Speech and Brain Mechanisms

Speech and Brain Mechanisms

WILDER PENFIELD
LAMAR ROBERTS
Copyright Date: 1959
Pages: 300
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7ztt6j
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  • Book Info
    Speech and Brain Mechanisms
    Book Description:

    The outcome of ten years' work, this book is a carefully planned study of brain dominance, aphasia, and other speech disturbances, and includes a discussion of the cerebral mechanisms of speech and the learning and teaching of language.

    Originally published in 1981.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5467-7
    Subjects: Health Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. PREFACE
    (pp. vii-viii)
    W.P. and L.R.
  3. VANUXEM LECTURERS AT PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. PREAMBLE TO THE VANUXEM LECTURES
    (pp. x-x)
    W.P.
  5. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-2)
  6. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 3-11)
    W.P.

    The general conclusions embodied in this monograph were presented in the 1956 Vanuxem Lectures. The audience at those lectures was drawn from the various departments of a great university. But most of the listeners had little familiarity with current work on the anatomy and physiology of the human brain. Consequently, the introduction was planned with this in mind. And now, since this book is designed for lay readers interested in speech mechanisms, as well as for the members of the medical profession, the same introduction will be used in this first chapter, with certain subtractions but without change in form....

  7. CHAPTER II FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN, DISCRIMINATIVE SENSATION, VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT
    (pp. 12-37)
    W.P.

    The Sumerians and the Babylonians looked upon the liver as the seat of the intellect, while Hebrews from Genesis to the Acts of the Apostles referred to the heart as the dwelling place of mind and spirit. Thus, when an Arab today refers to a friend as the joy of his liver, there is good historical background for the expression. Men in other lands, using many different tongues, still speak of the heart’s desire, and they take to heart life’s most profound lessons to ponder them there.

    It was pointed out in the Introduction that even four hundred years before...

  8. CHAPTER III THE RECORDING OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE FUNCTION OF INTERPRETIVE CORTEX
    (pp. 38-55)
    W.P.

    At the turn of the 20th century, the psychologist William James wrote these words:

    “Consciousness is a personal phenomenon. It deals with external objects, some of which are constant, and it chooses among them. But, in successive moments of time, consciousness is never the same. It is a stream forever flowing, forever changing.” (James, 1910).

    Heraclitus, the “weeping philosopher” of Ephesus, expressed the thought in fewer words: “We never descend,” he said, “twice into the same stream.”

    In the twenty-four centuries that separated James from Heraclitus, men came to know that the physical basis of consciousness was somehow located in...

  9. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF LITERATURE
    (pp. 56-81)
    L.R.

    In 1861 there was a considerable argument between those who believed that the cerebral hemispheres function as a whole and those who contended that there is localization of function in the cerebrum.Gall(Gall and Spurzheim, 1810-1819) had performed excellent work on the anatomy of the brain but was criticized for his unscientific system of phrenology.Bouillaud(1825) maintained, on the basis of examination of brains of patients who had had loss of speech, that the cerebral control of movements necessary for speech resided in the frontal lobes, and he thus supported Gall. Against the teachings ofFlourens(1824) that...

  10. CHAPTER V METHODS OF INVESTIGATION
    (pp. 82-88)
    L.R.

    Disturbances in speech with seizures, the results of electrical identification of cortical speech areas, the results of cortical excision with the evolution of transient aphasia during the post-operative period, similar studies when the non-dominant hemisphere was involved, studies of handedness and of cerebral dominance (including the sodium amytal aphasia test)—all these things constitute the material of this study. Of greatest interest are those patients who had excisions carried out in what the surgeon considered the close vicinity of speech areas of the dominant hemisphere.

    The surgical excision of cerebral cortex in the treatment of focal cerebral seizures demands of...

  11. CHAPTER VI HANDEDNESS AND CEREBRAL DOMINANCE
    (pp. 89-102)
    L.R.

    Marc Daxfound lesions of the left hemisphere in forty cases in which there had been a disturbance in speech during life. This fact was unknown in Paris in 1861 when Broca published his first case. Broca (1863) pointed out that nineteen of twenty cases with aphemia had lesions of the left hemisphere; however, he was cautious about making any generalization.

    Dax’s lecture was again presented in 1863, this time in Paris by his son. In the discussions on the “Faculte du Langage Articule” at the Royal Academy of Medicine in 1865,Bouillaudcorrelated the fact that aphasia occurs with...

  12. CHAPTER VII MAPPING THE SPEECH AREA
    (pp. 103-118)
    W.P.

    Twenty-five years ago we were embarking on the treatment of focal epilepsy by radical surgical excision of abnormal areas of brain (Foerster and Penfield, 1930a and 1930b; Penfield, 1930). In the beginning it was our practice to refuse radical operation upon the dominant hemisphere unless a lesion lay anteriorly in the frontal lobe or posteriorly in the occipital lobe. Like other neurosurgeons, we feared that removal of cortex in other parts of this hemisphere would produce aphasia. The left temporal lobe and the fronto-centro-parietal areas were considered to be devoted to mechanisms of speech, and aphasia literature gave no clear...

  13. CHAPTER VIII THE EVIDENCE FROM CORTICAL MAPPING
    (pp. 119-137)
    L.R.

    The brain is exposed by means of a large craniotomy, with the patient under local anesthesia. The patient is asked to count or to name a series of pictures of objects. The electrode is placed at various cortical points while this counting or naming is occurring, as outlined in Chapter VII. These results are now summarized.

    Jefferson (1935) reported inability to speak during and after stimulation of the angular gyrus, but he did not use this test as a means of mapping out the extent of the speech areas of the cortex. Foerster (1936) noted grunts and groans during stimulation...

  14. CHAPTER IX THE EVIDENCE FROM CORTICAL EXCISION
    (pp. 138-191)
    L.R.

    The practice of using electrical interference and of making planned excisions of functionally active cerebral cortex in the dominant hemisphere, as in the case of C.H. previously described (see Chapter VII), provides evidence of a new type for the study of speech mechanisms and aphasia.

    Focal epileptic discharge does not originate in a tumor or scar or an area of gray matter that has been destroyed. It arises in areas of gray matter which are not destroyed but which have been subjected to chronic abnormal influences. The focus may be adjacent to a scar or tumor or to an area...

  15. CHAPTER X CONCLUDING DISCUSSION
    (pp. 192-234)
    W.P.

    In the early half of the 19th century, man believed that the brain was an organ that functioned as a whole, and that all its parts were equipotential. Gall challenged this conception, but the fact that he created an absurd pseudoscience called phrenology discredited his anatomical studies. Members of the medical profession looked onphrenologywith even greater suspicion when Gall made it both fashionable and lucrative!

    In 1861 a French surgeon, Paul Broca, precipitated a widespread discussion of this matter by his description of two patients who had lost speech as the result of lesions in the posterior part...

  16. CHAPTER XI EPILOGUE—THE LEARNING OF LANGUAGES
    (pp. 235-258)
    W.P.

    This closing chapter is a discussion of language learning. Surely a consideration of the neurophysiological mechanisms of speech should have some educational consequences. This final chapter may therefore interest parents and teachers more than the more technical discussions in the earlier chapters.

    In 1939 I was asked to give an address at Lower Canada College, and I decided to talk directly to the boys. Excerpts from that talk may serve as an amusing introduction here.

    “I have long wondered,” my talk began, “about secondary education from the safe distance of a neurological clinic. I have wondered why the curriculum was...

  17. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 259-280)
    L.R.
  18. CASE INDEX
    (pp. 281-282)
    A.D.
  19. GENERAL INDEX
    (pp. 283-286)
    A.D.