Canada Among Nations, 2006

Canada Among Nations, 2006: Minorities and Priorities

Copyright Date: 2006
Pages: 384
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  • Book Info
    Canada Among Nations, 2006
    Book Description:

    Contributors include Marie Bernard-Meunier (Atlantik Brücke), David Black (Dalhousie), Adam Chapnick (Toronto), Ann Denholm Crosby (York), Roy Culpeper (The North-South Institute), Christina Gabriel (Carleton), John Kirton (Toronto), Wenran Jiang (Alberta), David Malone (Foreign Affairs Canada), Nelson Michaud (École nationale d'administration publique), Isidro Morales (School for International Service), Christopher Sands (Center for Strategic and International Studies), Daniel Schwanen (The Centre for International Governance Innovation), Yasmine Shamsie (Wilfrid Laurier), Elinor Sloan (Carleton), Andrew F. Cooper (The Centre for International Governance Innovation), and Dane Rowlands (The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs)

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7587-5
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. viii-x)
    Fen Osler Hampson

    Minorities and Priorities,the twenty-second consecutive volume in theCanada Among Nationsseries, contains a number of important and current themes in respect to Canada’s international role. Specifically, it explores the new foreign policy priorities of Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s minority Conservative government, which won the country’s 39thfederal election on 23 January 2006. Although the Conservatives ran their campaign on a series of election promises that focused almost exclusively on domestic priorities, international relations quickly forced itself onto the their agenda once they took office. In the initial months after the election, the government had to deal with the...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
    Andrew F. Cooper and Dane Rowlands
  5. Abbreviations
    (pp. xiii-2)
  6. 1 Positioning Policy Priorities in a Minority Context: Prospects for the Harper Government
    (pp. 3-24)

    The Canadian federal election of January 2006 brought to an end more than a dozen years of Liberal rule. The shaky year-and-a-half old minority government led by Paul Martin was replaced by the minority government of Stephen Harper and his Conservative Party. This state of transition – with both a dramatic shift between different minority governments and their priorities – is at the heart of the 2006 volume ofCanada Among Nations. Such a shift provides a stark contrast to the last transition from Liberals to Conservatives. In 1984, Brian Mulroney came to power with a massive parliamentary majority, but with little...

    • 2 Compassion, Realism, Engagement and Focus: A Conservative Foreign Policy Thematic
      (pp. 27-33)

      Canada’s foreign policy context springs from its unique position in a world where more often than not, aggression and responses to aggression shape the foreign policy of other countries. The first priority of Canadian foreign policy in these turbulent times must be ensuring the right balance between idealism and robust practicality. What can Canada pragmatically accomplish and are its goals attainable in the world-wide arena? Religious extremist and terrorist groups in the larger world are threatening the values we hold dear; those of civility, democracy, understanding and acceptance of cultural diversity, the adherence to the rule of law, and the...

    • 3 Harper’s “Made in Canada” Global Leadership
      (pp. 34-57)

      On 23 January 2006, Canadians elected Stephen Harper’s Conservatives with a minority government of 124 seats in the 308 seat House of Commons. Two weeks later, the 46 year old western Canadian was sworn in as Canada’s 22ndPrime Minister. Even before he assumed the office, the debate over where Canadian foreign policy would go under Harper’s leadership had erupted in full force. It continued along much the same lines for his first 100 days in office, which came to a close in mid-May.

      The first and most popular school of thought suggested that the Conservatives would pursue a ‘restrained...

    • 4 Caught In-between Traditions: A Minority Conservative Government and Canadian Foreign Policy
      (pp. 58-76)

      On 13 March 2006, in the midst of a public debate at home over the legitimacy of the Canadian mission in Afghanistan, newly installed Prime Minister Stephen Harper boldly traveled to Kandahar airfield to rally support. His speech was notable for its staunch expression of internationalism. “Our Canada is a great place,” he said, “but Canada is not an island.” Later, in a section called “The Canadian Leadership Tradition,” he addressed the soldiers directly: “Your work is about more than just defending Canada’s interest. It’s also about demonstrating an international leadership role for our country. Not carping from the sidelines,...

