A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy

A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy

TRANSLATED AND COMPILED BY WING-TSIT CHAN
Copyright Date: 1963
Pages: 874
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7smn1
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    A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy
    Book Description:

    A Source Book in Chinese Philosophyis a milestone along the complex and difficult road to significant understanding by Westerners of the Asian peoples and a monumental contribution to the cause of philosophy. It is the first anthology of Chinese philosophy to cover its entire historical development. It provides substantial selections from all the great thinkers and schools in every period--ancient, medieval, modern, and contemporary--and includes in their entirety some of the most important classical texts. It deals with the fundamental and technical as well as the more general aspects of Chinese thought. With its new translation of source materials (some translated for the first time), its explanatory aids where necessary, its thoroughgoing scholarly documentation, this volume will be an indispensable guide for scholars, for college students, for serious readers interested in knowing the real China.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-2003-0
    Subjects: Philosophy

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. FOREWORD
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Charles A. Moore

    One of the hopeful signs in these otherwise hectic times in which we are living is the long-overdue realization of the need for mutual understanding between the peoples of the East and those of the West. Genuine understanding of people who are separated from us by great distances or who differ from us in language, in way of life, in social custom, is difficult to achieve, even for those who are sincerely dedicated to this task.

    Such understanding is vital—humanly, intellectually, practically—but it cannot be achieved through any superficial assessment of words or actions which are often unrevealing...

  3. PREFACE
    (pp. ix-xii)
  4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    Wing-tsit Chan
  5. CHRONOLOGY OF DYNASTIES
    (pp. xv-xv)
  6. CHRONOLOGY OF PHILOSOPHERS
    (pp. xvi-xviii)
  7. Table of Contents
    (pp. xix-1)
  8. ABBREVIATIONS AND ABRIDGMENTS
    (pp. 2-2)
  9. 1. THE GROWTH OF HUMANISM
    (pp. 3-13)

    If one word could characterize the entire history of Chinese philosophy, that word would be humanism—not the humanism that denies or slights a Supreme Power, but one that professes the unity of man and Heaven. In this sense, humanism has dominated Chinese thought from the dawn of its history.

    Humanism was an outgrowth, not of speculation, but of historical and social change. The conquest of the Shang (1751-1112 B.C.) by the Chou in 1111 B.C. inaugurated a transition from tribal society to feudal. To consolidate the empire, the Chou challenged human ingenuity and ability, cultivated new trades and talents,...

  10. 2. THE HUMANISM OF CONFUCIUS
    (pp. 14-48)

    Confucius (551-479 B.C.) can truly be said to have molded Chinese civilization in general. It may seem far-fetched, however, to say that he molded Chinese philosophy in particular—that he determined the direction or established the pattern of later Chinese philosophical developments—yet there is more truth in the statement than is usually realized.

    Neo-Confucianism, the full flowering of Chinese thought, developed during the last eight hundred years. Its major topics of debate, especially in the Sung (960-1279) and Ming (1368-1644) periods, are the nature and principle (li) of man and things. (For this reason it is called the School...

  11. 3. IDEALISTIC CONFUCIANISM: MENCIUS
    (pp. 49-83)

    The career of Mencius (371-289 B.C.?) was amazingly similar to that of Confucius, whom he proclaimed the greatest sage.¹ Like Confucius, he was born in what is modern Shantung province. Like Confucius, he was a professional teacher, having studied under the pupils of the grandson of Confucius. Like Confucius, he idolized the legendary sage-emperors.² Like Confucius, he lived in a period of political struggle, moral chaos, and intellectual conflicts. Like Confucius, he had a sense of mission, if only to suppress “perversive doctrines.”³ To this end he debated with scholars and attacked his opponents, specially the followers of Mo Tzu...

