K'ung-ts'ung-tzu

K'ung-ts'ung-tzu: The K'ung Family Masters' Anthology

Yoav Ariel
Copyright Date: 1989
Pages: 232
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7ztwvm
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  • Book Info
    K'ung-ts'ung-tzu
    Book Description:

    In analyzing evidence indicating that K'ung-ts'ung-tzu was a forgery, Yoav Ariel questions current views of the Confucian school in the time between the Sage's death in the fifth century B.C. and the emergence in the eleventh century of Neo-Confucianism. The text, traditionally ascribed to a descendant of Confucius, K'ung Fu (264-208 B.C.), provides a setting for a series of philosophical debates between K'ung family members and representatives of such non-Confucian schools as Legalism, Mohism, and the School of Names. However, finding that this text was probably fabricated by the controversial Confucian master, Wang Su (A.D. 195-256), Ariel explains how it sheds light on the third-century philosophical milieu: Confucianism then is seen to have been not only Taoistically metaphysical, individualistic, and escapist, but also aggressive in advocating early Confucian values.

    The first part of Ariel's book deals with the general characteristics, history, dating, authenticity, and authorship of the text. The second part is a fully annotated and analyzed translation of the first of the two traditional volumes that constitute the K'ung-ts'ung-tzu.

    Originally published in 1989.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6004-3
    Subjects: Philosophy

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. NOTE ON SOURCES AND NOTATION
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Introduction
    • SECTION 1 THE NATURE, STRUCTURE, AND CONTENTS OF THE KTT
      (pp. 3-11)

      TheKTTorThe K’ung Family Masters’ Anthology, which purports to record episodes, dialogues, and statements connected with various members of the K’ung family from the time of Confucius (551–479 b.c.) to the middle of the Later Han (a.d. 25–220), is a philosophically oriented work distinguished by its polemical Confucian nature. Throughout the centuries, scholarly assessments of theKTThave wavered between that of bona fide authority and that of peripheral pious forgery.¹

      During the seventh and up to the eleventh century, theKTTwas widely acclaimed: the major bibliographies of this period usually ascribed the text to...

    • SECTION 2 THE KTT IN HISTORY
      (pp. 12-55)

      The first extant bibliographical work that lists theKTTis theSui-shu ching-chi-chih.’ The monograph that formschüan32–35 of theSui-shuwas written by Chang-sun Wu-chi (d. 659) and others and was presented to the emperor in a.d. 656. The compilers incorporated into their monograph features from several now lost pre-T’ang catalogues,² including Juan Hsiao-hsü’s (a.d. 479–549)Ch’i-lu

      TheLun Yü’s section of theSui-shu ching-chi-chih reads: “K’ung-ts’ungin sevenchüan, was written by K’ung Fu an Erudite⁴ of Ch’en Sheng.⁵ In the Liang dynasty,⁶ there was a ten-chüanbook titledK’ung-chih. This work was written by...

    • SECTION 3 THE AUTHENTICITY, DATE, AND AUTHORSHIP OF THE KTT
      (pp. 56-70)

      The various findings that emerge from this study of theKTTmake it possible to embark upon a final discussion of the problem of its authenticity, dating, and authorship.

      Let me first set the problem: TheKTTpretends to be the K’ung family’s anthology of lore accumulated over 650 years by prominent members of the family. In other words, the text creates the impression that it genuinely records the philosophical activities of various members of the K’ung family, and that a good deal of its content is the authentic writings of some of the K’ung family members. Is the impression...

  6. K’ung-ts’ ung-tzu—Part A, Chapters 1–10, 12–14
    • CHAPTER 1 WORDS OF PRAISE
      (pp. 75-78)
      Chia-yen

      When the Master² went to Chou he met Ch’ang Hung.³ When their conversation⁴ was over he retired. Ch’ang Hung then said to Duke Wen of Liu: “To me K’ung Chung-ni⁵ seems to have the outward manifestations of a sage. The flowing shape of his eyes⁶ and the rise of his forehead make him look like the Yellow Emperor.⁷ His long arms and arched back,⁸ along with his nine-foot six-inch stature,⁹ give him a stature like Ch’eng T’ang.10Yet in his speech he is deferential to the former kings, and his personal bearing is extremely modest. He is a man of...

    • CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION OF THE BOOK OF DOCUMENTS
      (pp. 79-86)
      Lun-shu

      Tzu-chang asked: “When the sage receives the mandate¹ he must receive it at Heaven’s bequest. Why, then, does theBook of Documents² say: ‘Shun received Yao’s retirement in the temple of the Accomplished Ancestor’?”³

      Confucius answered: “As examples of those who received the mandate from Heaven we have T’ang⁴ and Wu. Those who received it from men include Shun and Yü.⁵ If one is not versed in theBook of Odes,⁶ theBook of Documents, the Book of Changes,⁷ and theSpring and Autumn Annals,⁸ then not only does one not understand the mind of the sage, but one also...

    • CHAPTER 3 RECORD OF RIGHTEOUSNESS
      (pp. 87-92)
      Chi-i

      Chi Huan-tzu gave the Master a formal gift of a thousand measures of grain.¹ The Master accepted it without a word of decline and then divided the grain between those of his disciples who were destitute. Tzu-kung came forward and said: “Chi-sun² has presented the grain to you because of your poverty and you have accepted it and given it away to others. Isn’t your act contrary to Chi-sun’s intention?”

      The Master said: “How so?”

      Tzu-kung replied: “The intended purpose of Chi-sun’s gesture was generosity.”

      The Master said: “That is correct. My acquisition of the thousand measures of grain and...

    • CHAPTER 4 ON PUNISHMENT
      (pp. 93-97)
      Hsing-lun

      Chung Kung¹ asked Confucius to compare the use of punishment² in the education of ancient times with that of the present.³

      Confucius said: “Punishment in ancient times was scarcely used, but in our age punishment is highly prevalent. As for education, in ancient times there were the rites, and only later was there punishment. That is why punishment was used so sparingly. In our age there are no rites to teach with, and the people are kept in line by means of punishment. That is why punishment is so prevalent. TheBook of Documentssays:

      Po I⁴ sent down the...

    • CHAPTER 5 RECORDED QUESTIONS
      (pp. 98-101)
      Chi-wen

      Once while the Master was at leisure, he sighed audibly. Tzussu¹ bowed to the ground twice and begged leave to ask a question: “Is it because you are thinking of uncultivated descendants who will eventually disgrace their ancestors that you sigh, or is it because you regret that you have not attained the revered Way of Yao and Shun?”

      The Master answered: “You are just a child; how could you fathom my frame of mind?”

      Tzu-ssu responded: “While serving your meals I have often heard you teaching that the son who is unable to carry the firewood chopped by his...

    • CHAPTER 6 THE VARIOUS DOCTRINES AND THE TEACHINGS OF THE SAGE
      (pp. 102-106)
      Tsa-hsün

      Tzu-shang² asked about the practice of the various doctrines.³ Tzu-ssu answered: “It was my late Master’s⁴ instruction that learning depends upon the sage’s teaching to fulfill the student’s inherent capacity, just as sharpening depends on the whetstone to bring out the perfection of the blade. Therefore the teaching of the Master has its point of origin in the study of theBook of Odesand theBook of Documents, and its culmination in rites and music.⁵ The various doctrines do not partake of this fundamental learning, so what is the point of asking about them?”

      Tzu-ssu said to Tzu-shang: “Po,...

    • CHAPTER 7 LIVING IN WEI
      (pp. 107-112)
      Chü Wei

      When Tzu-ssu was living in Wei he spoke to the Prince of Wei¹ about Kou Pien² and said: “This man’s capacity is sufficient to lead five hundred chariots. If you entrust your troops and armies to the command of this man you will have no match under Heaven.”

      The Prince of Wei said: “I know that his capacity is sufficient to command my troops and armies. Nevertheless, once when he was a commissioner in charge of collecting taxes from the people, he took two eggs from someone and ate them. This is why I do not wish to employ him.”...

