Lizard Ecology

Lizard Ecology: Historical and Experimental Perspectives

Laurie J. Vitt
Eric R. Pianka
Copyright Date: 1994
Pages: 416
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zv1c2
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Lizard Ecology
    Book Description:

    In a collection rich in implications for all fields of ecology, leading lizard ecologists demonstrate the utility of the phylogenetic approach in understanding the evolution of morphology, physiology, behavior, and life histories. Lizards, which are valued for their amenability to field experiments, have been the subject of reciprocal transplant experiments and of manipulations of resource availability, habitat structure, population density, and entire sections of food webs. Such experiments are rapidly rebuilding ecological theories as they apply to all organisms. As a demonstration of state-of-the-art historical and experimental research and as a call for philosophical engagement, this volume will join its predecessors--Lizard Ecology: A Symposium(Missouri, 1967) andLizard Ecology: Studies of a Model Organism(Harvard, 1983)--in directing ecological research for years to come.

    Lizard Ecologycontains essays on reproductive ecology (Arthur E. Dunham, Lin Schwarzkopf, Peter H. Niewiarowski, Karen Overall, and Barry Sinervo), behavioral ecology (A. Stanley Rand, William E. Cooper, Jr., Emülia P. Martins, Craig Guyer, and C. Michael Bull), evolutionary ecology (Raymond B. Huey, Jean Clobert et al., Donald B. Miles, and Theodore Garland, Jr.), and population and community ecology (Ted Case, Robin M. Andrews and S. Joseph Wright, Craig D. James, and Jonathan B. Losos).

    Originally published in 1994.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6394-5
    Subjects: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. INTRODUCTION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. ix-2)
    Laurie J. Vitt and Eric R. Pianka

    This book follows in the footsteps of two other symposia on lizard ecology. The first, based on a conference held in 1965, was edited by the late W. W. Milstead (Lizard Ecology: A Symposium, University of Missouri Press, Columbia, published in 1967). That volume demonstrated to a broad audience that lizards are often extraordinarily good subjects for ecological studies: many species are abundant, easily observed and captured, low in mobility, and very hardy in captivity. Individuals can be marked and monitored for many years. Of course, such ecologically tractable animals have attracted the attention of some of our best ecologists....

  5. Part I. Reproductive Ecology
    • Introduction
      (pp. 3-6)
      Arthur E. Dunham

      Studies of lizard reproductive ecology have proliferated over the last fifteen years providing valuable data on such reproductive characteristics as reproductive mode, clutch size, clutch frequency, age at first reproduction, and offspring size for a wide variety of populations. Data are sufficient to allow analysis of geographic variation in reproductive characteristics and demography for only a few species with broad geographic distributions includingSceloporus undulatus, S. graciosus, Uta stansburiana, andUrosaurus ornatus. Improvement in quantitative techniques and additional data have resulted in reinterpretation by my student, Peter Niewiarowski, of conclusions reached earlier by Don Tinkle, Royce Ballinger, and me. Recent...

    • CHAPTER 1 MEASURING TRADE-OFFS: A REVIEW OF STUDIES OF COSTS OF REPRODUCTION IN LIZARDS
      (pp. 7-30)
      Lin Schwarzkopf

      The life history of an organism may be defined as a co-adapted complex of traits (Stearns 1976, 1989a; Ballinger 1983). If life-history traits are co-adapted, the concept of trade-offs is central to the understanding of life-history evolution. This is because the optimization of a single aspect of reproduction cannot occur except at the expense of other, related aspects. Thus, natural selection should produce phenotypes that are compromises between the costs and benefits of changing any particular character.

      The concept of costs of reproduction first arose to address an apparent contradiction between theory and observation. All things being equal, it is...

    • CHAPTER 2 UNDERSTANDING GEOGRAPHIC LIFE-HISTORY VARIATION IN LIZARDS
      (pp. 31-50)
      Peter H. Niewiarowski

      Species distributed over broad geographic ranges often display extensive variation in life-history traits such as age at maturity, growth rate, and age-specific schedules of fecundity and survivorship. Variation in life-history traits has received tremendous theoretical and empirical attention (see Stearns 1976, 1977, 1992; Roff 1992 for reviews). Studies of intraspecific geographic variation have played an important role in identifying potential ecological sources of variation, and in providing hypotheses concerning the evolution of life histories. However, even in systems where a substantial amount of comparative data have been compiled, an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary significance of variation among populations...

    • CHAPTER 3 LIZARD EGG ENVIRONMENTS
      (pp. 51-72)
      Karen L. Overall

      Studies of lizard population biology have focused largely on posthatching or postparturition stages. In many lizard populations, variation in survival of eggs or embryos may represent the largest contribution to variation in annual recruitment. To understand population fluctuations or factors that affect population dynamics of animals, it is critical to study factors that influence survival of eggs or embryos. In short-lived animals like small lizards, population dynamics appear to be particularly sensitive to fluctuations in annual recruitment and survival of egg and juvenile stages compared to longer-lived animals in which survival of adults may have greater impact on population dynamics...

    • CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF REPRODUCTIVE ALLOCATION PARADIGMS
      (pp. 73-90)
      Barry Sinervo

      Variation among individuals is the raw material for natural selection (Darwin 1859). Natural selection acts on variation in traits, but because of genetically based trade-offs, adaptive compromise among traits is an implicit assumption of most life-history modeling (Williams 1966a; Gadgil and Bossert 1970; Stearns 1977; Partridge and Harvey 1985; Reznick 1985, 1992; Pease and Bull 1988; Partridge 1992). For example, the trade-offs involving maternal allocation to reproduction are frequently expressed as two life-history paradigms: (1) the trade-off between offspring number and offspring quality (Lack 1954; Williams 1966a; Smith and Fretwell 1974) and (2) the trade-off between allocation to current versus...

  6. Part II. Behavioral Ecology
    • Introduction
      (pp. 91-94)
      A. Stanley Rand

      The aim of this introductory essay is to search for connections among each of the four chapters on behavioral ecology that follow (you are encouraged to read them yourself) and with behavioral ecology in general.

      Behavioral ecology is a relatively new name for a field of long-standing interest to students of lizards and one to which lizard studies have contributed both examples and ideas. “The overall theme [of behavioral ecology] is still that of how behaviour is influenced by natural selection in relation to ecological conditions” (in Krebs and Davies 1978, p. ix). Though there are students of lizards doing...

    • CHAPTER 5 PREY CHEMICAL DISCRIMINATION, FORAGING MODE, AND PHYLOGENY
      (pp. 95-116)
      William E. Cooper Jr.

      Historical and adaptive components of the current expression of behavioral and morphological traits are often difficult to separate, but recognition of their contributions, entailing consideration of the selective factors leading to adaptation, can provide insights into the distribution of characteristics in a clade and suggest reasons for the evolution of related traits. This is especially likely for interrelated suites of traits serving shared function. In lizards, detection and identification of prey chemicals on environmental substrates typically involves lingual sampling. The presence or absence of this chemosensory behavior is strongly affected by foraging mode. Evidence of an adaptive relationship between foraging...

    • CHAPTER 6 PHYLOGENETIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE EVOLUTION OF LIZARD TERRITORIALITY
      (pp. 117-144)
      Emília P. Martins

      The evolution of ecological and behavioral traits is difficult to study because of the absence of such traits from the fossil record. For example, variation in lizard territoriality both within and among species may be due to differences in life-history patterns, availability of ecological resources, access to mates, or ontogenetic and phylogenetic constraints. Many studies at the intraspecific level have attempted to uncover reasons for differences among individuals, between the sexes, and across populations in territorial behavior using correlational analysis, experimental manipulations, and theoretical considerations (see reviews in Carpenter 1967; Rand 1967; Stamps 1977, 1983). However, patterns of natural and...

    • CHAPTER 7 MATE LIMITATION IN MALE Norops humilis
      (pp. 145-158)
      Craig Guyer

      Long-term demographic data provide the foundation for much research in lizard ecology. Available data indicate a complicated pattern of environmental effects on life-history parameters constrained by phylogenetic history (e.g., Miles and Dunham 1992). One avenue of this research has been a comparative examination of the population ecology of anoline lizards on Caribbean islands with those on the mainland. The impetus of this research can be traced to Andrews’ (1979) hypothesis that, for mainland forms, predators are more important than foodin limitinglizard abundance and that the reverse is true for island forms. Long-term studies of Caribbean anoles have demonstrated...

    • CHAPTER 8 POPULATION DYNAMICS AND PAIR FIDELITY IN SLEEPY LIZARDS
      (pp. 159-174)
      C. Michael Bull

      Like most other taxa, lizards have a wide range of life histories, reflecting diversity of phylogeny, habitat, and ecological niche (Ballinger 1983; James and Shine 1988; Shine and Greer 1991; Vitt and Breitenbach 1993). Consequently, new studies of lizard ecology are likely to uncover diverse population patterns rather than populations conforming to previously described patterns. In this chapter I present data from a long-term study of the population dynamics and social interactions of a long-lived Australian skink, the sleepy lizard,Tiliqua rugosa(previouslyTrachydosaurus rugosus).

      I do not give any new generalizations about lizard ecology, but attempt to address a...

  7. Part III. Evolutionary Ecology
    • Introduction
      (pp. 175-182)
      Raymond B. Huey

      The world of evolutionary ecology has changed dramatically since Eric Pianka, Tom Schoener, and I edited the last edition of “Lizard Ecology.” So in my introduction here, I want to summarize some of those changes, to evaluate some strengths and weaknesses in the field, and to suggest some new directions. My comments are intended as strictly personal, and not encyclopedic.

      I have organized my commentary around the primary theme of “temporal” scale in evolutionary ecology. As ecological patterns can be analyzed on differing spatial scales, evolutionary patterns can be analyzed on differing temporal scales. For example, one can study the...