  12. 4. MORAL AND SOCIAL PROGRAMS: THE GREAT LEARNING
    (pp. 84-94)

    The importance of this little Classic is far greater than its small size would suggest. It gives the Confucian educational, moral, and political programs in a nutshell, neatly summed up in the so-called “three items”: manifesting the clear character of man, loving the people, and abiding in the highest good; and in the “eight steps”: the investigation of things, extension of knowledge, sincerity of the will, rectification of the mind, cultivation of the personal life, regulation of the family, national order, and world peace. Moreover, it is the central Confucian doctrine of humanity (jen) in application. Confucius said that there...

  13. 5. SPIRITUAL DIMENSIONS: THE DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN
    (pp. 95-114)

    TheDoctrine of the Meanand theGreat Learningare often mentioned together. Both constitute a chapter in theLi chi (Book of Rites)and were selected by Chu Hsi (1130-1200) to form the “Four Books” with theAnalectsand theBook of Mencius. Both became Classics and basic texts for civil service examinations from 1313 until 1905. Both exerted tremendous influence in China in the last eight hundred years, especially on Neo-Confucianism, which looked to them as two of their main sources of inspiration. But they are different in many ways. TheGreat Learningdeals with social and political...

  14. 6. NATURALISTIC CONFUCIANISM: HSÜN TZU
    (pp. 115-135)

    Mencius and Hsün Tzu (fl. 298-238 B.C.) have generally been considered as representing the two divergent tendencies of idealistic Confucianism and naturalistic Confucianism in ancient China. Whether these two tendencies were derived, correspondingly, from theDoctrine of the Meanand theGreat Learningis not clear. At any rate, by teaching the doctrine of the original evil nature of man and the necessity for its control through law and rules of propriety (li), Hsün Tzu stood diametrically opposed to Mencius whose doctrine professed the original goodness of human nature and moral intuition as the source of political and social development....

  15. 7. THE NATURAL WAY OF LAO TZU
    (pp. 136-176)

    Chinese civilization and the Chinese character would have been utterly different if the bookLao Tzuhad never been written. In fact, even Confucianism, the dominant system in Chinese history and thought, would not have been the same, for like Buddhism, it has not escaped Taoist influence. No one can hope to understand Chinese philosophy, religion, government, art, medicine—or even cooking—without a real appreciation of the profound philosophy taught in this little book. It is true that, while Confucianism emphasizes social order and an active life, Taoism concentrates on individual life and tranquillity, thus suggesting that Taoism plays...

  16. 8. THE MYSTICAL WAY OF CHUANG TZU
    (pp. 177-210)

    Chuang tzu (bet. 399 and 295 B.C.) has always fascinated the Chinese mind. He takes his readers to undreamed of lands and stimulates them through conversations of the shadow, the skeleton, and the north wind. His freshness of insight and broadness of vision are in themselves inspiring. He seems to transcend the mundane world, yet he is always in the very depth of daily life. He is quietistic, yet for him life moves on like a galloping horse. He is mystical, but at the same time he follows reason as the leading light.

    All this is a direct product of...

  17. 9. MO TZU'S DOCTRINES OF UNIVERSAL LOVE, HEAVEN, AND SOCIAL WELFARE
    (pp. 211-231)

    Students of Chinese thought are likely to think that Confucianism and Taoism have been the two outstanding indigenous philosophical systems in China. This is true so far as the last two thousand years are concerned. In ancient China, up to the beginning of the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), the greatest schools were Confucianism and Moism.¹ They dominated the intellectual scene from the fifth to at least the third century B.C. And they vigorously attacked each other.

    The two were bitter enemies because in their doctrines they were diametrically opposed. While Confucius took the Western Chou (1111-770 B.C.) as his...

  18. 10. DEBATES ON METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS: THE LOGICIANS
    (pp. 232-243)

    Practically all major ancient Chinese philosophical schools were greatly concerned with the relationship between names and actuality, whether for its social and moral significance (as in Confucianism), for its metaphysical import (as in Taoism), or for political control (as in Legalism). None of them was interested in the logical aspect of the problem. Hsün Tzu's (fl. 298-238 B.C.) rectification of names comes close to it, but his objective was still moral and social. The only school that was primarily devoted to logical considerations was the Logicians, who constituted one of the smallest schools and exercised no influence whatsoever after their...

