Phanerozoic Diversity Patterns

Phanerozoic Diversity Patterns: Profiles in Macroevolution

JAMES W. VALENTINE EDITOR
Copyright Date: 1985
Pages: 452
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zv9nh
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  • Book Info
    Phanerozoic Diversity Patterns
    Book Description:

    Here twenty-one leading paleontologists use important refinements in fossil diversity data to provide critical evaluations of older hypotheses of diversification and extinction processes and to propose fresh interpretations.

    Originally published in 1986.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5505-6
    Subjects: Paleontology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. PREFACE
    (pp. ix-2)
    James W Valentine
  4. INTRODUCTION DIVERSITY AS DATA
    (pp. 3-8)
    JAMES W. VALENTINE

    Charles Darwin had a lot of trouble with the fossil record. He was able to use it as strong evidence that evolution had occurred, observing that there had been a long history of ancient life, with biotas succeeding each other through time. However, when it came to using fossil data to support the idea that natural selection was responsible for evolution, the fossil record was singularly unhelpful. Darwin was forced to argue that the record was good enough to establish evolution as a fact but poor enough that evidence of change via natural selection could not be found (Rudwick, 1976)....

  5. Part I PHANEROZOIC DIVERSITY TRENDS
    • Chapter 1 AN ATLAS OF PHANEROZOIC CLADE DIVERSITY DIAGRAMS
      (pp. 11-40)
      J. JOHN SEPKOSKI Jr. and MICHAEL L. HULVER

      Clade diversity diagrams are spindle-shaped graphs that summarize patterns of taxonomic evolution within higher taxa through geologic time. Most clade diversity diagrams are constructed about a central axis that represents time (scaled either metrically or ordinally, by stratigraphic interval). Some measure or estimate of taxonomic diversity (or “richness”) is then plotted symmetrically about the axis to give the diagram an overall spindle shape (e.g., Figure 1).

      Diversity diagrams for individual clades convey information about their size, shape, and variability in the fossil record (cf. Gould et al., 1977). Such “morphologic” information is valuable for assessing how evolutionary rates (that is,...

    • Chapter 2 TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE DIVERSITY: EPISODES AND INSIGHTS
      (pp. 41-96)
      K. PADIAN and W. A. CLEMENS

      One of the most important contributions to the advancement of paleobiology in the past ten years has been an increased understanding of the character and pace of change of biotic diversity through time. This has been initiated by comprehensive analysis of taxonomic patterns and interpretation of the apparent results with respect to underlying evolutionary histories and processes as well as to possible sources of sampling and other biases (reviewed in Simpson, 1960; Raup, 1976, 1979b; Thomson, 1976; Hallam, 1977; Sepkoski et al., 1981; see also other papers in this volume).

      Many questions and paradoxes remain in the study of paleovertebrate...

    • Chapter 3 PATTERNS IN VASCULAR LAND PLANT DIVERSIFICATION: AN ANALYSIS AT THE SPECIES LEVEL
      (pp. 97-128)
      KARL J. NIKLAS, BRUCE H. TIFFNEY and ANDREW H. KNOLL

      This paper attempts to define the tempo and pattern of vascular land plant diversification for the last 410 million years, and to place the relevant paleobotanical data into apposition with similar studies based on changes in the diversity and faunal composition of marine invertebrates (Bambach, 1977; Raup, 1972, 1976; Sepkoski, 1979, 1981; Sepkoski et al., 1981; Valentine, 1968, 1977). The objectives of this study are to determine (1) if there exists a unique or reiterative pattern in the exploitation by plants of a new habitat—the land surface, (2) if the pattern demonstrated by tracheophytes has parallels with that of...