    • 5 UN Reform: A Sisyphean Task
      (pp. 79-108)

      Calls for United Nations reform have intensified since 2003, the year in which the UN Security Council deadlocked on the use of force against Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq.¹ The reform process was initiated by a series of reports, instigated by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, appearing in late 2004 and early 2005.² Since then, progress by member-states towards reform has been halting at best and the atmosphere offin de regimemalaise at the UN, in Annan’s last year of office, deepened (see Zedillo, 2005; Berdalb, 2005: 7–31; Luck, 2005: 143–52). This chapter examines the origins of the...

    • 6 Did You Say Europe? How Canada Ignores Europe and Why That Is Wrong
      (pp. 109-124)

      Canada’s old obsession with the United States and new obsession with emerging markets leave little room for Europe, old or new, as described so famously by Donald Rumsfeld. While both obsessions may be quite legitimate they reflect an international agenda dictated by trade interests alone. The focus of this chapter on Europe is meant to illustrate the advantages of taking a broader view of our interests, and that there is more to Canada than foreign trade. If Canada wants to play a role in the world that matches its rhetoric, it will need to enter into strong partnerships with countries...

    • 7 The Rising Importance of Third-Country Issues in Canada’s Relations with the United States
      (pp. 125-144)

      The Conservative government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper is committed to the improvement of Canada’s relations with the United States, just as the Liberal government of Prime Minister Paul Martin claimed to have been prior to the January 2006 general election. The efforts of the Martin government were modestly successful, in that Martin was able to exert greater discipline against outbursts of anti-American comments by members of his party caucus and staff than had been his immediate predecessor, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. Martin also improved the sense of professionalism in the Canadian management of the relationship. Yet, notwithstanding these efforts,...

    • 8 Canada’s International Security Policy under a Conservative Government
      (pp. 145-163)

      One of the most important considerations that must weigh in the mind of anyone becoming prime minister of Canada is how to guarantee the security of the country’s citizens. This is an enormous responsibility and is the primary obligation of any federal government. International security policy is concerned with developing strategies to guard against threats to national security, which can be defined as actions or sequences of events that threaten to degrade – drastically and over a relatively brief span of time – one or more of the values citizens hold essential to their way of life. It is impossible to talk...

    • 9 The New Conservative Government and Missile Defence: Is Canadian Participation Back on the Agenda, or Was It Ever Off?
      (pp. 164-184)

      In response to public pressure, the Liberal government announced on 24 February 2005 that Canada would not participate in the American missile defence system. The government subsequently argued that, “Canada’s principle approach to address the missile threat is prevention, through non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament (NACD) measures” (Canada, 2005: 2). Clearly, it seemed, the Liberals preferred prevention through arms control over deterrence through military means.

      By apparent contrast, less than one month after the Liberal announcement of Canadian non-participation, Stephen Harper, the leader of the Conservative Party, announced that his party supported “Canada’s participation in negotiation of a North American...

    • 10 Charting Canadian Immigration Policy in the New Millennium
      (pp. 187-208)

      Immigration policy and politics is located at the intersection of international and domestic realms. The right to control the entry and exit of persons to a territory and the distinction between nationals and non-nationals is a critical aspect of state sovereignty. The governance of international migration is shaped by relations between states and is the subject of joint state actions (Weiner, 2006: 96–9). This said, immigration policy is also squarely situated within the realm of domestic politics as immigration affects population demographics, labour market dynamics and the provision of social goods. This chapter reviews some key directions in Canadian...