  19. 11. THE YIN YANG SCHOOL
    (pp. 244-250)

    The yin yang doctrine is very simple but its influence has been extensive. No aspect of Chinese civilization—whether metaphysics, medicine, government, or art—has escaped its imprint. In simple terms, the doctrine teaches that all things and events are products of two elements, forces, or principles: yin, which is negative, passive, weak, and destructive, and yang, which is positive, active, strong, and constructive. The theory is associated with that of the Five Agents or Elements (wu-hsing¹, Metal, Wood, Water, Fire, and Earth) which may be taken as an elaboration of the yin yang idea but actually adds the important...

  20. 12. LEGALISM
    (pp. 251-261)

    The Legalist School was the most radical of all ancient Chinese schools. It rejected the moral standards of the Confucianists and the religious sanction of the Moists in favor of power. It accepted no authority except that of the ruler and looked for no precedent. Its aim was political control of the state and the population, a control to be achieved through an intensive set of laws, backed up by generous rewards and severe punishments. According to their theory, aggression, war, and regimentation would be used without hesitation so long as they contributed to the power of the ruler.

    It...

  21. 13. THE PHILOSOPHY OF CHANGE
    (pp. 262-270)

    TheBook of Changes (I Ching)¹ grew out of the ancient practice of divination. Its text is very cryptic and no definite philosophical conclusion can be drawn from it. In the commentaries, however, which have been ascribed to Confucius by tradition but to unknown writers three or four centuries later by some scholars, there is a clear outline of a rational approach to a well-ordered and dynamic universe. It is a universe of constant change, and whatever issues from it is good. One is reminded of “perfect sincerity” in theDoctrine of the Mean, which is the source of the...

  22. 14. YIN YANG CONFUCIANISM: TUNG CHUNG-SHU
    (pp. 271-288)

    On the surface, Tung Chung-shu (c.179-c.104 B.C.) seems to be of only minor philosophical interest, but historically he is of the utmost importance. He was chiefly instrumental in making Confucianism the state doctrine in 136 B. C. This supremacy excluded other scholl, and lasted until 1905. But a closer examination of his philosophy reveal some extremely significant developments. In the Yin Yang School, the universe is conceived of as a well-coordinated system in which every thing is related to everything else. In theBook of Changesthis order is conceived of as a process of transformation. In Tung Chung-shu, however,...

  23. 15. TAOISTIC CONFUCIANISM: YANG HSIUNG
    (pp. 289-291)

    Yang hsiung (53 B.C.-A.D. 18) is usually given a position in the history of Chinese thought, though a minor one, because of his doctrine of human nature as a mixture of good and evil. The theory is asserted only in a sentence and is not elaborated upon or argued. Still it represents a real advance because it avoids the extremes of Mencius and Hsün Tzu (fl. 298-238 B.C.) and the arbitrary division into the two levels of nature and feelings by Tung Chung-shu (c. 179-c. 104 B.C.), and offers a significant alternative. It also underlines the fact that the problem...

  24. 16. THE NATURALISM OF WANG CH'UNG
    (pp. 292-304)

    Considerable interest in Wang Ch'ung (27-100?) has been aroused in the last several decades. In our age of critical spirit, skepticism, scientific method, demand for evidence, and revolt against the past, this is perfectly natural, for Wang Ch'ung represents all these. A thoroughly independent thinker, he was not identified with any school and has often been classified as a member of the Miscellaneous School. In his metaphysics, he is definitely Taoistic, somewhat modified by the idea of the interfusion and intermingling of the yin and yang forces in theBook of Changes. But even here he is different, for while...

