Theory of CMOS Digital Circuits and Circuit Failures

Theory of CMOS Digital Circuits and Circuit Failures

Masakazu Shoji
Copyright Date: 1992
Pages: 588
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  • Book Info
    Theory of CMOS Digital Circuits and Circuit Failures
    Book Description:

    CMOS chips are becoming increasingly important in computer circuitry. They have been widely used during the past decade, and they will continue to grow in popularity in those application areas that demand high performance. Challenging the prevailing opinion that circuit simulation can reveal all problems in CMOS circuits, Masakazu Shoji maintains that simulation cannot completely remove the often costly errors that occur in circuit design. To address the failure modes of these circuits more fully, he presents a new approach to CMOS circuit design based on his systematizing of circuit design error and his unique theory of CMOS digital circuit operation. In analyzing CMOS digital circuits, the author focuses not on effects originating from the characteristics of the device (MOSFET) but on those arising from their connection. This emphasis allows him to formulate a powerful but ultimately simple theory explaining the effects of connectivity by using a concept of the states of the circuits, called microstates. Shoji introduces microstate sequence diagrams that describe the state changes (or the circuit connectivity changes), and he uses his microstate theory to analyze many of the conventional CMOS digital circuits. These analyses are practically all in closed-form, and they provide easy physical interpretation of the circuit's working mechanisms, the parametric dependence of performance, and the circuit's failure modes.

    Originally published in 1992.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6284-9
    Subjects: Mathematics

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. Preface and Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xvi)
  4. List of Mathematical Symbols
    (pp. xvii-2)
  5. 1 Physics of CMOS Integrated Circuits
    (pp. 3-87)

    In this chapter we prepare the background materials for this book—concepts and methods necessary for detailed studies of CMOS digital circuit failures that will be carried out in the later chapters. Electrical properties of basic components such as field-effect transistors (FETs), resistors, capacitors, inductors, and interconnects in CMOS integrated circuits are reviewed, and characteristics of elementary circuits built by interconnecting these components, such as CMOS static and dynamic gates and linear and nonlinear amplifiers, are summarized. The study of circuit failure requires closed-form theoretical analyses of rather complex circuits. Therefore, two methods of closed-form analysis of CMOS circuits containing...

  6. 2 Method of Analysis of CMOS Circuit Failures
    (pp. 88-175)

    An attempt to build a practical theory of CMOS digital circuit failures is frustrated by the fact that circuit failures occur rarely, more or less like spontaneous phenomena, and the varieties of known failures are limited. Evidence upon which scientific systematization should be carried out is scarce and fragmentary. This situation is made worse, since not many published records of circuit failures exist, and the records are widely scattered. A CMOS VLSI designer cannot feel a false sense of security from this situation, since any new circuit could fail in a way never expected. What is worse, the designer may...

  7. 3 Circuit Failures Due to Anomalous Signal Flow
    (pp. 176-249)

    In the previous chapter we showed that there are circuit failures that originate from anomaly in small-amplitudeelectricalsignal flows, or currents. What this short definition implies is very broad. If there is a misdirection of a large-amplitude signal, there should certainly be a digital circuit failure, but this is better called logic design error. Although this is obviously one kind of circuit failure, we do not discuss it further. We restrict our discussions to only a few limited cases that I believe are not trivial, and not obvious. We concentrate on less dramatic, smallsignal effects. If the normal direction...

  8. 4 Noise Phenomena in Digital Circuits
    (pp. 250-336)

    In the last chapter we discussed mechanisms of circuit failure that are caused by anomalous signal flow within a single digital circuit: such failures occur even if the circuit is isolated from any other circuit on the same chip. There are other failures that originate from interaction of the circuit with undesirable environment. Three types of electrical interactions are possible: the first isinducednoise effects among the wiring in the upper structural layers on silicon; the second is the influence exercised from the conducting silicon substrate below theactivesilicon layer, and the third is coupling among circuits through...

  9. 5 Circuit Failures Due to Timing Problems
    (pp. 337-422)

    There is a group of circuit failure mechanisms that are caused by timing or clocking of circuits. An example of the failure mode is as follows. If the timing of a circuit is forced from an externally generated clock signal, the time allowed by the clock for the circuit may not be enough to carry out the required data processing. The chip fails at the maximum clock frequency. Any chip suffers from this generic failure mechanism. In properly designed circuits, the only way to remove this failure mechanism is to reduce the clock frequency. This failure mechanism can be generalized...

  10. 6 Essential Uncertainty in CMOS Circuits
    (pp. 423-502)

    It is taken for granted that every detail of CMOS circuits on a silicon chip can be known, and every parameter of the circuit can be determined to the desired precision from properly arranged computer simulation, or experiments. This is not arealisticexpectation. In this chapter we study circuit failures that originate fromessential unavailabilityof information in CMOS circuits. It is natural to conclude that a circuit that is designed using wrong or uncertain assumptions could fail. Close examination of circuit operation reveals that ICs are really designed on uncertain design information. Recognition of this problem sets a...

  11. 7 Design Failures of CMOS Systems
    (pp. 503-568)

    In this chapter CMOS circuit failures that cannot be traced back directly to circuit problems are discussed. The failures are, on one hand, related to the fundamental nature of CMOS technology. The failures are, on the other hand, due to the enormous complexity of large systems such as main-frame computers and electronic switching machines, which never existed in semiconductor devices before the advent of VLSI technology. The new problem wasimportedinto semiconductor technology from system technology, because single IC chips became a significant fraction of large systems. Since CMOS is the front-runner of VLSI technology, the complexity problem is...

  12. Index
    (pp. 569-570)