How Ottawa Spends, 1994-95

How Ottawa Spends, 1994-95: Making Change

Copyright Date: 1994
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  • Book Info
    How Ottawa Spends, 1994-95
    Book Description:

    What are the possibilities for real innovation under the new Liberal regime? Where do ideas for new policy come from? How will the government find the money to implement new policy in an era of strict fiscal limits? Making Change addresses these questions in this, the fifteenth annual review of government spending and public policy from the Carleton University School of Public Administration. It explores the source of ideas and considers the factors which help or hinder innovation in policy and the process of governing.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-9587-3
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-x)
    Susan Phillips
  4. 1 Making Change: The Potential for Innovation under the Liberals
    (pp. 1-38)
    Susan D. Phillips

    In October 1993, the Liberals were elected on a platform of making change: of challenging conventional thinking, being innovative, restoring public confidence in government and “getting government right.”¹ A decade earlier, the Conservatives under Brian Mulroney had also campaigned on the importance of change, promising to deliver a new agenda for economic renewal.² Indeed, politicians regularly compete for office with promises to alter radically the policies of the former regime, yet we know very little about how governments actually effect major innovations in policy direction or in the process of governing. Why do the good intentions of some governments fail...

  5. 2 Commissioning Ideas: Representation and Royal Commissions
    (pp. 39-70)
    Jane Jenson

    In recent decades, royal commissions have faced a wide—and ever widening—range of issues. They are one of several places in which policy analysis and learning might take place, and one that provides some room for public involvement in decision-making.¹ They are, therefore, institutions that provide representation by providing access for individuals and groups to a forum of debate and policymaking. But more than that, royal commissions are also institutions that represent ideas. They have often been locales for some of the major shifts in the ways that Canadians debate representations of themselves, their present and their futures.² Such...

  6. 3 How Ottawa Bends: Plastic Words and the Politics of Social Morality
    (pp. 71-90)
    Stephen Brooks

    In seeking to understand policy innovation, most people focus on splashy developments that grab headlines and promise—however improbably—to shake up the status quo. The report of a royal commission or a White Paper, a policy of NAFTA dimensions, an ambitious privatization program or something like the Clinton administration’s efforts to reform the American health-care system are obvious examples. They represent policies that are recognizably different from past ones, or that deliberately choose a particular direction over alternative courses of action. This is the essence of innovation: change in response to problems, politics, new perspectives or new knowledge in...

  7. 4 Citizens, Experts and Budgets: Evaluating Ottawa’s Emerging Budget Process
    (pp. 91-128)
    Evert A. Lindquist

    On November 29, 1993, the new Minister of Finance, Paul Martin, announced that he intended to transform the way the federal government prepares its budgets. He called for a more open budget process and, despite time constraints, scheduled meetings with his provincial counterparts and an economists roundtable before the end of the year. He also held four public conferences in January, followed by a round of extensive private consultations with over 40 groups and a pre-budget debate in the House of Commons—all in preparation for the Budget that was presented on February 22, 1994. This new process constitutes an...

  8. 5 Breaking the Habit: Attentive Publics and Tobacco Regulation
    (pp. 129-164)
    A. Paul Pross and Iain S. Stewart

    Innovation and change in public policy can take many years to accomplish, engaging in the process innumerable individuals and organizations within and outside government. The regulation of tobacco products in Canada is a case in point. In 1962 and 1964, first the British and then the Americans published studies that authoritatively stated that there is a link between smoking and cancer. Thirty years later, Canada was considered to be a world leader in the regulation of tobacco products, yet the policies for controlling tobacco products put forward by health advocates are still hotly contested, as the recent dispute over cigarette...

  9. 6 Public Service 2000: Dead or Alive?
    (pp. 165-204)
    Gene Swimmer, Michael Hicks and Terry Milne

    In 1990, the federal public service initiated a far-reaching exercise of self-renewal designed to make it more efficient and user-friendly to Canadians. The motto of the exercise, called Public Service 2000 or PS2000, was “Service to the public” and its aim was to create an empowered, flexibly organized, mission-oriented, “debureaucratized” public service. The changes envisioned were to be both cultural and structural. Most aspects of the initiative were put in place prior to the change of government and, while PS2000 apparently has been laid to rest, its spirit lives on in several legislated changes and management practices.

    The pressures that...

  10. 7 The Swimsuit Edition on the Shore of Hudson’s Bay: Magazines, Culture and Technology
    (pp. 205-228)
    C. Leigh Anderson and David Hennes

    In April 1993, to the displeasure of Canadian magazine publishers, the familiar, home-grown face of Montreal Expos’ outfielder Larry Walker looked up from the cover ofSports Illustrated’s(SI) first Canadian split-run edition.¹ It was not the Canadian focused editorial content, however, that raised the ire of Canadian publishers; it was the Canadian advertisements filling the magazine’s pages. Since the 1960s, Canadian regulations have tried to define what a Canadian magazine is and to keep advertising aimed at Canadian consumers out of foreign magazines circulating in Canada. SI, by transmitting electronic page proofs rather than shipping finished magazines across the...

  11. 8 The Green Plan: From Great Expectations to Eco-Backtracking … to Revitalization?
    (pp. 229-260)
    Glen Toner

    December 11, 1993 marked the halfway point in the projected six-year life of Canada’s first Green Plan. It is now up to Jean Chrétien’s Liberal government to determine the degree to which it will revise or supplement the Green Plan with their own sustainable development strategy—of which some of the key elements are outlined in their famous Red Book.¹ It is always difficult for any new government to make the decision to keep a key policy initiative that has been closely associated with the previous regime. In opposition, the Liberals were very critical of the Green Plan, arguing that...

  12. 9 Federal Expenditures and First Nations Experiences
    (pp. 261-300)
    Michael J. Prince

    On the journey to Aboriginal self-determination, a number of pathways have been explored in recent decades. In Canada, paths of change have included constitutional reform, self-government legislation, comprehensive and specific land claims, court actions, amendments to the Indian Act, devolution of program delivery and establishment of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. As intended departures from existing policies and relations, all of these are promises of innovation. They are also expressions of ideas and principled politics. As Edwin Black has pointed out, “Canadians spend as much or more time as do other peoples in major debates about ends and means,...

  13. 10 Science Policy and Basic Research in Canada
    (pp. 301-338)
    Roberto Gualtieri

    This chapter reviews the state of basic research in Canada from the point of view of a policy adviser in the federal government. Consequently, it conveys a federal perspective on the issue. This may also impart a certain flavour ofparti pris, but it is hoped that this analysis will prompt further investigation of this subject which is so crucial to the future well-being of Canadians.

    In recent years, the changes in government policy related to science and in funding mechanisms for scientific research, along with the increasing focus on university-industry collaboration and accountability, have led to considerable unease in...

  14. 11 Education and Training In the Knowledge Economy: Prospects and Missed Opportunities
    (pp. 339-374)
    Riel Miller

    Educational and training expenditure is one of the largest categories of federal, provincial and local government expenditure. In addition, there are significant commitments of both money and time by individuals and firms towards the acquisition of skills. Aside from the sheer magnitude of human capital investment, two forces are motivating governments to focus greater attention on the regulatory and fiscal policies that shape investments in human capital.

    First, the relentless pressure of expenditure management is forcing governments to reassess traditional spending patterns.Governments at all levels are considering reallocation both between expenditure categories and within specific spending envelopes.

    Second, the challenge...

    (pp. 375-394)
    (pp. 395-396)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 397-398)