    • CHAPTER 9 DETERMINANTS OF DISPERSAL BEHAVIOR: THE COMMON LIZARD AS A CASE STUDY
      (pp. 183-206)
      Jean Clobert, Manuel Massot, Jane Lecomte, Gabriele Sorci, Michelle de Fraipont and Robert Barbault

      Habitat fragmentation is a major environmental problem facing conservation biology (Soulé 1986). Theoretical studies have considered the effect of habitat size and isolation on the persistence of a species in networks of habitats (for review, see Hanski 1991a). Numerous empirical examples have been provided to illustrate the importance of the size of a patch (Schoener and Schoener 1983) and of the connectivity among patches (Stamps et al. 1987; Fahrig and Paloheimo 1988; Fahrig 1990; Sjögren 1991). However, the importance of within-patch population size, structure, and dynamics was only recently considered in studies of among-patch dynamics (Hanski 1991b; Hasting 1992; Lebreton...

    • CHAPTER 10 COVARIATION BETWEEN MORPHOLOGY AND LOCOMOTORY PERFORMANCE IN SCELOPORINE LIZARDS
      (pp. 207-236)
      Donald B. Miles

      A common feature among coexisting assemblages of lizards is the tendency to see divergence in habitat exploitation patterns of the constituent species. Coincident with this pattern is the tendency for the species’ body proportions to vary in parallel. Similarly, the radiation of a monophyletic clade may lead to the divergence of species with respect to habitat occupancy, substrate use, and morphological attributes (e.g., Williams 1972). In seeking to delineate the interaction between the attributes of an organism with its environment, ecologists exploit a number of approaches, including foraging ecology, behavioral analyses, physiological ecology, and patterns of life-history variation. However, repeated...

    • CHAPTER 11 PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF LIZARD ENDURANCE CAPACITY IN RELATION TO BODY SIZE AND BODY TEMPERATURE
      (pp. 237-260)
      Theodore Garland Jr.

      The causes and consequences of variation in locomotor costs and capacities have received considerable attention from physiological ecologists and comparative physiologists during the last 20 years (reviews in Taylor et al. 1982; Bennett 1983; Bennett and Huey 1990; Bennett 1991; Full 1991; Gatten et al. 1992; MacMillen and Hinds 1992; Djawdan 1993; Garland 1993; Garland and Losos 1994; Miles this volume). Two main reasons for this attention are apparent. First, locomotor performance is known or thought to be causally related to success in many activities that affect fitness in nature, including foraging, courtship, and escape from predators (reviews in Bennett...

  8. Part IV. Population and Community Ecology
    • Introduction
      (pp. 261-266)
      Ted Case

      While lizards are special in many ways, those interested in population and community ecology would hope that they are not unique. The same factors and principles that influence the assembly, dynamics, and persistence of lizard populations should be generalizable to some degree to other organisms. If this were not the case, we lizard ecologists would have little importance outside our own parochial endeavors.

      Lizard ecology is blossoming in several ways and leading to generalizable insights far beyond lizard ecology. Some obvious trends in the arena of population biology, community ecology, and biogeography are well illustrated by even a casual comparison...

    • CHAPTER 12 LONG-TERM POPULATION FLUCTUATIONS OF A TROPICAL LIZARD: A TEST OF CAUSALITY
      (pp. 267-286)
      Robin M. Andrews and S. Joseph Wright

      A central problem in ecology concerns population stability. Connell and Sousa (1983) point out that the assumption of constancy through time is implicit to a wide range of theoretical and empirical studies on ecological systems. Given this assumption, observations of resource partitioning, for example, can be used imply to past and present competition for resources. If, on the other hand, populations fluctuate widely, present patterns of resource use may have little relationship to past interactions among species (Wiens 1977). Actually, in a survey of real populations, magnitude of population fluctuation varied widely (Connell and Sousa 1983). No taxonomic patterns were...

    • CHAPTER 13 SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN STRUCTURE OF A DIVERSE LIZARD ASSEMBLAGE IN ARID AUSTRALIA
      (pp. 287-318)
      Craig D. James

      Understanding the origin and structure of communities of species has been a central theme of ecology. A driving question behind the study of animal and plant communities is: What forces, if any, determine which species are found together, and what influences the abundance of component species (Andrewartha and Birch 1954; Hutchinson 1959)? Such questions have served to focus thought on community structure. Naturally enough, opinions are as diverse as the biological communities people study, and a debate currently ensues over this general question. As with most debates, views are polarized into two main schools of thought-those who argue for equilibrial...

    • CHAPTER 14 HISTORICAL CONTINGENCY AND LIZARD COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
      (pp. 319-334)
      Jonathan B. Losos

      Community ecologists usually focus on the following questions: (1) What processes are operating within a community? (2) What processes led to the currently observed structure of a community? (3) What accounts for the differences and/or similarities among communities?

      Although the first question concerns what is happening within present-day communities, the latter two questions inquire about the processes responsible for patterns observed in extant communities. These latter questions directly address the historical genesis of community patterns: through what route and guided by what processes have communities attained their current state? Such questions are critical to investigation of present-day community patterns for...

  9. REFERENCES
    (pp. 335-388)
  10. AUTHOR INDEX
    (pp. 389-396)
  11. SPECIES INDEX
    (pp. 397-403)