Makers of Modern Asia

Makers of Modern Asia

EDITED BY RAMACHANDRA GUHA
Copyright Date: 2014
Published by: Harvard University Press
Pages: 362
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zswrr
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  • Book Info
    Makers of Modern Asia
    Book Description:

    The twenty-first century has been dubbed the Asian Century. Highlighting diverse thinker-politicians rather than billionaire businessmen,Makers of Modern Asiapresents eleven leaders who theorized and organized anticolonial movements, strategized and directed military campaigns, and designed and implemented political systems.

    eISBN: 978-0-674-73578-1
    Subjects: History, Philosophy

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. [i]-[iv])
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. [v]-[viii])
  3. INTRODUCTION The Politics behind the Economics of Asia’s Rise
    (pp. 1-15)
    RAMACHANDRA GUHA

    In July 1920, the philosopher Bertrand Russell moved to Beijing with his wife, Dora Black. Russell was that rare animal—an English internationalist. He had already traveled through the Soviet Union and was curious to know more about countries and civilizations farther to the east. He spent several months in China, lecturing on technical subjects—symbolic logic, idealism, the theory of relativity, etc.—while, on the side, studying the country’s history, culture, geography, and politics. He interacted extensively with students, both on philosophical matters (his Chinese admirers had begun producing a monthly journal devoted to his work) and on their...

  4. ONE GANDHI, INDIA, AND THE WORLD
    (pp. 16-39)
    RAMACHANDRA GUHA

    Born in the western Indian port town of Porbandar in 1869, educated in Rajkot and London, Mohandas Gandhi came to South Africa in May 1893 to help settle a dispute between two merchants. He spent much of the next two decades there, shuttling between Natal and the Transvaal. It was in South Africa that he developed the techniques of political protest for which he remains best known and to which he gave the namesatyagraha, or truth-force.

    The idea of what became known assatyagrahawas first enunciated in Johannesburg’s Empire Theatre on September 11, 1906. Some three thousand Indians...

  5. TWO CHIANG KAI-SHEK AND CHINESE MODERNIZATION
    (pp. 40-64)
    JAY TAYLOR

    There is or was something called “Mao Zedong Thought,” but no one has heard of the “Thoughts of Chiang Kai-shek.” Yet, there is a striking historical irony. Chiang was devastatingly defeated in China in 1949 and his relevance to China’s future was seemingly thrown into the dustbin of history. However, Chiang’s pragmatic but authoritarian Confucian vision of modernization is much more closely and immediately relevant to China today than the Chairman’s grand view of governance. It was not and is not uniquely Chiang’s vision. Wide variations of hard and soft authoritarianism as distinct from totalitarianism are of course still commonplace....

  6. THREE HO CHI MINH: Nationalist Icon
    (pp. 65-92)
    SOPHIE QUINN-JUDGE

    Ho Chi Minh became a symbol of anticolonialism in the 1940s and 1950s. An object of fascination to his French and American enemies, who still argue about his bedrock political beliefs, he has suffered from his use as a national icon in Vietnam. His reputation as an austere and unpretentious patriot has been a source of the legitimacy enjoyed by the Vietnamese Communists after their 1975 victory. His embalmed body still lies in its tomb in Hanoi’s Ba Dinh Square, despite his own wish to be cremated. But as the party itself grows more tarnished by corruption and abuse of...

  7. FOUR MAO ZEDONG AND CHARISMATIC MAOISM
    (pp. 93-116)
    RANA MITTER

    Mao has the distinction, along with Gandhi, of being one of the very small number of non-European political leaders to achieve brand-name status in the twentieth century. Mao has been used as an endorsement for a wide variety of movements, from the radical Naxalite movement in India, to the Khmer Rouge genocide in Cambodia, to the anti-establishment protests of Paris students in the 1960s. The grand narrative of Chinese modernization through radicalization of the peasantry and the establishment of a Chinese state that, in Mao’s words, “stood up” has been a staple of liberation discourse in the global south for...

  8. FIVE JAWAHARLAL NEHRU: A Romantic in Politics
    (pp. 117-146)
    RAMACHANDRA GUHA

    On Christmas Day, 1942, Jawaharlal Nehru sat down to write a letter to Madame Chiang Kai-shek. The two had met in India earlier that year and in China some years previously. While it was Chiang who headed China’s Nationalist government, his sophisticated, American-educated wife was an increasingly influential figure in political circles. In her husband’s negotiations with Western leaders, her elegant manners and flawless English were a valuable aid. (That she was a Christian by faith also helped.) Madame Chiang, wrote the American publisher Henry Luce, was “an even more exciting personality than all the glamorous descriptions of her.”¹ As...

