Ethnic Politics in Europe

Ethnic Politics in Europe: The Power of Norms and Incentives

Judith G. Kelley
Copyright Date: 2004
Pages: 296
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  • Book Info
    Ethnic Politics in Europe
    Book Description:

    This detailed account of ethnic minority politics explains when and how European institutions successfully used norms and incentives to shape domestic policy toward ethnic minorities and why those measures sometimes failed.

    Going beyond traditional analyses, Kelley examines the pivotal engagement by the European Union, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and the Council for Europe in the creation of such policies.

    Following language, education, and citizenship issues during the 1990s in Latvia, Estonia, Slovakia, and Romania, she shows how the combination of membership conditionality and norm-based diplomacy was surprisingly effective at overcoming even significant domestic opposition. However, she also finds that diplomacy alone, without the offer of membership, was ineffective unless domestic opposition to the proposed policies was quite limited.

    As one of the first systematic analyses of political rather than economic conditionality, the book illustrates under what conditions and through what mechanisms institutions influenced domestic policy in the decade, preparing the way for the historic enlargement of the European Union.

    This thoughtful and thorough discussion, based on case studies, quantitative analysis, and interviews with nearly one hundred policymakers and experts, tells an important story about how European organizations helped facilitate peaceful solutions to ethnic tensions--in sharp contrast to the ethnic bloodshed that occurred in the former Yugoslavia during this time. This book's simultaneous assessment of soft diplomacy and stricter conditionality advances a long overdue dialogue between proponents rational choice models and social constructivists. As political requirements increasingly become part of conditionality, it also provides keen policy insights for the strategic choices made by actors in international institutions.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-3565-2
    Subjects: Political Science, Sociology, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Figures and Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xv)
  5. CHAPTER 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-26)

    In 1991 latvia had only recently regained independence from Russia. After years under Soviet rule ethnic Latvians comprised just slightly more than half the population of 2.6 million, while Russian speakers made up more than a million. How should Russian speakers be accommodated? On October 15, 1991, Latvia’s supreme council issued a resolution restoring citizenship only to those who had been citizens of Latvia before 1940 and their descendants, leaving about 700,000 inhabitants without citizenship. At the same time, naturalization requirements were extremely strict. Two years later, in October 1993, with a new citizenship law on the table, an opinion...

  6. Part I. Theory and Data
    • CHAPTER 2 Theoretical Framework
      (pp. 29-53)

      While international actors historically have engaged in the protection of ethnic minorities through various treaties and through the minority protection system developed under the League of Nations, international institutions’ involvement in the 1990s had a quite different character. In this chapter I examine institutional efforts to influence legislation on ethnic issues as well as how institutional factors may shape the effectiveness of such efforts and how domestic factors may influence the outcome of ethnic issues.

      Past efforts to study the effects of international institutions have tended to focus on one particular mechanism—sanctions, conditionality, use of force, or various socialization...

    • CHAPTER 3 Quantifying and Exploring the Data
      (pp. 54-70)

      To analyze the legislative issues related to ethnic minorities from 1990 through 1999 in the four countries, I traced each issue over time and observed how international institutions were or were not involved in the issue, how the legislature addressed the issue, and how the issue in general fit into such larger events as parliamentary changes, elections, institutional developments, and so on. The first step in the analysis was to write systematic timelines putting all domestic and European events into a larger context. Next, I wrote domestic case studies detailing the issue area, the initial preferences of parliament, the preferences...

  7. Part II. Case Studies
    • CHAPTER 4 Lativia: Overcoming Opposition
      (pp. 73-93)

      Latvia’s post–World War II history is similar to that of Estonia. Because of Soviet population policies, by 1989 the Latvian share of Latvia’s population had declined to levels even lower than the Estonian share of Estonia’s population.¹ (See figure 4.1.)

