The Anatomy of Mountain Ranges

The Anatomy of Mountain Ranges

JEAN-PAUL SCHAER
JOHN RODGERS
Copyright Date: 1987
Pages: 314
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7ztzkn
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  • Book Info
    The Anatomy of Mountain Ranges
    Book Description:

    Focusing on mountain ranges that are relatively unfamiliar to most geologists, this work expands our view of tectonics beyond a standardized textbook approach and illustrates both the extraordinary variety of mountain ranges over the world through time and many of the basic similarities they display.

    Originally published in 1987.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5864-4
    Subjects: Geology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. PART I GENERAL
    • Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY IN GEOLOGY
      (pp. 3-10)
      JEAN-PAUL SCHAER

      Students working in small universities are more and more absorbed by multiple teaching tasks to which are added burdensome management duties. This situation generates a relative isolation that keeps them away from the dynamic impulses of modern research. To enable them to remain in contact with the most active research groups, the French-speaking universities of Switzerland and the University of Bern have joined together to provide postgraduate courses in Earth Science. Every year a set of lectures is organized, taking stock of one modern and important topic.

      During the first months of 1982, the University of Neuchâtel was responsible for...

    • Chapter 2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MOUNTAIN RANGES
      (pp. 11-18)
      JOHN RODGERS

      Geologists have been searching for and arguing about the cause of orogeny and mountain ranges for a long time. By the 1930s, there were a large number of competing theories of orogeny, as I learned when Professor C. R. Longwell assigned each member of his advanced class in structural geology one theory to present (I drew Erich Haarmann). The wide variety of theories was most striking, as well as instructive. I learned then, and the lesson has been enforced since in several fields, that when the number of theories to explain one group of phenomena is large, roughly one per...

    • Chapter 3 TECTONIC FRAMEWORK OF PRECAMBRIAN BELTS
      (pp. 19-28)
      BRIAN F. WINDLEY

      The Precambrian eon can be usefully divided into the Archean and Proterozoic. These eras are separated by the Archean-Proterozoic Boundary (APB), which represents a diachronous, transitional time period of ca. 2,700 to 2,300 Ma b.p.

      The twofold division of Archean rocks into greenstone belts (GB) and granulite-gneiss belts (GGB) is well known (Windley 1984). For the first third of geological history, the same types of rocks were produced, but secular variations were also present. The paragraphs that follow describe the main features of these two types of belts.

      Condie (1981) lists 22 factual observations about typical Archean GB. They are...

  5. PART II EUROPE
    • Chapter 4 A TECTONIC MODEL FOR THE CRUSTAL EVOLUTION OF THE BALTIC SHIELD
      (pp. 31-58)
      ASGER BERTHELSEN

      The Precambrian crystalline rocks exposed in the Baltic shield form part of the oldest continental crust in Europe. On its eastern and southern side, the Baltic shield is fringed by Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata that form the cover to the Precambrian basement of the neighboring Russian platform and Fennoscandian border zone southwest of the shield. The northwestern margin of the shield is outlined by the front of the Scandinavian Caledonides.

      The Baltic shield is a classic region for studies of Precambrian geology (Sederholm 1907, 1927, 1932; Wegmann 1928; Eskola 1929, 1948; Backlund 1936, 1943). At the dawn of this century,...

    • Chapter 5 THE LOWER ALLOCHTHON IN SOUTHERN NORWAY: AN EXHUMED ANALOG OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS DEEP DETACHMENT?
      (pp. 59-64)
      A. G. MILNES

      The Caledonian orogenic belt in southern Norway can be thought of in terms of three major units (Figure 5-1): (1) a lower unit of Precambrian crystalline rocks, representing the northwestern margin of the Baltic shield (autochthon); (2) an upper complex of far-traveled nappes, of which the main member is a large mass of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks known as the Jotun complex (allochthon); and (3) a separating zone of smaller parautochthonous and allochthonous units, containing lower Paleozoic sediments from different facies belts, slices of Precambrian basement, and some ophiolitic fragments (lower allochthon = detachment zone). The last unit is...

