Conflicts and Conciliations

Conflicts and Conciliations: The Evolution of Galdos's "Fortunata y Jacinta"

Geoffrey Ribbans
Copyright Date: 1997
Published by: Purdue University Press
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  • Book Info
    Conflicts and Conciliations
    Book Description:

    In this book the author gets to the very core of what makes a successful and dynamic enterprise. Building upon his earlier work, The Ascendant Organization, and slaying a number of business fads and sacred cows along the way, he shows how to energize the enterprise in key areas such as leadership, teamwork, and innovation. With the use of many examples and cases and building upon considerable experience he shows the way forward for companies to achieve a sense of purpose and to energize their organizations. If you are tired of the latest business fad, then this will be the book for you.

    eISBN: 978-1-61249-109-7
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xii)
  4. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Key to Textual History of Fortunata y Jacinta
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. 1-14)

    The novel immediately precedingFortunata y Jacintaamong Benito Pérez Galdós’snovelas contempárdneaswasLo prohibido. On the back of the last page of the manuscript of this novel, Galdós records its writing schedule with scrupulous accuracy: “principiado este manuscrito el 19 de Nov-84 concluido el22 de Abril 85 ... 5 meses y tres días.“The last page of text on the front of this” same sheet bears the date “Marzo de 1885,” which, as its editor James Whiston states, “evidently refers to the completion of PM [Whiston’s designation of the final draft], and the date ‘22 de Abril 85’ on...

  7. Chapter One Structure
    (pp. 15-48)

    No serious editorial problems arise in connection with the published text ofFortunata y Jacinta. Its printed form, as it appeared in four volumes in 1887, constitutes theprincepstext.¹ There are no revisions or changes of substance in other editions. Where by contrast very substantial variations occur is at the prepublication stage. The complete manuscript of the novel has survived and is now in the possession of the Houghton Library of Harvard University; it is catalogued as SPAN 93. On the reverse side of many sheets of the manuscript² (some 926 out of a total of 3,095) are found...

  8. Chapter Two Representation
    (pp. 49-84)

    At the very end of the novel, as the heroine’s body is taken to the cemetery, Galdós presents a discussion on what today we would call metafiction.¹ It runs as follows:

    En el largo trayecto de la Cava al cementerio, que era uno de los del Sur, Segismundo contó al buen Ponce lo que sabia de la historia de Fortunata, que no era poco, sin omitir lo último, que era sin duda lo mejor; a lo que dijo el eximio sentenciador de obras literarias, que habia alli elementos para un drama o novela, aunque a su parecer el tejido artfstico...

  9. Chapter Three Time and Space
    (pp. 85-122)

    The two clearly defined critical positions set out by Gilman and Blanco Aguinaga on the “birth” of Fortunata previously discussed in chapter 1 reveal equally divergent attitudes toward history. The latter sets out “to show how history determines the structure of Galdós’s texts” (“On ‘The Birth”’ 15) and brusquely rejects, as“incorrect readings,”those interpretations based on “triangular structures” associated with Ricardo Gullón (“Estructura”), Boring (13–16), and the “formal mathematical abstractions” of Agnes Gullón (“Bird Motif” 17).

    Also to be considered is another influential approach to history exemplified by Kronik: a criterion which is semiotic and self-reflexive.

    Self-consciousness in the...

  10. Chapter Four Characters in Family and Society
    (pp. 123-162)

    The depiction of the various social classes is, as Blanco Aguinaga contends, crucial to the structure of the novel, even though it does not follow the rigid deterministic pattern he indicates.¹ While there is no doubt that Galdós was acutely aware of class distinctions (even the tenement slums of Mira el Rio Alta in part I have their “capas” [I.9.i.323], just as the cafe society of part III has its hierarchies),² it is far from clear that he thought specifically in terms of irreconcilable class struggle. Rather he saw society as in a state of perpetual fluidity, with a constant...

  11. Chapter Five The Positivist-Idealist Dichotomy
    (pp. 163-192)

    Quoting Fortunata’s phrase about “Un mundo que se ve y otro que está debajo, escondido” (III.5.iv.171), Whiston makes a revealing contrast between the external, conventional side of life and the inner truth. He indicates a sharp division between those characters who live exclusively in the exterior world, the world of “determinismo social” (“personajes pragmáticos como Baldomero, Juanito y doña Lupe”) and those (like Fortunata and Maxi) who are convinced, in one way or another, that “lode dentro gobierna 10 de fuera” (171) or that “No encerrarán entre murallas mi pensamiento” (IV.6.xvi.542). Whiston goes on to observe that

    Si los personajes...

  12. Chapter Six Frustrations and Accommodations
    (pp. 193-226)

    In previous chapters we have seen various sorts of frustration with material circumstances, which mayor may not be susceptible to relief: Juan Pablo, Nicolás, Izquierdo, Ido, Villaamil, all suffer from this condition. In this chapter we are concerned with characters who feel deeply thwarted at a moral or spiritual level in such a way that the constraints they suffer cannot easily be alleviated. Not surprisingly, this type of chronic dissatisfaction typically affects women, the most constricted part of society.¹ Frustration encompasses both the eponymous heroines and Mauricia, while Guillermina comes to a special accommodation of her own devising.² Jacinta’s very...

  13. Chapter Seven Fortunata
    (pp. 227-266)

    We have established in chapter 1 that in part I Fortunata’s story was viewed only from the outside. Indeed, perhaps the most important structural decision Galdós made in his construction of the novel ‘was to defer any direct revealing of Fortunata’s character until the second part and even then to let it emerge piecemeal. In part II the focus is still largely an external one: there is no presentation of her personality. Instead, her dazzling beauty serves as the means to bowl Maxi over when he first sees her in Olmedo’s apartment and provoke his campaign of love and redemption....

  14. Chapter Eight Conclusion
    (pp. 267-284)

    By all conventional standardsFortunata y Jacintaconforms to any general definition of the realist novel. Let us take for example the criteria adopted by Lukács:

    (1) reflection of an epoch as a whole;

    (2) creation of a place and time precisely defined;

    (3) point of view which includes the historical level.

    (qtd. in López-Lundy 151)

    In each of these categories, as we have, seen in chapters 3 and 4, the novel fits exactly. It closely mirrors its period; it is set in an accurately designated time and place; it is imbued with historical connotations. The novel is no less...

  15. Notes
    (pp. 285-318)
  16. Works Consulted
    (pp. 319-340)
  17. Index
    (pp. 341-354)
  18. Back Matter
    (pp. 355-355)