  25. 17. THE TAOISM OF HUAI-NAN TZU
    (pp. 305-308)

    Huai-nan Tzu (d. 122 B.C.) was the most prominent Taoist philosopher between ancient Taoism of the fourth century B.C. and Neo-Taoism of the third and fourth centuries A.D. His originality is negligible, but he maintained Taoism at the time when Confucianism had just assumed the dominant and exclusive role in government as well as in the realm of thought. Although his ideas are no more than reiteration and elaboration of Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu, at least he kept the fire of Taoism burning and helped to make possible the emergence of Neo-Taoism. Because of his essentially rational approach to...

  26. 18. NEGATIVE TAOISM IN THE LIEH TZU AND THE “YANG CHU CHAPTER”
    (pp. 309-313)

    The Taoism of Lao Tzu, Chuang Tzu, and Huai-nan Tzu (d.122 B.C.), were all positive in that each represents something new. The Taoism in theLieh Tzuand its "Yang Chu Chapter," however, is purely negative.

    The ideas of the equality of all things, indifference to life and death, following one's nature, and accepting one's fate are all original ingredients of Taoism. But the hedonistic philosophy in the "Yang Chu Chapter" is directly opposed to the Taoist philosophy of having no desire. In theLieh Tzu, the Taoist doctrine of inaction, i.e., taking no artificial action, has degenerated into a...

  27. 19. NEO-TAOISM
    (pp. 314-335)

    Too often the intellectual movement in the Wei-Chin period (220-420) is described as purely an escape from reality. Political conditions at the time certainly tend to support such a conclusion. During the last four decades of the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), China was divided into three states. In addition to continuous warfare, there were repeated floods and droughts. Population was reduced to perhaps the lowest point in twenty-five centuries. Eunuchs and royal relatives controlled the court, which was marked by intrigue and murders. The founder of the Wei (220-265) came to power through usurpation, and his court repeated the...

  28. 20. THE SEVEN EARLY BUDDHIST SCHOOLS
    (pp. 336-342)

    When Buddhism first arrived in China,¹ it was mixed up with popular religious beliefs and practices. As translation of Buddhist scriptures began in the middle of the second century,² Buddhist thought started to develop in China. By the first quarter of the third century, there had been two Buddhist movements of thought:dhyana(concentration) andprajña(wisdom). The objective ofdhyanawas so to meditate and to achieve calmness of mind as to remove ignorance and delusions, while that ofprajñawas to gain the wisdom that things possess no self-nature (svabhava).

    As time went on, more and moreprajña...

  29. 21. SENG-CHAO'S DOCTRINE OF REALITY
    (pp. 343-356)

    The seven schools discussed in the preceding chapter represent individual philosophers and isolated theories without any systematic philosophy. Moreover, they are largely Chinese. With Seng-chao (384-414), however, Chinese Buddhist philosophy entered upon a new stage: for the first time there was a systematic philosophy. Moreover, his philosophy helped to root firmly on Chinese soil a Buddhist philosophy from India, namely, the Three-Treatise or the Middle Doctrine School.

    The credit for the growth of systematic development of Buddhist philosophy in China must go to Kumarajiva (344-413), for it was he who first translated the really philosophical texts into Chinese and it...

  30. 22. THE PHILOSOPHY OF EMPTINESS: CHI-TSANG OF THE THREE-TREATISE SCHOOL
    (pp. 357-369)

    The Three-Treatise School and the Consciousness-Only School represented the two major developments of Mahayana or Great Vehicle philosophy in India. The former insists that dharmas (elements of existence)¹ and their causes are unreal and has therefore been known as the School of Non-being, while the latter insists that they are real and has therefore been known as the School of Being. Both were introduced into China by outstanding philosophers. Both had something profound and subtle to offer which China had never known. Both lasted for several centuries. But both failed to exert lasting influence on Chinese thought. It is important...

  31. 23. BUDDHIST IDEALISM: HSÜAN-TSANG OF THE CONSCIOUSNESS-ONLY SCHOOL
    (pp. 370-395)

    In subtlety of concepts and refinement of analysis, the Consciousness-Only School¹ is the most philosophical of Buddhist schools. Originally called Yogacara (way of yoga), it was founded by Asanga (c.410-c.500) for the purpose of mystical enlightenment through metaphysical reflections. When his younger brother Vasubandhu (c.420-c.500) systematized and developed its philosophical views, he designated its tenet as Consciousness-Only. It and the Three-Treatise School dominated the Chinese intellectual scene and rivaled each other from the fifth to the seventh century.