    • Chapter 6 THE STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE HERCYNIAN FOLD BELT IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
      (pp. 65-104)
      M. JULIVERT

      The core of the Iberian Peninsula is formed by a Hercynian cratonic block, bounded to the west and northwest by the Atlantic Ocean and the Cantabrian Sea (Bay of Biscay) and to the northeast and southeast by the Pyrenean and Betic segments of the Alpine fold belt. Within this block Paleozoic rocks crop out largely in the west, forming the Iberian massif, while to the east they plunge gently below a Mesozoic-Tertiary platform cover.

      The Hercynian structures cross the Iberian massif in a northwest-southeast direction, except in the northern part where they describe a sharp bend cut by the Cantabrian...

  6. PART III AFRICA
    • Chapter 7 EVOLUTION AND STRUCTURE OF THE HIGH ATLAS OF MOROCCO
      (pp. 107-128)
      JEAN-PAUL SCHAER

      Located between the African craton in the south and the Rif-Tell thrust belts in the north, bordering the Mediterranean from Morocco to Tunisia, the Atlas can be considered an advanced component of the Alpine orogeny in North Africa (Figure 7-1). Whereas in the Rif and Tell thrusts from north to south are widely developed and imply important transports of the upper units southward, the Atlas appears first and foremost as an autochthonous land where essentially Mesozoic strata are folded over an ill-known Paleozoic and Precambrian basement. The Atlas range extends over more than 2,000 km from Atlantic Morocco to Tunisia,...

    • Chapter 8 THE PAN-AFRICAN BELT OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE SAHARA DESERT TO THE GULF OF BENIN
      (pp. 129-170)
      R. CABY

      Considered only a few years ago as a simple thermal rejuvenation, the Pan-African event appears today as a major orogenic cycle responsible for the cratonization of large parts of the Afro-Brazilian supercontinent.

      The Pan-African belt, trending north-south and measuring more than 1,000 km wide, runs from the Sahara to the Gulf of Benin (Figure 8-1). To the west it is bounded by the West African craton, a stable block since 2,000 Ma. The belt is particularly well exposed within the Hoggar or Touareg shield in the mountain masses of Hoggar in Algeria, Adrar des Iforas in Mali, and Aïr in...

  7. PART IV SOUTH AMERICA
    • Chapter 9 TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE SOUTHERN ANDES, TIERRA DEL FUEGO: A SUMMARY
      (pp. 173-178)
      A. G. MILNES

      The southernmost east-west trending segment of the Southern Andes (Figure 9-1) differs from the main Andean chain in being inactive and aseismic (Zeil 1979) and in showing many features generally associated with collision-type orogenic zones (Nelson et al. 1980). On Tierra del Fuego and neighboring islands, the chain can be subdivided into several morphotectonic zones in a north-south cross section (Figure 9-2).

      The Northern Plains is an undisturbed platform of pre-Mesozoic continental basement, overlain by a cover sequence consisting of thick Upper Jurassic volcanics, thin Cretaceous elastics, and thick Eocene-Oligocene molasse (Magallanes Basin, Natland et al. 1974).

      This thin-skinned fold-and-thrust...

    • Chapter 10 STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE PERUVIAN ANDES
      (pp. 179-210)
      François Mégard

      The Peruvian Andes record the phenomena that have constructed and deformed the western margin of the South American continent during the last two billion years. In the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia and the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina, excluding the Magellan area, the Mesozoic and Tertiary Andean orogenic belt lies entirely on a Precambrian sialic basement partly covered by Paleozoic sediments that were deformed during the Hercynian. No ophiolitic suture of post-Paleozoic age has been identified; it is thus by definition a “liminal” orogen, formed on the edge of the continent in an active margin regime, but...

