Security and Economy in the Third World

Security and Economy in the Third World

NICOLE BALL
Copyright Date: 1988
Pages: 464
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7ztq66
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  • Book Info
    Security and Economy in the Third World
    Book Description:

    Nicole Ball brings the effects of security expenditure to the center of that debate, examining in detail how the potential negative consequences on development outweigh the potential positive effects.

    Originally published in 1990.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5971-9
    Subjects: Political Science, Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. LIST OF FIGURES
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. LIST OF TABLES
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. PREFACE
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xv-xxvii)

    The first objectives of development are to reduce poverty and ensure an adequate standard of living for all members of society. This involves meeting basic material needs such as those for food, housing, education, and health and medical care, as well as certain nonmaterial requirements such as the ability to participate in economic and political decisions affecting the course of one’s life. Economic growth is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for setting in motion the development process. In the 1950s and 1960s, however, the development process was, more often than not, thought to consist essentially of identifying...

  7. PART I Security Expenditure:: Theoretical, Empirical, and Methodological Issues
    • 1 THE MILITARY IN DEVELOPMENT: THE CLASH BETWEEN THEORY AND FACT
      (pp. 3-31)

      While mainstream development economists have tended to discount the role of the security sector in Third World development, other analysts have presented theories about the ways in which the security sector influences economic and political development, for both good and ill. As is often the case in the social sciences, however, the development of theoretical constructs has tended to take precedence over the search for facts. In some instances, the general propositions set forward—meant to apply to all countries—have been built on a very narrow empirical base. In other cases, the empirical evidence is stronger, but important gaps...

    • 2 THE DETERMINANTS OF SECURITY EXPENDITURE
      (pp. 32-83)

      In the industrialized countries, security issues are viewed primarily from the perspective of potential external conflicts, and the role of the armed forces is to protect governments and citizens alike against external threats. In the Third World, internal security considerations often tend to outweigh those of external security, and the foremost task of many armed forces is to protect governments and elite groups against the mass of the population. Irrespective of whether internal or external security objectives dominate, the level of security expenditure should, in theory, be determined by an assessment of the likely security threats confronting a country and...

    • 3 THE MEASUREMENT OF SECURITY EXPENDITURE
      (pp. 84-122)

      Not all societies place equal importance on the collection and dissemination of data. Third World countries are generally less well equipped for these activities than Western industrialized ones. In addition, the collection of data is frequently not accorded the same priority in the Third World as in the West. Some developing countries have also opted for what might be termed the East-bloc pattern of data dissemination: the fewer data published, the better. Thus, there are serious problems of validity with much of the data measuring economic and social conditions in Third World countries.¹ Even at the beginning of the 1980s...

    • 4 SUBSTITUTING THE COMPUTER FOR ANALYSIS
      (pp. 123-158)

      The methods researchers adopt to study a problem can have an important bearing on the outcome of their investigations.¹ This is particularly true when the relationship under consideration is as complex and requires the evaluation of as many different kinds of information as the one between security expenditure and economic growth in the Third World. To understand the role played by security spending in promoting or impeding economic growth in one country, an in-depth case study is the most satisfactory approach. It is clear, however, that a general theory cannot be built on one case study alone and that to...

  8. PART II Security Expenditure and Development
    • 5 SECURITY SPENDING AND THE AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES
      (pp. 161-211)

      Prior to the Korean War, it was widely believed that high levels of expenditure on the armed forces were not compatible with high rates of economic growth. Rather, it was argued that the sustained allocation of a larger share of a country’s resources to the security sector could produce “declining civilian consumption, lost economic growth, runaway inflation, and the necessity of onerous controls.”¹ At the beginning of 1950, a debate began within the United States government about the need to rearm to counter an international situation which some members of the Truman administration believed threatened the United States. Although the...

    • 6 THE SECURITY SECTOR AND THE EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES
      (pp. 212-236)

      Without access to adequate amounts of capital and in the absence of sufficient investment, economic growth will be sluggish or nonexistent. It has become increasingly clear, however, that there is a need to look beyond the availability of financial resources when evaluating the success individual countries have had in strengthening their economies. In discussing Western theories of development, Keith Griffin has pointed to some of the problems associated with assigning investment a central role in determining the rate of growth.

      The key to faster growth was believed to be a rising capital-labour ratio. No matter that empirical studies show that...

    • 7 CAPITAL, GROWTH, AND SECURITY ASSISTANCE
      (pp. 237-294)

      Despite the amount of money made available to developing countries in the form of security-related grants and loans since the end of World War II, security assistance has remained peripheral to discussions of the role played by foreign capital inflows in the development process. On the one hand, economic assistance provided specifically to enable recipient governments to support larger security establishments than they could by using only their own resources tends not to be distinguished from other forms of economic aid in the literature on economic assistance. Included in this category would be items such as general budgetary support to...

    • 8 MILITARY MANPOWER AND HUMAN CAPITAL FORMATION
      (pp. 295-334)

      At independence, many countries in Asia and Africa experienced severe shortages of managerial, entrepreneurial, and technical personnel. This was a legacy of the colonial period when education systems tended to be oriented toward a small portion of the indigenous population. The purpose of colonial education was to train a few individuals to fill subordinate positions in colonial administration and commerce; it was not to provide a general education for a large number of people.

      The more important a region was for the metropolitan economy, the more likely the colonial government was to invest in education. Differences thus arose between colonies...

    • 9 MILITARY-LED INDUSTRIALIZATION
      (pp. 335-385)

      Development and industrialization have, to a large degree, been considered synonymous in the Third World. Whether a country has attempted to follow a capitalist or a socialist model of development, its objective has invariably been to increase the share of industrial output to levels comparable to those in Western industrialized countries—between 30 and 40 percent of gross product. The centrality assigned to industrialization has derived from two observations. First, demand for manufactured goods is considerably more responsive to changes in income than demand for food and other agricultural products; that is, the income inelasticity of demand for manufactures exceeds...

    • 10 THE DEVELOPMENTAL ROLE OF SECURITY EXPENDITURE
      (pp. 386-394)

      Very few development analysts have shown more than passing interest in the relationship between security expenditure and economic growth and development in the Third World. Although this apparent lack of concern for outlays which absorbed more than 15 percent of central government expenditure in about 40 percent of the developing countries between 1973 and 1983 may be politically expedient, it is counterproductive for the theory and, more important, the practice of economic development¹ (Figure 10–1). In the introduction it was shown that expenditure on the armed forces is but one of a number of factors that can contribute to...

  9. APPENDIXES
    • APPENDIX 1 Preponderance of Operatmg Costs in Third World Secunty Budgets, 1951–1979 (in percentage of total security expenditure)
      (pp. 396-402)
    • APPENDIX 2 Definitions of Military Expenditure
      (pp. 403-404)
    • APPENDIX 3 Major Empirical Studies of the Growth-Military Expenditure Relationship
      (pp. 405-408)
    • APPENDIX 4 Security Forces as a Proportion of Economically Active Population in the Third World, 1980
      (pp. 409-414)
    • APPENDIX 5 Military Occupational Specialties of the South Korean Army
      (pp. 415-420)
  10. INDEX
    (pp. 421-432)