  9. SIX ZHOU ENLAI AND CHINA’S “PROLONGED RISE”
    (pp. 147-171)
    CHEN JIAN

    On April 19, 1955, Zhou Enlai, premier and foreign minister of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), delivered a speech at the conference of Afro-Asian leaders in Bandung, Indonesia. “The Chinese delegation,” he said, “has come here to seek common grounds, not to create division.” Despite their differences, the Asian and African countries had all suffered from “the calamities caused by colonialism” and were linked together by their “continuing struggle for complete in dependence.” Zhou acknowledged that he believed in communism as the preferred path toward modernizing China and transforming the world. But he emphasized that this did not block...

  10. SEVEN SUKARNO: Anticipating an Asian Century
    (pp. 172-198)
    JAMES R. RUSH

    As a man of his times, Sukarno was shaped by the same large forces that shaped other leaders of Asia in the twentieth century. Global imperialism had transformed his native Java and its once-great kingdoms into a Western colony that also embraced hundreds of neighboring islands. Aggressive capitalistic exploitation brought other changes, including a vastly expanded openness to Western ideas and languages and education. In Sukarno’s world and elsewhere in Asia, complex hybridities arose, creating Confucian-minded self-strengtheners in China, Westernizing Buddhist kings in Siam, Egypt-inspired Muslim reformers in South and Southeast Asia, and, eventually, revolutionaries nearly everywhere. Sukarno and his...

  11. EIGHT DENG XIAOPING AND THE CHINA HE MADE
    (pp. 199-214)
    ODD ARNE WESTAD

    Together with Chiang Kai-shek, Deng Xiaoping is perhaps the most consequential figure in China’s twentieth century. Mao Zedong led a revolution, but never much liked the state he founded and led it in disastrous directions during his last twenty years in power. Zhou Enlai started out as a transformational revolutionary figure and a significant leader, but ended—after the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949—as Mao’s political lapdog. Chiang led the country through twenty years of state-building and civil and foreign wars. His main accomplishment was to keep China together as a unit when dissolution and outside...

  12. NINE INDIRA GANDHI: India and the World in Transition
    (pp. 215-243)
    SRINATH RAGHAVAN

    October 2009 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the death of Indira Gandhi. For a few days, newspapers and magazines were awash with retrospective assessments of India’s third, and most controversial, prime minister. With the exception of professional sycophants and paid-up members of the Congress Party, few commentators found anything edifying in her record and legacy. The undermining of India’s democracy and constitution by imposing the Emergency; the terror and repression unleashed during the Emergency through its programs of forcible sterilization and slum clearance; the assault on the independence of the Supreme Court and the press; the accentuation of regional secessionism...

  13. TEN SINGAPORE’S LEE KUAN YEW: Traveling Light, Traveling Fast
    (pp. 244-266)
    MICHAEL D. BARR

    When “Harry” Lee Kuan Yew was a law student at Cambridge University in the late 1940s, he was a formidable personality who tended to make a lasting impression on many of his fellow students. Half a century later one of those fellow students described the Harry Lee of his memory in these terms:

    There is a phrase in an essay by Shaw, I think, that describes the Harry I knew perfectly. I cannot put my finger on the quotation precisely, but in describing a particular historical hero of his, he said that he was essentially a man who would have...

  14. ELEVEN ZULFIKAR ALI BHUTTO: In Pursuit of an Asian Pakistan
    (pp. 267-300)
    FARZANA SHAIKH

    On April 26, 1945, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, then a high school student in Bombay, wrote his first and possibly only letter to Muhammad Ali Jinnah. In it he laid bare his understanding of Jinnah’s yet-to-be-realized national cause and swore undying loyalty to it. “Musalmans,” he declared,

    should realize that the Hindus can never and will never unite with us, they are the deadliest enemies of our Koran and our Prophet. You Sir, have brought us under one platform and one flag. ... Our destiny is Pakistan, our aim is Pakistan. ... Nobody can stop us, we are a Nation by...

  15. NOTES
    (pp. 303-354)
  16. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. 355-356)
  17. NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. 357-360)
  18. CREDITS
    (pp. 361-362)
  19. INDEX
    (pp. 363-385)