Indian Security Policy

Indian Security Policy: Foreword by Joseph S. Nye

RAJU G. C. THOMAS
Foreword by Joseph S. Nye
Copyright Date: 1986
Pages: 330
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7ztw30
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  • Book Info
    Indian Security Policy
    Book Description:

    Professor Thomas relates security policy to the country's economy and technological capacity, discusses the capabilities of each of the armed services, and considers the issue of arms importation vs. indigenous production. He also explores the prospects for the future under Rajiv Gandhi

    Originally published in 1987.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5819-4
    Subjects: Technology, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. FOREWORD
    (pp. xi-xii)
    JOSEPH S. NYE JR.

    India is poorly understood by most Americans. Many of our impressions rest on “exotic” imagery from popular films that creates a general sense of romanticism and poverty. Few Americans think seriously about India in terms of international power and security.

    With a per capita income of about $260 per year, India ranks among the twenty poorest countries in the world. But this can be misleading. India is the world’s second largest country and largest democracy. The Indian middle class alone is considerably larger than the entire population of Great Britain.

    The size of India’s population is relatively familiar, but how...

  5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xiii-1)
    RAJU G. C. THOMAS
  6. Map of India
    (pp. 2-2)
  7. CHAPTER ONE The Dimensions of Indian Security Policy
    (pp. 3-9)

    In recent years, the concept of national security policy has been subject to new interpretations in India. The traditional Indian view—one that is also familiar elsewhere in the world—held that the objective of national security was to protect the state’s domestic physical assets, social and cultural values, and life styles from outside aggression, and that security was achieved when the nation possessed sufficient defense to ward off or withstand external attacks.¹ These issues evolve from international politics on both the regional and the global level. Since achieving independence in 1947, the government of India has sought in varying...

  8. CHAPTER TWO The Strategic Environment and Defense Policies
    (pp. 10-50)

    National security policy primarily addresses the external strategic environment. In the case of India, the external threat environment has undergone revolutionary and evolutionary change at both the regional and global levels. Regional strategic transformations occurred in the Pakistani arms buildup under the seato and cento defense pacts in the early 1950s, the unexpected war with China in 1962, and the breakup of Pakistan in December 1971 following the East Pakistani rebellion and Indo-Pakistani war. In addition, the explosion of an atomic weapon by China in 1964, the buildup of Chinese nuclear weapons and delivery capabilities, and the detonation of an...

  9. CHAPTER THREE Internal Security and the Use of Force
    (pp. 51-85)

    Although India has always faced serious problems of internal strife and armed insurgency, these issues began to receive greater attention after the National Emergency was declared by Prime Minister Gandhi in June 1975. Security as understood in India today is the absence of threats to the territorial integrity and the political and economic stability of the Indian Union. In the internal context, secessionist movements through acts of terrorism or guerrilla warfare, civilian communal violence that mainly involves religious but also linguistic and caste conflict, and other violence arising from economic and political issues are all considered threats to the state...

  10. CHAPTER FOUR The Political System and the Security Decision-Making Process
    (pp. 86-134)

    Security policy making takes place within the domestic political milieu. A variety of historical and sociocultural factors shape perceptions of external and internal threats to the nation. In a broad sense, a nation’s perceptions of threats may be seen as the accumulation of past experiences and prejudices forged through personal memories or historical records. It is difficult to understand Indo-Pakistani hostility without knowledge of Indian history and the nature of ethnic and religious antagonisms in India. The Sino-Indian border dispute may be seen as part of the British legacy bequeathed to the independent government of India. Similarly, explanations for various...

  11. CHAPTER FIVE Military Perspectives and Defense Programs
    (pp. 135-194)

    As discussed in Chapter Two, the shift in Indian security perspectives from a strategic environment that centered around the Sino-Pakistani threat to a more extended spectrum that included military developments in the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean implied the need to revise India’s defense plans and programs drastically. The transformation of the strategic environment has consequently produced various proposals from the Indian armed services for revisions in their roles, force levels, and weapon systems. The new environment has raised the issue of whether or not to play out India’s nuclear option; any assessment of current...

  12. CHAPTER SIX Economic Issues Underlying Defense Planning and Production
    (pp. 195-233)

    Defense planning takes place in the context of the larger economic milieu. How many and which resources may be allocated to defense depends on India’s economic growth and stability. Broad-based growth, especially in key areas of the industrial sector such as aerospace, electronics, shipbuilding, and the automotive industry, are prerequisites for self-sufficiency in defense production. Similary, an internationally competitive export-oriented economy and a healthy annual trade balance are needed to generate sufficient foreign exchange for the import of advanced weapons from abroad. On the other hand, defense allocations may hamper economic growth and stability. Large-scale domestic weapons production may adversely...

  13. CHAPTER SEVEN Technological Strategies and Weapons Procurement Policies
    (pp. 234-274)

    Economic constraints determine the amount of resources that can be diverted to the defense effort without adversely affecting the development program. Technological constraints, on the other hand, determine the limits of defense self-reliance in India. In turn, technological capability is dependent on general economic capability and more specifically on investments that advance Indian technical expertise. Note that although defense self-reliance is dependent on India’s overall technological capability, the technological needs of the civilian and defense sectors often differ in both the quality standards and the time frame within which a machine or weapon must be produced. There is also an...

  14. CHAPTER EIGHT Security Perspectives and Prospects
    (pp. 275-300)

    The assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on October 31, 1984, and the overwhelming electoral victory of the Congress party led by her son, Rajiv Gandhi, at the end of the year, marked a watershed in the politics of India. Will the Congress government of Rajiv Gandhi continue with the policies of the past or provide new ideas and directions?

    A review of the Indian political scene since Independence reveals the importance of prime ministerial leadership in the substance and direction of both domestic and foreign policies. Policies under the Nehru and Indira Gandhi administrations were responses to different domestic...

  15. INDEX
    (pp. 301-310)
  16. Other titles in the Studies in International and Strategic Affairs CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL AND STRATEGIC AFFAIRS UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES
    (pp. 311-312)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 313-313)