    The school first existed as the She-lun School² but was eventually replaced by the Consciousness-Only School of Hs-an-tsang8 (596-664). Not being satisfied...

  32. 24. THE T'IEN-T'AI PHILOSOPHY OF PERFECT HARMONY
    (pp. 396-405)

    All Buddhist schools claim to teach the Middle Path of the Buddha but they differ radically in their interpretations. For the Three-Treatise School, it connotes absolute Emptiness without specific characters. For the Consciousness-Only School, it is identified with Thusness,¹ which also transcends all specific characters.² The Middle Path of both these schools is transcendent although the latter attempts to arrive at a middle ground between realism and nihilism. In the T'ien-t'ai School, however, the Middle Path means a synthesis of phenomenon and noumenon, in which transcendence and immanence are harmonized so that "every color or fragrance is none other than...

  33. 25. THE ONE-AND-ALL PHILOSOPHY: FA-TSANG OF THE HUA-YEN SCHOOL
    (pp. 406-424)

    The Hua-yen philosophy represents the highest development of Chinese Buddhist thought. It is the most syncretic, and with the philosophy of T'ien-t'ai, forms the metaphysical basis of Chinese Buddhism in the last millennium. Except for the Zen School, it is the most Chinese and has exercised the greatest influence on Neo-Confucian thought.

    The teachings of the school are based on theHua-yen ching(Flowery Splendor Scripture)¹ and for this reason the school is called Hua-yen (Flowery Splendor).² But in India it never existed as a school. It was in China that it became a movement and a strong one. For...

  34. 26. THE ZEN (CH'AN) SCHOOL OF SUDDEN ENLIGHTENMENT
    (pp. 425-449)

    The Ch'an Movement, better known as Zen, has been described by Hu Shih (1891-1962) as a "reformation or revolution in Buddhism,"¹ and by Suzuki as a movement in which "the Chinese mind completely asserted itself, in a sense, in opposition to the Indian mind. Zen could not rise and flourish in any other land or among any other people."² The two outstanding scholars sharply differ in their approaches to Zen: the one, historical; the other, religious and mystical. But they reinforce each other in characterizing Zen's development in Chinese history, for it was through a revolution that Ch'an came completely...

  35. 27. THE REVIVAL OF CONFUCIANISM: HAN YÜ AND LI AO
    (pp. 450-459)

    Han Yü (768-824) and Li Ao (ft. 798) are usually considered as forerunners of the Neo-Confucianism that developed in the eleventh century. Actually, they were more than that. For they were not merely precursors of a movement; they did much to determine its direction.

    As philosophers they are quite negligible. There is nothing new in their theories of human nature, and their dualism of good nature and evil feelings is but a continuation of a worn-out theory some eight hundred years old. Han Yü's discussion of the Way is superficial and, unlike that of the Taoists and Buddhists, does not...

  36. 28. THE NEO-CONFUCIAN METAPHYSICS AND ETHICS IN CHOU TUN-I
    (pp. 460-480)

    Neo-Confucianism may be traced to earlier Confucianists, but the one who really opened its vista and determined its direction was Chou Tun-i (Chou Lien-hsi,¹ 1017-1073), who is generally called the pioneer of Neo-Confucianism. In two short treatises, theT'ai-chi-t'u shuo(An Explanation of the Diagram of the Great Ultimate) and theT'ung-shu(Penetrating theBook of Changes), he laid the pattern of metaphysics and ethics for later Neo-Confucianism. Whether he got the diagram from a Taoist priest is a debatable point, but the strong Taoist influence on him is unmistakable. The very concept of the Ultimate of Non-being (Wu-chi) comes...