    • Chapter 4 REAL AND APPARENT TRENDS IN SPECIES RICHNESS THROUGH TIME
      (pp. 129-150)
      PHILIP W. SIGNOR III

      Perhaps the greatest pattern in the history of life is the variation of global species richness through time. Paradoxically, the history of species richness has also been one of the most difficult patterns to resolve. Over the past decade a number of paleontologists, using a variety of ingenious arguments, have attempted to estimate trends in species richness through time but no generally accepted model has emerged.

      Resolution of actual trends in species richness through the Phanerozoic using counts of described species has been hampered by sampling biases of several types (Simpson, 1960; Raup, 1972, 1976b, 1977; Sheehan, 1977; Koch, 1978;...

  6. Part II PATTERNS OF FAUNAL EXPANSION, PARTITIONING AND REPLACEMENT
    • Chapter 5 EVOLUTIONARY FAUNAS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF PALEOZOIC MARINE COMMUNITIES IN SPACE AND TIME
      (pp. 153-190)
      J. JOHN SEPKOSKI Jr. and ARNOLD I. MILLER

      The concept of evolutionary faunas and floras provides a useful vehicle for describing and analyzing major changes in the composition of the Earth’s biotas through time (Sepkoski, 1981a; Niklas et al., this volume). Much of the variation in the global marine biota through the whole of the Phanerozoic can be summarized in terms of just three major evolutionary faunas: a Cambrian Fauna, consisting largely of trilobites, inarticulate brachiopods, monoplacopherans, hyolithids, and eocrinoids; a later Paleozoic Fauna, composed primarily of articulate brachiopods, crinoids, corals, and stenolaemate bryozoans; and a Mesozoic-Cenozoic, or “Modern,” Fauna, consisting mostly of gastropods, bivalves, bony fishes, malacostracan...

    • Chapter 6 CLASSES AND ADAPTIVE VARIETY: THE ECOLOGY OF DIVERSIFICATION IN MARINE FAUNAS THROUGH THE PHANEROZOIC
      (pp. 191-254)
      RICHARD K. BAMBACH

      Step-like, rather than gradual or continuous, increase in diversity characterizes the history of the marine biosphere (Sepkoski et al., 1981). The pattern is one of low initial diversity in the Cambrian Period, higher but not persistently increasing diversity through the rest of the Paleozoic Era, a drop in diversity at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary, increasing diversity through the Mesozoic Era and into the Cenozoic Era and a higher level of diversity during the Late Cenozoic than at any previous time. A variety of comprehensive studies on diversity, each using a different data source, reflect this pattern (Figure 1).

      Four aspects of...

    • Chapter 7 PHANEROZOIC TIERING IN SUSPENSION-FEEDING COMMUNITIES ON SOFT SUBSTRATA: IMPLICATIONS FOR DIVERSITY
      (pp. 255-274)
      WILLIAM I. AUSICH and DAVID J. BOTTJER

      Tiering is the establishment of a vertical community structure with organisms distributed at different levels (in ecological studies the term stratification is commonly used [Odum, 1971]). Tiering has been documented in a wide array of settings including temperate forest communities (MacArthur and MacArthur, 1961), benthic deposit-feeding communities (Levinton and Bambach, 1975), benthic epifaunal suspension-feeding communities (Lane, 1963, 1973; Ausich, 1980), and benthic infaunal suspension-feeding communities (Stump, 1975; Hoffman, 1977; Peterson, 1977). From site-specific studies, Ausich and Bottjer (1982) developed a comprehensive history for tiering of soft-substrata suspension-feeding communities throughout the Phanerozoic (Figure 1).

      This Phanerozoic tiering model was developed from...

  7. Part III ANALYTIC STUDIES OF MAJOR FAUNAL PATTERNS AND EVENTS
    • Chapter 8 NONEQUILIBRIUM MODEL OF DIVERSIFICATION: FAUNAL TURNOVER DYNAMICS
      (pp. 277-310)
      JENNIFER A. KITCHELL and TIMOTHY R. CARR

      What can patterns of diversity reveal about processes? Our purpose in this paper is to assess quantitatively the complexity of patterns that can result from the most general mathematical model of diversification. The central question we address is: Does the observed pattern of diversification of global marine taxa significantly deviate from predictions of a deterministic model whose potential behaviors range from simple to chaotic or apparently random? Such an analysis provides a measure of subtraction for the range of diversification patterns that can arise from simple assumptions regarding nonlinearity or diversity-dependent feedback and nonequilibrium.

