Islam in an Era of Nation-States

Islam in an Era of Nation-States: Politics and Religious Renewal in Muslim Southeast Asia

Robert W. Hefner
Patricia Horvatich
Copyright Date: 1997
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    Islam in an Era of Nation-States
    Book Description:

    The renewal of the Muslim faith, which has occurred not only in Asia but in other parts of the world, has prompted warnings of an imminent "clash of civilizations" between Islam and the West. Islam in an Era of Nation-States examines the history, politics, and meanings of this resurgence in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines and explores its implications for Southeast Asia, the larger Muslim world, and the West. This volume will be of interest to students of Islam, Southeast Asian history, and the anthropology of religion. In examining the politics and meanings of Islamic resurgence, it will also speak to political scientists, religious scholars, and others concerned with culture and politics in the late modern era.

    eISBN: 978-0-8248-6302-9
    Subjects: Religion

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-VI)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. VII-VIII)
  4. Introduction
      (pp. 3-40)
      Robert W. Hefner

      Ours is a time in which visions that animated an earlier era have faded, while those that will shape the coming age remain unclear. The most obvious causes of this world-changing transformation were the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the end of the cold war. In the aftermath of these events, the Western media were full of commentaries attempting to explain the causes and consequences of what had taken place. Some observers saw the events as evidence of an unprecedented shift in world politics, a veritable “end to history” as we know it. The defining feature of this...

  5. PART I. The State and Civic Identities
    • Chapter 2 Appreciating Islam in the Muslim Philippines: AUTHORITY, EXPERIENCE, AND IDENTITY IN COTABATO
      (pp. 43-74)
      Thomas M. McKenna

      More than twenty years of attempts to elucidate the Islamic identity of Philippine Muslims have produced scant illumination. Those efforts, undertaken by a wide range of analysts, have been concerned almost exclusively with determining the origins and essence of an ethnoreligious identity presumed to be shared by the various Muslim ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines (see, for example, Bauzon 1991; George 1980; Glang 1969; Gowing 1979; Madale 1986; Majul 1973). While many of these writers have made significant contributions to our knowledge of the political history of Philippine Muslims, an empirically grounded understanding of Islamic identity in the Muslim Philippines...

    • Chapter 3 Islamization and Democratization in Indonesia
      (pp. 75-128)
      Robert W. Hefner

      One of the most remarkable developments in Indonesian politics in recent years has been the rapprochement of the post-1966 “New Order” government with important segments of the Muslim community. Prior to the decade of the 1990s, many foreign specialists of Indonesia were convinced that the Suharto government was a resolute defender ofabangan-Javanese values,¹ deeply opposed to anything that might expand Muslim influence in Indonesian politics and society. Yet it was President Suharto himself who on December 6, 1990, authorized the formation of Indonesia’s newest and most controversial Muslim social organization, the Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (icmi, Ikatan Cendekiawan...

    • Chapter 4 Traditionalist Islam and the State in Indonesia: THE ROAD TO LEGITIMACY AND RENEWAL
      (pp. 129-154)
      Andrée Feillard

      Since the 1980s one of Indonesia’s oldest and largest Islamic organizations, Nahdlatul Ulama (nu), has attracted increasing attention. Nahdlatul Ulama (Ar., “Rise of Muslim Scholars”) was created in 1926 as a reaction against Muslim reformists who opposed theulama’s authority in the interpretation of religious texts and law, and who condemned popular Islamic practices such as saint worship. Representing economic as well as religious interests, Nahdlatul Ulama soon became an important organization comprising peasants, petty traders, professional religious officials, and politicians from diverse backgrounds. Though support for nu is still primarily rural, Indonesia’s recent urban growth has resulted in the...

  6. PART II. Reformers and Reformism
      (pp. 157-182)
      John R. Bowen

      In the aftermath of the cold war, some in North America have found their next enemy in Islam, an Islam construed to be monolithic and antimodern. Replacing the clash of economies is a clash of civilizations: the secularized West versus overreligious Islam. This dichotomy rests on a particular construction of what it is to be modern, a construction that arose from the European Enlightenment and that celebrates the ideal of a secular public sphere of deliberative discourse. A modern society, in this view, must draw a sharp boundary between the religious values of the individual and the political values of...