  37. 29. THE NUMERICAL AND OBJECTIVE TENDENCIES IN SHAO YUNG
    (pp. 481-494)

    In spite of its metaphysics, Neo-Confucianism as a whole is homocentric. It proceeds from man to embrace the whole universe. In the case of Shao Yung (Shao K'ang-chieh, Shao Yao-fu, 1011-1077), however, the direction is reversed. To him, man is only one of many creatures, though the most important one, and he is only part of an extensive process of universal operation. This is clear from his major concepts.

    Shao's fundamental concepts are three. First, there are the supreme principles governing the universe. Second, these principles can be discerned in terms of numbers. And third, the best knowledge of them...

  38. 30. CHANG TSAI'S PHILOSOPHY OF MATERIAL FORCE
    (pp. 495-517)

    Like other Neo-Confucianists, Chang Tsai (Chang Heng-ch'ü, 1020-1077) drew his inspiration chiefly from theBook of Changes. But unlike Chou Tun-i (Chou Lien-hsi, 1017-1073) according to whom evolution proceeds from the Great Ultimate through the two material forces (yin and yang) and the Five Agents (Metal, Wood, Water, Fire, and Earth) to the myriad things, and unlike Shao Yung (1011-1077) according to whom evolution proceeds from the Great Ultimate through the two material forces and other stages to concrete things, Chang Tsai identifies material force (ch'i) with the Great Ultimate itself. He discards both yin and yang and the Five...

  39. 31. THE IDEALISTIC TENDENCY IN CH'ENG HAO
    (pp. 518-543)

    The two Ch'eng brothers (Ch'eng Hao, also called Ch'eng Ming-tao, 1032-1085, and Ch'eng I, also called Ch'eng I-ch'uan, 1033-1107) represent a unique and an extremely interesting case in the history of Chinese philosophy. Both brothers became outstanding philosophers, reminding one of the two brothers, Asanga (c.410-c.500) and Vasubandhu (c.420-c.500) in the history of Indian philosophy. They were students of Chou Tun-i (Chou Lien-hsi, 1017-1073), friends of Shao Yung (1011-1077), and nephews of Chang Tsai (Chang Heng-ch'ü, 1020-1077).¹ These five are often called the Five Masters of eleventh-century Chinese philosophy. As noted before, the two brothers set the pattern for Neo-Confucianism....

  40. 32. THE RATIONALISTIC TENDENCY IN CH'ENG I
    (pp. 544-571)

    The great importance of Ch'eng I (Ch'eng I-ch'uan, 1033-1107) and his elder brother Ch'eng Hao (Ch'eng Ming-tao, 1032-1085) in the history of Chinese philosophy, the origin of their ideas, and their fundamental agreement in their basic concept of principle (li) have been dealt with in the previous chapter. As indicated there, with reference to principle, while Ch'eng Hao emphasizes its aspect of production and reproduction, Ch'eng I emphasizes the aspect of the harmony of one and many. His saying, "Principle is one but its manifestations are many,"¹ has become one of the most celebrated philosophical statements in China. It also...

  41. 33. THE UNITY OF MIND AND PRINCIPLE IN LU HSIANG-SHAN
    (pp. 572-587)

    We have seen that in the Ch'eng brothers there was a strong emphasis on the single and the fundamental. For Lu Hsiang-shan (Lu-Chiu-yüan, 1139-1193),¹ these formed the very bases of his philosophy and methodology as well as his personality.

    As a man, he led a simple life, devoting much of it to lecturing on moral principles. Thousands of scholars gathered to listen to his simple and straight lectures, which always went directly into the fundamentals. In his lecture on righteousness versus profit, in 1183, he moved his audience to tears. In methodology, he rejected details and superfluous writing and advocated...

  42. 34. THE GREAT SYNTHESIS IN CHU HSI
    (pp. 588-653)

    No one has exercised greater influence on Chinese thought than Chu Hsi (Chu Yüan-hui, 1130-1200), except Confucius, Mencius, Lao Tzu, and Chuang Tzu. He gave Confucianism new meaning and for centuries dominated not only Chinese thought but the thought of Korea and Japan as well.

