Making and Marketing Arms

Making and Marketing Arms: The French Experience and Its Implications for the International System

Copyright Date: 1987
Pages: 546
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  • Book Info
    Making and Marketing Arms
    Book Description:

    France ranks as the world's third largest arms exporter and supplies arms and military technology to over a hundred countries. This book exposes the compelling aims and interests--national independence, security, economic welfare, foreign influence, grandeur--that explain the nation's successes in arms production and transfers.

    Originally published in 1987.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5877-4
    Subjects: Business, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
    (pp. ix-ix)
    (pp. x-xii)
    (pp. xiii-xvii)
    (pp. xviii-xx)
    (pp. xxi-xxvi)
  8. Part I. Arms and International Security
    • CHAPTER 1 From the Beginning through the Fourth Republic
      (pp. 3-53)

      French arms production and strategic military policy, including the raising, training, and equipping of armed forces, are inextricably entwined. However much French regimes—royal, imperial, or republican—may have differed in composition, claims to legitimacy, or objectives, they could agree that France’s independence, security, big-power role—grandeur no less—required an autonomous military strategy and national armed forces free from outside control. These imperatives generated yet another, until now largely overlooked, feature of the evolution of the French nation and state: making and marketing arms. French will to be French—to forge a nation and to fashion a state—explains...

    • CHAPTER 2 The Fifth Republic: National Independence, Military Autonomy, and a New World Order
      (pp. 54-132)

      French security and arms control policies have had a profound impact on French arms production and transfers under the Fifth Republic. While not the only factors, as succeeding chapters suggest, they play a critical role in determining why the French make and sell arms. In response to the superpower struggle and to the security threats raised by the globalization of the nation-state system, the Fifth Republic expanded the size of the arms industry to unprecedented levels and scaled it to global demand for arms and a worldwide market. Building on the work of its predecessor, it constructed an arms industry...

  9. Part II. Arms and the Welfare State
    • CHAPTER 3 Economic and Technological Incentives to Make and Sell Arms
      (pp. 135-210)

      Strategic factors account only partially for France’s export of arms and military technology. They explain more readily why France’s arms industry was reconstructed and expanded after World War II than why France sells weapons and arms know-how in such abundance. One must look elsewhere, to technological and economic factors, for a fuller explanation for France’s transfer of increasing numbers of arms and military know-how to other states. These factors have become progressively important, and today they are the principal determinants of French arms transfer behavior. This chapter traces the progressive ascendancy and evaluates the relative importance of techno-economic factors in...

  10. Part III. Arms and the State
    • CHAPTER 4 National Champions and the French Fifth Republic
      (pp. 213-238)

      By the 1970s, as the preceding chapters argue, public consensus had been reached on two controversial issues: France’s nuclear strike force and the level of permissible defense expenditures. The election of the Socialist government in 1981 confirmed the commitment of the Left to the force de dissuasion. Spending limits on defense were also affirmed. This broadly based consensus established the outer boundaries of the political authority of the arms complex viewed as an autonomous political system within the governmental structure and decisional processes of the Fifth Republic.

      Within the political sphere marked by the evolving consensus on military strategy and...

    • CHAPTER 5 The Politics of Arms Transfers: The Arms Oligarchy and Democratic Norms
      (pp. 239-298)

      Resource constraints require the creation of governmental institutions and processes to define objectives, to orient the arms industry toward national needs, to establish priorities, and to adopt strategies for the achievement of these aims. Democratic imperatives imply, moreover, a government accountable to the public and its chosen representatives. Who, then, in France decides what weapons will be produced, in what quantities, and for whom? How are decision-makers held accountable for these choices, and how are these choices legitimated to meet democratic tests of governance? This mediating process of decision and accountability itself is not politically neutral since it is necessarily...

  11. Part IV. Arms and Foreign Policy
    • CHAPTER 6 The Nation-State System and Modernization: Drive Wheels of Militarization
      (pp. 301-331)

      To what degree have traditional foreign policy considerations directed French arms transfer behavior? These are usually distinguished from domestic concerns—low politics—associated with internal governance, the struggle of elites and parties for power, and economic and welfare problems. Foreign policy has been characteristically reserved for the projection of a state’s power to shape the regional and global environment within which it acts and to influence the behavior of other states in ways congenial to its security, economic interests, and political values. The transfer of arms and military technology is one form of power among others to produce beneficial outcomes...

    • CHAPTER 7 Arms Transfers as Aim and Instrument
      (pp. 332-394)

      To what extent have traditional foreign policy considerations, beyond those associated with French opposition to a superpower-dominated system, shaped French behavior? How has France used arms sales to define regional military balances to favor some contestants over others, to support or undermine political regimes, and to win friends and influence other governments and events by granting or withholding arms? A case-by-case examination of French transfers provides a provisional answer to these questions. What emerges is a crazy-quilt pattern of behavior that admits to no easy—or sure—generalization. While certainly more is at play than simply economic or welfare considerations...

  12. Part V. Arms and Global Security and Welfare
    • CHAPTER 8 Making and Marketing Arms: A Rational Strategy and an Irrational International System
      (pp. 397-408)

      Explaining why France makes and markets arms and military technology is both easy and difficult: easy, because the specific aims guiding French policy—national independence and security, economic and technological development, diplomatic influence, and prestige—are clear enough despite their variable significance; difficult, because the systemic imperatives prompting these aims are not always evident, yet they critically orient and shape French arms policy.

      French arms behavior responds to two structural imperatives inherent in the contemporary international system: external pressures generated by the incipient anarchy of the international community and domestic demands for increased well-being. These imperatives impelled the reform and...

    (pp. 411-415)
  14. APPENDIX A: French Arms Exports by Regions, Countries, and Major Weapon Categories: 1960-1983
    (pp. 416-431)
  15. APPENDIX B: Selected Major Weapons Systems by Recipient Country: 1950-1983
    (pp. 432-435)
  16. APPENDIX C: Major Conventional Weapons Systems Delivered to the Third World by Major Suppliers: 1972-1981
    (pp. 436-441)
  17. APPENDIX D: Regional Distribution of Major Weapons Systems by Suppliers: 1972-1976, 1977-1981
    (pp. 442-446)
  18. NOTES
    (pp. 447-498)
  19. INDEX
    (pp. 499-518)
  20. Back Matter
    (pp. 519-519)