    • CHAPTER 8 IMPERIAL TOURS OF INSPECTION
      (pp. 113-115)
      Hsün-shou

      When Tzu-ssu was traveling to Ch’i, Ch’en Chuang-po¹ joined him in climbing Mt. T’ai. They looked at some stone inscriptions engraved by an emperor of ancient times during a tour of inspection. Ch’en-tzu said: “I am not fortunate enough to live in an age in which emperors and kings perform the Feng and Shan sacrifices.”²

      Tzu-ssu said: “That is because you do not truly wish it. Nowadays, the royal house of Chou is declining, and the feudal lords do not have an overlord. If the kind of righteousness shown in Ch’i becomes a model for her neighboring states, and if,...

    • CHAPTER 9 THE MINISTER KUNG-I
      (pp. 116-119)
      Kung-i

      Among the people of Lu there was Kung-i Hsiu.¹ He polished his moral integrity and perfected his conduct. He was delighted in the Way and took deep pleasure in the study of antiquity. He was unmoved by glory and gain, and refused to serve the feudal lords. Tzu-ssu had friendly relations with him. Duke Mu, seeking Tzu-ssu’s support to make Kung-i his chief minister, said to Tzu-ssu: “It is essential that Kung-i assist me. Tell him that I am ready to divide the state of Lu into three parts and let him have one.”

      Tzu-ssu replied: “If I deliver this...

    • CHAPTER 10 HOLDING FIRM TO PERSONAL IDEALS
      (pp. 120-129)
      K’ang-chih

      Tseng Shen¹ said to Tzu-ssu: “What is preferable, to bend oneself while extending the Way, or to hold firm² to personal ideals while living in poverty and destitution?”

      Tzu-ssu replied: “It is my wish that the Way be extended. But who among the kings and lords of our age is able to achieve that aim? It is better to hold firm to personal ideals and live in poverty and destitution than to bend oneself for the sake of wealth and honor. If one bends oneself, one will be controlled by others; while if one holds firm to one’s personal ideals,...

    • CHAPTER 12 THE PHILOSOPHER KUNG-SUN LUNG
      (pp. 130-134)
      Kung-sun Lung

      The man called Kung-sun Lung¹ was a retainer of Prince P’ing-yüan.² He devoted himself to the discussions of forms and names,³ and he held a white horse not to be a white horse.⁴ Someone said to Tzu-kao:⁵ “By petty distinctions, he slanders the great Way.⁶ Why do you not go and put him right?” Tzu-kao replied: “The flouting of the great Way is commonplace everywhere. Why should I be troubled by it?”

      Someone said: “In spite of this, since you are concerned with the world, you ought to go.”

      Thereupon Tzu-kao went to Chao, met Lung in the house of...

    • CHAPTER 13 CONFUCIAN CLOTHES
      (pp. 135-139)
      Ju-fu

      Tzu-kao trailed the skirt of his robe, fluttered his long sleeves, and appeared in square clogs along with a huge bamboo fan before Prince P’ing-yiian. The Prince said: “My master, are these also the clothes of a Confucian?”¹

      Tzu-kao answered: “These are the clothes of a common man; they are not the clothes of a Confucian. Confucian clothes are not invariable.”

      Prince P’ing-yüan said: “Would you kindly elaborate, Master.”

      Tzu-kao responded: “When the Confucian is in an official position and the Way is put into effect, he wears embroidered clothes.² When he acts as a general in the field, he...

    • CHAPTER 14 A DIALOGUE WITH THE KING OF WEI
      (pp. 140-144)
      Tui Wei-wang

      The King of Wei¹ asked about the primary causes of concern for a ruler. Tzu-kao replied: “When he installs a high minister and yet does not plan things together with him, and when the ideas of favored sycophantic ministers are put into effect, then the neglect of the wise gentlemen will put them into a state of self-doubt. When wicked ministers meet with fortunate treatment, then they cater to the ruler’s wishes inside the court, while outside they openly discuss the ruler’s wrongs. This is a great cause for concern in a ruler.”

      Tzu-kao said to the King of Wei:...

  7. NOTES
    (pp. 147-184)
  8. GLOSSARY
    (pp. 185-202)
  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 203-216)
  10. INDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 217-220)