    Our philosopher early distinguished himself as a patriot-scholar, having repeatedly petitioned the emperor to practice the Confucian principles of "the investigation of things" and "the extension of knowledge," to impeach inefficient officials, and not to make peace with the invading enemy. But he preferred a life of peace and poverty. From 1163 to 1178, he...

  43. 35. DYNAMIC IDEALISM IN WANG YANG-MING
    (pp. 654-691)

    The dynamic idealism of Wang Yang-ming (Wang Shou-jen, 1472-1529)¹ dominated China during his lifetime and for 150 years thereafter. Confucius, Mencius, Chu Hsi (1300-1200) and others have exerted stronger influence on Chinese thought, but they had prominent rivals whereas Wang shone alone.

    The reason for his strong impact lies in the dynamic quality of his philosophy. It was the result of the unhealthy state of Chu Hsi's philosophy, on the one hand, and the bitterness of Wang's own life and time, on the other.

    Since 1313 Chu Hsi's interpretation of Confucianism had been made orthodox and the basis of the...

  44. 36. THE MATERIALISM OF WANG FU-CHIH
    (pp. 692-702)

    It has taken two hundred years to appreciate the philosophical significance of Wang Fu-chih (Wang Ch'shan, 1619-1692). Son of a scholar, he passed the civil service examination and obtained the first degree in 1642. By that time, the Manchus were already overrunning China. In 1648, as the Manchus oppressed his native province of Hunan, he raised a small army to fight them and to save the Ming dynasty 1368-1644). After his inevitable defeat, he retired at the age of thirty-three to the mountains near his home, and for forty years dedicated his life to writing, covering both ancient and modern...

  45. 37. PRACTICAL CONFUCIANISM IN YEN YÜAN
    (pp. 703-708)

    In reaction to the speculative Neo-Confucianism of Sung (960-1279) and Ming (1368-1644) times and to some extent under the influence of Western knowledge introduced by Jesuits, Confucianists in the seventeenth century turned to practical learning and objective truth. Both Ku Yen-wu (1613-1682) and Yen Jo-ch'ü (1636-1704), the two leading Confucianists of the century, attacked Sung-Ming Neo-Confucianism and demanded practical and objective study. We have already seen Wang Fu-chih's (Wang Ch'uan-shan, 1619-1692) radical departure from earlier Neo-Confucianism. Yen Yüan (Yen Hsi-chai, 1635-1704)¹ went much further than all of them. In spite of the new spirit, the general tendency at the time...

  46. 38. TAI CHEN'S PHILOSOPHY OF PRINCIPLE AS ORDER
    (pp. 709-722)

    In eighteenth-century China, the rationalistic Neo-Confucianism of Chu Hsi (1130-1200) was still influential, but the tide had turned against it. The movement, inaugurated by Ku Yen-wu (1613-1682) and Yen Jo-ch'ü (1636-1704), to search for objective truth and shun speculation had by this time become strong and extensive. Scholars refused to accept anything without evidence, and their sole interest was to get at the truth through concrete facts. Consequently, the movement has been called "Investigations Based on Evidence." Although their center of interest was still the Confucian Classics, they were deeply engaged in studying such concrete subjects as philology, history, astronomy,...

  47. 39. K'ANG YU-WEI'S PHILOSOPHY OF GREAT UNITY
    (pp. 723-736)

    Like Most Confucianists, K'ang Yu-wei (1858-1927)¹ attempted to put Confucian teachings into practice in government and society. But as no other Confucianist had ever done, he changed the traditional concepts of Confucius, of the Confucian Classics, and of certain fundamental Confucian doctrines for the sake of reform.

    Several factors made this transformation unavoidable. In the last decades of the nineteenth century, the call for reform was getting louder and louder in China. The influence of Western science and Christianity was increasingly felt. Interest in Buddhism was being revived. The controversy between the Modern Script School of those who upheld the...