    • 11 It’s Not Just Afghanistan or Darfur: Canada’s Peacebuilding Efforts in Haiti
      (pp. 209-231)

      It is difficult to exaggerate the severity of Haiti’s longstanding humanitarian crisis or the tenacity of the problems underlying it: abject poverty and inequality, a non-functioning judiciary, corrupt and inept law enforcement, and a declining agricultural base. But despite Haiti’s complex and constantly shifting political context, Canada has made it a foreign policy priority, sending peacekeepers to the island nation ten times in the last twenty years, and contributing c$90 million per year in the last two years. This makes Canada the third largest donor, behind the United States (US) and the European Union (EU); on a per capita basis...

    • 12 Canada and Quebec on the World Stage: Defining New Rules?
      (pp. 232-248)

      On 19 December 2005, Stephen Harper made an important election stop in Quebec City in an effort to strengthen local support for two of his candidates. At mid-course in the campaign, both Josée Verner (in the riding of Louis-St Laurent) and Maxime Bernier (of Beauce) enjoyed strong support in their communities. The timing and location of the visit was thus strategic, as it offered the Conservative leader an opportunity to launch the party’s Quebec agenda before a receptive audience and at a time when Liberal support was slipping even further in the province. The time was right for Harper to...

    • 13 Meeting the China Challenge: Developing a China Strategy
      (pp. 251-268)

      Canada’s relationship with China has been moving forward with some momentum over the past year, and at the time when the Conservatives took over from the Liberals after the federal election of early 2006, a new China strategy had been developed and discussed at the cabinet level. A change in governing party traditionally brings a new domestic agenda and an overhaul of Canadian foreign policy. The Conservatives, however, put very little emphasis on foreign policy in their election platform, and Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s minority government, has shown no hurry in revealing an overall Conservative foreign policy framework. So questions...

    • 14 The New Strategic Positioning of Canada within North America: The Energy Factor
      (pp. 269-291)

      In some ways Prime Minister Stephen Harper and his minority Conservative government inherited a mixed legacy from its predecessor. On the one hand, a strong dollar, low inflation and unemployment rates, and comfortable budgetary surpluses provide a solid economic foundation for the country. On the other, Canada’s main trading and political partner, the United States, has become increasing inclined to impede the flow of goods, services, and people in the face of increased sensitivity to security concerns. In the area of energy, however, economics and security have colluded to bolster the strategic position of Canada within North America.

      High international...

    • 15 Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: When Reality Sets In
      (pp. 292-318)

      Unless Canada is willing to purchase billions of dollars worth of greenhouse gas emissions ‘credits’ internationally between now and 2012, it will run afoul of its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol (KP) to the United Nations 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Under the KP, which was signed in 1997 and entered into force in February 2005, Canada took responsibility for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG)¹ by six per cent relative to what emissions in Canada were reckoned to be in 1990. It is now clear that, during the ‘commitment period’ of 2008–12 – during which the promised...

    • 16 Canadian Aid to Africa: Assessing ‘Reform’
      (pp. 319-338)

      Since the start of the new millennium, the international aid regime has undergone a protracted process of reform and renewal. At the centre of this process has been aid to Africa, now widely portrayed as exceptional because it is the one continent that has become poorer, on average, over the past thirty years, with manifold economic, social, political, and security challenges accompanying this protracted relative decline.¹ A, perhapsthe, high point of this trend was reached in the summer of 2005, with the confluence of transnational (and celebrity) activism through the Live 8 phenomenon and the extraordinary attention given to...

    • 17 Canada, Hippocrates, and the Developing World: Toward a Coherent Foreign Policy for Canada
      (pp. 339-352)

      The central argument of this chapter is thatdevelopmenthas become profoundly related to all the major preoccupations of foreign policy,¹ including areas as diverse as defence, international trade and investment, diplomacy, immigration, the global environment, and international health. Rather than merely constituting one of the ‘3Ds’ (along with defence and diplomacy) development provides the ‘connecting tissue,’ so to speak, between these seemingly disparate dimensions of foreign policy (see North-South Institute, 2005a).

      Consider the close interrelationship between development and international commerce: Canada’s trade and investment relations become more active and complex as developing countries grow and evolve into emerging market...

  11. Contributors
    (pp. 353-354)
  12. Index
    (pp. 355-367)