    • Chapter 11 THE KINEMATIC PUZZLE OF THE NEOGENE NORTHERN ANDES
      (pp. 211-228)
      H. P. LAUBSCHER

      North of Ecuador, the South American Andes split into a number of diverging branches which terminate on approaching the Caribbean coast (Figure 11-1). Plate-tectonically, these branches are a sort of extended triple-junction domain between the South American plate (SA), the Caribbean plate (Ca), and the complex northern end of the Nazca plate (Na) (Figure 11-2; cf. Beck et al. 1975, Lonsdale and Klitgord 1978, Case and Holcombe 1980). This paper deals mostly with tectonics on land, and particularly with the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia, the Santander massif, the Sierra de Perijá, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and the Mérida...

    • Chapter 12 THE TECTONICS OF TÁCHIRA: A SAMPLE OF NORTH ANDEAN TECTONICS
      (pp. 229-238)
      B. MEIER, M. SCHWANDER and H. P. LAUBSCHER

      Táchira is the connecting link between the Mérida Andes, the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia, and the Santander massif (see Laubscher, this volume, Figure 11-2). Consequently, it is ideally located for illustrating in detail what the general block-mosaic kinematics of northern South America, as presented by Laubscher (this volume), implies on a regional scale. Indeed, the article by Laubscher is the result of an attempt to establish a regional frame for the puzzling tectonics of Táchira. The dating of motions in northern South America is somewhat controversial; because the dating of motions in Táchira is crucial for understanding this problem, it...

  8. PART V NORTH AMERICA
    • Chapter 13 THE APPALACHIAN GEOSYNCLINE
      (pp. 241-258)
      JOHN RODGERS

      It was with reference to the Appalachian mountains of eastern North America (Figure 13-1) and the stratigraphic sequence of which they are built that the concept of thegeosynclinalorgeosynclinewas first developed. Using the then relatively new concept of faunal succession, the paleontologist James Hall had played a large part in establishing (1836–1842) the Paleozoic sequence in the state of New York as typical for eastern North America (up to the Carboniferous), and thereafter he was repeatedly consulted on stratigraphic questions by the geologists of the Appalachian states of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Tennessee and by those of...

  9. PART VI ASIA
    • Chapter 14 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON PROFILES ACROSS THE NORTHWEST HIMALAYAS
      (pp. 261-276)
      W. FRANK, A. BAUD, K. HONEGGER and V. TROMMSDORFF

      This study deals with profiles in Ladakh, Kashmir, and the Kulu area (Figure 14-1) of the Northwest Himalayas. Considerable fieldwork in this region in the past ten years (Frank et al. 1973; Gupta and Kumar 1975; Frank, Gansser, and Trommsdorff 1977; Frank, Thöni, and Purtscheller 1977; Bassoullet, Colchen, et al. 1978; Sharma and Kumar 1978; Srikantia et al. 1978; Fuchs 1979, 1981, 1982a, 1982b; Bassoullet, Colchen, Marcoux, and Mascle 1980; Gaetani et al. 1980; Baud, Arn, et al. 1982; Honeggeretal et al. 1982; Bassoullet et al. 1983; Baud et al. 1983; Honegger 1983; Trommsdorff et al. 1983) has led to...

    • Chapter 15 THE ACTIVE TAIWAN MOUNTAIN BELT
      (pp. 277-294)
      JOHN SUPPE

      The rugged island of Taiwan (Figure 15-1) lies on the active boundary between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate. This boundary extends eastward and northeastward along the Ryukyu Trench to southern Japan and southward along the Manila Trench to Luzon (Figure 15-2). The Philippine Sea plate is moving in a northwesterly direction relative to the Eurasian plate at about 70 km per million years, according to Seno (1977). Northeast of Taiwan, the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Ryukyu island arc of the Eurasian plate. The Okinawa Trough is an actively spreading back-arc basin (Letouzey and Kimura...

  10. INDEX
    (pp. 295-298)
  11. Back Matter
    (pp. 299-299)