  48. 40. THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMANITY (JEN) IN T'AN SSU-T'UNG
    (pp. 737-742)

    T'an Ssu-t'ung (1865-1898) is a replica of K'ang Yu-wei (1858- 1927) on a small scale.¹ Like K'ang, he followed the idealistic Neo-Confucianism of Lu Hsiang-shan (Lu Chiu-yüan, 1139-1193) and Wang Yang-ming (Wang Shou-jen, 1472-1529), was a syncretist in lumping together Confucianism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Western science, was a reformer, and propounded a philosophy of universalism.

    T'an's philosophy is presented and expounded in hisJen-hsüeh(Philosophy of Humanity). According to Liang Ch'i-ch'ao (1873-1929), it is an elaboration of K'ang's basic doctrine.² He never studied under K'ang and met him only during the Hundred Days Reform in 1898. When that movement collapsed...

  49. 41. CHANG TUNG-SUN'S THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
    (pp. 743-750)

    Not since the third century B.C. have there been "one hundred schools" of thought contending in China as in the twentieth century. The combination of Western thought and revolt against traditional heritage caused many intellectual currents to run in all directions. The introduction of modern Western philosophy began with Yen Fu's (1853-1921) translation of Huxley'sEvolution and Ethicsin 1898. His translation of works of Mill, Spencer, and Montesquieu soon followed. At the turn of the century, ideas of Schopenhauer, Kant, Nietzsche, Rousseau, Tolstoi, and Kropotkin were imported. After the intellectual renaissance of 1917, the movement advanced at rapid pace....

  50. 42. THE NEW RATIONALISTIC CONFUCIANISM: FUNG YU-LAN
    (pp. 751-762)

    There is no doubt that Fung Yu-lan (1895—) has been the most outstanding philosopher in China in the last thirty years.¹ He was already on the way to sure prominence when he published his two-volumeHistory of Chinese Philosophy² in 1930, 1934. With the publication of hisHsin li-hsüeh(The New Rational Philosophy) in 1939, his position as the leading Chinese philosopher was firmly established. It is the most original Chinese philosophical work in this century. It has been the most discussed. Aside from Hsiung Shih-li'sHsin wei-shih lun(New Doctrine of Consciousness-Only) it is also the only work in...

  51. 43. THE NEW IDEALISTIC CONFUCIANISM: HSIUNG SHIH-LI
    (pp. 763-772)

    Just as fung Yu-lan has attempted to reconstruct rationalistic Neo- Confucianism, so Hsiung Shih-li (1883-1968) has tried to reconstruct idealistic Neo-Confucianism. He has written eight books on his philosophy.¹ The whole system is systematically presented in theHsin weishih lun(New Doctrine of Consciousness-Only, 1944).²

    According to its central thesis, reality is perpetual transformation, consisting of "closing" and "opening" which are a process of unceasing production and reproduction. The "original substance" is in perpetual transition at every instant, arising anew again and again, thus resulting in many manifestations. But reality and manifestation, or substance and function, are one. In its...

  52. 44. CHINESE PHILOSOPHY IN COMMUNIST CHINA
    (pp. 773-782)

    Philosophy in Communist China can be summed up in one word, "Maoism."

    Mao Tse-tung (1893—) has not claimed to be a philosopher, and he has not been labeled as such. But his ideas have determined the directions in which philosophy has been developing in New China since its establishment in 1949. Of his many works, two are of extreme importance in this connection, namely,On Practice(1937) andOn New Democracy(1940).¹ In the former, the nature of philosophy for New China is defined and in the latter the future of Chinese traditional philosophy is virtually decided.

    The thesis...

  53. APPENDIX: ON TRANSLATING CERTAIN CHINESE PHILOSOPHICAL TERMS
    (pp. 783-792)
  54. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 793-812)
  55. A GLOSSARY OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    (pp. 813-832)
  56. Index
    (pp. 833-862)