Canadian Foreign Policy, 1955-1965

Canadian Foreign Policy, 1955-1965: Selected Speeches and Documents

Edited by Arthur E. Blanchette
Copyright Date: 1977
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  • Book Info
    Canadian Foreign Policy, 1955-1965
    Book Description:

    This volume documents the decade in which Canada's influence on world affairs was at its apex, and contains speeches and writings of Lester B. Pearson, Sydney Smith, Howard C. Green and Paul Martin.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-9120-2
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. iii-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xx)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xxi-xxv)
    Arthur E. Blanchette
  4. Abbreviations for main sources
    (pp. xxv-xxvi)
    (pp. 1-113)

    The United Nations is an organization of sovereign states, having no powers of enforcement of its own. It mirrors the world, reflecting the world’s ideals and its selfishness, its qualities and its faults. In an all too human world one should not expect the United Nations to be super-human, nor for that matter even wise.

    The United Nations of 1955 still reflected the conditions and values which had led to its creation a decade earlier, and this is evident in the following pages. By 1965. however, many fundamental changes had occurred: the rise of China, decolonization in Africa and Asia,...

  6. II: NATO
    (pp. 114-150)

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization began to under-go a series of stresses and strains, both internal and external, at the outset of the decade covered by this book. The Soviet authorities did not take kindly to the accession to NATO of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1955.* The following year, the Alliance experienced thetiraillementscaused by the Suez War of 1956 and the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt, although the concurrent Soviet invasion of Hungary caused NATO to close its ranks.

    A good deal of soul-searching about the nature and purpose of the organization was characteristic of this period...

    (pp. 151-217)

    Continental defence, and collective defence as embodied in NATO commitments, continued to be Canada’s main defence concern. Peace-keeping assignments were increasingly accepted by the Government during the period. but in terms’ of manpower and weaponry peace-keeping was somewhat marginal to the main-stream of defence activity.

    Two White Papers on Defence were published by the Government during the decade. The first appeared in 1959 under the signature of General G.R. Pearkes; the second in 1964 under that of Mr. Paul Hellyer. The White Paper of 1964 is particularly useful since it gives a summary of the evolution of Canadian defence policy...

    (pp. 218-273)

    Speaking in Toronto in 1951, Mr. L.B. Pearson, then Secretary of State for External Affairs, offered his view that the days of relatively easy and automatic relations with the United States were over. In his first major speech in the United States after becoming Prime Minister, Mr. John Diefenbaker, speaking at Dartmouth College in September, 1957, reiterated the same theme.

    Canadian bilateral relations with the United States during the decade remained good on the whole, although an underlying stratum of uneasiness and disquiet was discernible. Issues of special concern were the amount of United States investments in Canada, the impact...

    (pp. 274-308)

    Following its inception in 1950, the Colombo Plan soon became the Commonwealth’s most tangible focal point, and it still provides a good deal of its cohesiveness. The Plan’s programmes have assumed many forms: scholarships and dam-building, expens and foodstuffs. Canada’s basic Colombo Plan policy is documented in the previous volume and need not be repeated here.*

    Canadian aid budgets have steadily increased. The original Canadian Colombo Plan budget, in 1951, was less than $1 million. By 1955, it had reached $25 million, while recently, Canadian aid budgets have been hovering in the vicinity of $1 billion per annum.

    Aid programmes...

    (pp. 309-340)

    Three developments dominated Canada’s relations with the Far East between 1955 and 1965: the rise of China; the recovery of Japan; and the situation in Indochina.

    Canada became involved suddenly and somewhat unexpectedly in Indochinese affairs as a result of an invitation from the Co-Chairmen of the Geneva Conference on the Far East in 1954 to become a member with India and Poland of the International Commissions for Supervision and Control in Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia set up to supervise the provisions of the Geneva Agreements.* For the first few years things went reasonably well. The cease-fire and military...

    (pp. 341-381)

    Canada’s economic well-being has long depended on extensive exports. Support for international arrangements aimed at fostering multilateral trade has been a basic tenet of Canadian foreign policy since the end of the Second World War—indeed, since well before. The foundation for this policy was laid at the time of the Bretton Woods and Havana Conferences of 1944 and 1946, respectively. It has remained basically unchanged to this day, and is documented in the previous volume of this series.*

    A policy of liberal world trading arrangements did not prevent successive Canadian governments from vigorously defending Canadian bilateral trade interests. The...

    (pp. 382-420)

    In 1955, a chapter on the international activities of the provinces in a book on Canadian foreign policy would have been extremely unlikely. Yet the provinces have played an important role in Canada’s relations with the rest of the world for a long time. It is supremely ironical today to note that for thirty years (1882-1911)* Quebec’s representative in Paris handled Onawa’s interests in France!

    Immigration, trade, investments—all subjects with foreign policy connotations—have been matters of provincial preoccupation virtually since Confederation. Every province at some point or other has maintained some form of representation abroad or has had...

  13. Suggested Reading
    (pp. 421-424)