 1552-1728)
    W. D. Ross

    1 . All men by nature desire to know. An indication of this is the delight we take in our senses; for even apart from their usefulness they are loved for themselves; and above all others the sense of sight. For not only with a view to action, but even when we are not going to do anything, we prefer sight to almost everything else. The reason is that this, most of all the senses, makes us know and brings to light many differences between things.

    By nature animals are born with the faculty of sensation, and from sensation memory...

    (pp. 1729-1867)
    W. D. Ross and J. O. Urmson

    1 . Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and choice, is thought to aim at some good; and for this reason the good has rightly been declared to be that at which all things aim. But a certain difference is found among ends; some are activities, others are products apart from the activities that produce them. Where there are ends apart from the actions, it is the nature of the products to be better than the activities. Now, as there are many actions, arts, and sciences, their ends also are many; the end of the medical art...

    (pp. 1868-1921)
    G. Stock

    1 . Since our purpose is to speak about matters to do with character, we must first inquire of what character is a branch. To speak concisely, then, it would seem to be a branch of nothing else than statecraft. For it is not possible to act at all in affairs of state unless one is of a certain kind, to wit, good. Now to be good is to possess the excellences. If therefore one is to act successfully in affairs of state, one must be of a good character. The treatment of character then is, as it seems, a...

    (pp. 1922-1981)
    J. Solomon

    1 . The man who stated his judgement in the god’s precinct in Delos made an inscription on the propylaeum to the temple of Leto, in which he separated from one another the good, the beautiful, and the pleasant as not all properties of the same thing; he wrote, ‘Most beautiful is what is most just, but best is health, and pleasantest the obtaining of what one desires’. But let us disagree with him; for happiness is at once the most beautiful and best of all things and also the pleasantest.

    Now about each thing and kind there are many...

    (pp. 1982-1985)
    J. Solomon

    1 . The noble is the object of praise, the base of blame: a t the head of w ha t is noble stand the excellences, at the head of what is base the vices; the excellences, then, are objects of praise, but so also are the causes of the excellences and their accompaniments and results, the opposites are objects of blame.

    If in agreement with Plato we take the soul to have three parts, then wisdom is the excellence of the rational, gentleness and bravery of the passionate, temperance and continence of the appetitive; and of the soul as...

    (pp. 1986-2129)
    B. Jowett

    1 . Every state is a community of some kind, and every community is established with a view to some good; for everyone always acts in order to obtain that which they think good. But, if all communities aim at some good, the state or political community, which is the highest of all, and which embraces all the rest, aims at good in a greater degree than any other, and at the highest good.

    Some people think that the qualifications of a statesman, king, householder, and master are the same, and that they differ, not in kind, but only in...

    (pp. 2130-2151)
    E. S. Forster

    1 . The sciences of politics and economics differ not only as widely as a household and a city (the subject-matter with which they severally deal), but also in the fact that the science of politics involves a number of rulers, whereas the sphere of economics is a monarchy.

    Now certain of the arts fall into sub-divisions, and it does not pertain to the same art to manufacture and to use the article manufactured, for instance, a lyre or pipes; but the function of political science is both to constitute a city in the beginning and also when it has...

    (pp. 2152-2269)
    W. Rhys Roberts

    1 . Rhetoric is the counterpart of dialectic. Both alike are concerned with such things as come, more or less, within the general ken of all men and belong to no definite science. Accordingly all men make use, more or less, of both; for to a certain extent all men attempt to discuss statements and to maintain them, to defend themselves and to attack others. Ordinary people do this either at random or through practice and from acquired habit. Both ways being possible, the subject can plainly be handled systematically, for it is possible to inquire the reason why some...

    (pp. 2270-2315)
    E. S. Forster

    You write that you have often sent persons to me to urge upon me the project of noting down for you the principles of public speaking. It is not through indifference that I have put off doing so all this time, but because I was seeking how to write on this subject with more exactitude than anyone else who has concerned himself therewith. It was only natural that I should have such an intention; for just as you are desirous to have more splendid raiment than other men, so you ought to strive to attain to a more glorious skill...

    (pp. 2316-2340)
    I. Bywater

    1 . I propose to speak not only of poetry in general but also of its species and their respective capacities; of the structure of plot required for a good poem; of the number and nature of the constituent parts of a poem; and likewise of any other matters in the same line of inquiry. Let us follow the natural order and begin with first principles.

    Epic poetry and tragedy, as also comedy, dithyrambic poetry, and most flute-playing and lyre-playing, are all, viewed as a whole, modes of imitation. But they differ from one another in three ways, either in...

    (pp. 2341-2383)
    F. G. Kenyon

    1 . ... [They¹ were tried] by a court empanelled from among the noble families, and sworn upon the sacrifices. The part of accuser was taken by Myron. They were found guilty of the sacrilege, and their bodies were cast out of their graves and their race banished for evermore. In view of this expiation, Epimenides the Cretan performed a purification of the city.

    2 . After this event there was contention for a long time between the upper classes and the populace. Not only was the constitution at this time oligarchical in every respect, but the poorer classes, men,...

    (pp. 2384-2466)

    In the twelfth volume of the Oxford Translation, Sir David Ross published a selection of fragments from Aristotle’s lost works. Ross limited his attention to passages bearing upon Aristotle’s dialogues and upon his logical and philosophical writings. He presented those passages at generous length, including large amounts of context and often transcribing several variants of the same report.

    Like Ross, we have attempted to give a fairly full collection of the fragments of Aristotle’sjuvenilia. which have occupied much scholarly attention in the past five decades, and also of the texts relating to the more philosophically interesting of his lost...

    (pp. 2467-2469)
    (pp. 2470-2488)