    • Chapter 6 The Ahmadiyya Movement in Simunul: ISLAMIC REFORM IN ONE REMOTE AND UNLIKELY PLACE
      (pp. 183-206)
      Patricia Horvatich

      A century ago, Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, a student of Islam, warned his colleagues in the Netherlands East Indies Civil Service that Islam in Indonesia, “which seemed so static, so sunk in a torpid medievalism, was actually changing in fundamental ways, but these changes were so gradual, so subtle, so concentrated in remote, and, to non-Islamic minds, unlikely places that although they take place before our very eyes, they are hidden from those who do not make a careful study of the subject” (Snouck Hurgronje 1906, 280 as quoted in Geertz 1963, 16). Islamischanging in Southeast Asia. Indeed, events...

    • Chapter 7 Identity Construction, Nation Formation, and Islamic Revivalism in Malaysia
      (pp. 207-228)
      A. B. Shamsul

      One of the most perceptive recent observations on the relationship between religion and the modern nation-states in East and Southeast Asia appeared in an essay by Keyes, Hardacre, and Kendall (1994). The authors observed that the complex relationship between religion and nation formation has often engendered what they called a “crisis of authority.” In their words,

      The process of creating modern nation states has … entailed two rather contradictory stances towards religion. While the modernizing stance leads to a deemphasis of ritual practices, the nation-building one leads to the promotion of selected practices and even the invention of new rites....

  7. PART III. Ordinary Muslims
    • Chapter 8 “Ordinary Muslims” and Muslim Resurgents in Contemporary Malaysia: NOTES ON AN AMBIVALENT RELATIONSHIP
      (pp. 231-274)
      Michael G. Peletz

      Recent scholarship on Islam in Malaysia has focused on Malaysia’s Islamic resurgence and the ways in which Malay Muslim reformers and modernists conceptualize their moral communities and visions of and for the future (see, for example, Kessler 1980; Shamsul A. B. 1983; Nagata 1984; Chandra Muzaffar 1987; Muhammad Abu Bakar 1987; Zainah Anwar 1987; Banks 1990; Nash 1991; Jomo and Shabery Cheek 1992; and Husin Mutalib 1993). Such scholarship has clearly enriched our understanding of the theology of the resurgence. It has also shed light on the organizational activities, cultural identities, and life experiences of the resurgents—the vast majority...

    • Chapter 9 Islamization and the Reshaping of Identities in Rural South Sulawesi
      (pp. 275-306)
      Martin Rössler

      Ever since the pioneering studies of Snouck Hurgronje (1893–1895), Indonesian Islam and the processes of social change with which it is connected have been recognized as topics of extraordinary complexity. Recent studies have only served to confirm this impression, revealing enormous diversity within, for example, Javanese Islam, let alone that of the various Muslim peoples throughout the whole of the archipelago (Ellen 1983; Roff 1985; Lombard 1985). In today’s Indonesia, however, this socioreligious diversity has to a certain degree been counteracted by an official ideology locating Muslim identity within the framework of national development and progress (see Boland 1982,...

  8. Afterword
    • Chapter 10 Islam in Contemporary Southeast Asia: HISTORY, COMMUNITY, MORALITY
      (pp. 309-320)
      Barbara D. Metcalf

      The broad themes that resonate throughout this collection are ones shared by many societies in recent times. They reflect the extent to which religious symbols and issues have come to the fore in public life and provide a language for issues of citizenship, ethnicity, shared histories, and morality. Thus, even what might be thought to be intimate issues of family ceremony or dress may now be linked to corporate issues of community and political orientation. If we look for “Islam” in the late twentieth century, one arena of central importance turns out to be the institutions of the nation-state. The...

  9. Contributors
    (pp. 321-322)
  10. Index
    (pp. 323-327)