      The non-Latvian population was generally not concentrated in any one geographic area and did not live in border areas with Russia. According to the 1989 census, however, Latvians had become a minority in the eight largest cities. For example, in Latvia’s capital, Riga, in 1994, ethnic Latvians only accounted for 37.7 percent, while ethnic Russians, Belarussians, and Ukrainians were...

    • CHAPTER 5 Estonia: Reluctant Cooperation
      (pp. 94-115)

      As in latvia, the root of the ethnic issues in Estonia can be found in the fifty years of Soviet control after World War II. In the 1930s Estonia was a largely homogenous society with only about 12 percent ethnic minorities, only a few percent of those being Russian. As a result of mass deportations (1940–41), war and mobilization (1941–45), and mass emigration, the population of Estonia decreased from 1,136,000 in October 1939 to 854,000 in January 1945. By 1945 Estonians formed approximately 94 percent of the population.¹ After the war, however, Moscow encouraged large-scale immigration to Estonia...

    • CHAPTER 6 Slovakia: The Meciar Hurdle and Beyond
      (pp. 116-139)

      Slovakia had been primarily under Hungarian rule for centuries when the Slovaks joined with their neighbors to form a new state, Czechoslovakia, in 1918. During and after World War II the government confiscated Hungarians’ property, expelled between seventy thousand and ninety thousand persons to Hungary, and resettled about forty-four thousand Hungarians in Bohemia and Moravia. Following World War II Czechoslovakia became a Communist state. Minority rights were constitutionally guaranteed beginning in 1969, but minority problems persisted under the surface (Vachudova and Snyder 1997). Several policies indirectly targeted the Hungarian minority.¹

      After the collapse of the USSR in 1989 ended Soviet...

    • CHAPTER 7 Romania: The Long Road
      (pp. 140-160)

      The ethnic issue in romania centers mostly on the Hungarian population, as it did in Slovakia. In Romania the Hungarians are heavily concentrated in Transylvania.¹ Ethnic Hungarians in Romania comprise about 8 percent of the overall population, and other minorities, mainly Roma, comprise another 5 to 7 percent. Both ethnic Hungarians and ethnic Romanians of Transylvania have been in the minority as well as in the majority, since Transylvania has shifted between Hungarian and Romanian dominance for centuries. After World War I the Romanians tookcontrol of Transylvania, but in the compromise dealings with Hitler, Hungary won part of Transylvania backduring...

  8. Part III. Evaluation
    • CHAPTER 8 Alternative Explanations: Russia, Hungary, and Democratic Development
      (pp. 163-173)

      Several alternative explanations account for the factors that determine a state’s choice of ethnic minority policies. As realists argue, the homeland, such as Russia or Hungary, may use economic or military influence to direct policies. As the external actors with the greatest direct stake in the outcome, and as reasonably powerful entities, their efforts plausibly spur the accommodation of ethnic minorities. Regardless of international efforts, policies may simply improve over time as the ethnic problems settle and as democratic institutions consolidate. In this case, causal power could wrongly be attributed to international institutions that simply chose to become involved late...

    • CHAPTER 9 Conclusion
      (pp. 174-195)

      Although several international organizations participated actively in eastern Europe’s ethnic politics over the last decade, research on their role has focused on a single institution and the particular strategy it applied. The OSCE has been praised for easing ethnic tensions, but studies have not focused on its concrete policy effects or they have ignored the role of the EU (Michalchuk 1999; Kemp 2001; Ratner 2000). Studies of EU conditionality similarly have disregarded the vast diplomatic efforts of the CE and the OSCE or they have focused on broad democratic trends rather than particular policies (Grabbe 2001; Fierke and Wiener 1999;...

  9. APPENDIX I Methods
    (pp. 197-197)
  10. APPENDIX II Outcome Classification Scheme
    (pp. 198-198)
  11. APPENDIX III Predicted Probabilities
    (pp. 199-199)
  12. APPENDIX IV Interviews
    (pp. 200-202)
  13. Notes
    (pp. 203-241)
  14. References
    (pp. 243-257)
  15. Index
    (pp. 259-276)