      The topics we cover fall into...

    • Chapter 9 DIVERSIFICATION FUNCTIONS AND THE RATE OF TAXONOMIC EVOLUTION
      (pp. 311-334)
      TIMOTHY DANE WALKER

      Certain data of taxonomic turnover are analogous to data of population biology; for example, first and last occurrences of taxa correspond to births and deaths, respectively, of individuals in a population. This has proven to be an important analogy because there is a well-developed mathematical theory of population ecology (see Pielou, 1977; May, 1981), which includes models of the growth of populations and their interactions with populations of other species. From a formal viewpoint, the analogy indicates that many of the analytical strategies, models and methods which have already been developed for population biology are at least potentially applicable to...

    • Chapter 10 MARINE REGRESSIONS AND MASS EXTINCTIONS: A TEST USING THE MODERN BIOTA
      (pp. 335-354)
      DAVID JABLONSKI

      The coincidence of marine regressions with major episodes of faunal extinction has led many authors to hypothesize a cause-effect relationship (e.g., Chamberlain, 1898a,b; Newell, 1952, 1962, 1967; Hallam, 1981a). While some writers have emphasized physical environmental changes that would accompany regression, such as alterations in climate or oceanic circulation, others have invoked more direct effects, such as increased competitive interactions with decreased shelf area. One set of hypotheses is grounded in the dynamic equilibrium theory of island biogeography, in which decline of diversity with area is regarded as the result of decreased population size and thus increased vulnerability to stochastic...

    • Chapter 11 MODELING THE BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGULATION OF EVOLUTIONARY RATES
      (pp. 355-376)
      KARL W. FLESSA and RICHARD H. THOMAS

      The geographical distribution of organisms formed one of the major foundations of Darwin’s demonstration of the fact of evolution. Since that time, however, biogeography has played a largely tangential role in the development of the theory of evolution. With some notable exceptions, much of the biogeographic literature became occupied with the delineation of faunal and floral zones and the explication of the historical factors that led to their establishment. Even Mayr’s development of the allopatric model (Mayr, 1942), despite its obvious geographic focus, did not emerge from the traditional biogeographic research of the times.

      Recently, however, there has been a...

  8. Part IV DIVERSITY PROFILES OF INDIVIDUAL CLADES
    • Chapter 12 TESTING FOR ADAPTIVE RADIATION: THE PTYCHASPID (TRILOBITA) BIOMERE OF THE LATE CAMBRIAN
      (pp. 379-398)
      MARGARET C. HARDY

      “It is at the lower taxonomic levels where evolutionary and ecologic theory is most robust and it is at this level where interpretive analysis may be the most fruitful—given the proper data base” (Raup, 1979).

      Recently several authors (Gould et al., 1977; Sepkoski, 1978, 1979; Stanley, 1979; Valentine, 1980, 1981; Walker, 1985) have presented models of taxonomic diversity patterns during adaptive radiations. In order to avoid problems arising from the incomplete nature of the fossil record, the primary emphasis of these studies is on patterns of radiation in higher taxa, over long periods of time. An important assumption of...

    • Chapter 13 EVOLUTIONARY PATTERNS OF JURASSIC AND CRETACEOUS AMMONITES: AN ANALYSIS OF CLADE SHAPE
      (pp. 399-418)
      PETER D. WARD and PHILIP W. SIGNOR III

      Clade diversity (spindle) diagrams graphically portray changes in the diversity of monophyletically derived taxa through time. They are often used to depict examples of evolutionary events, such as radiation or extinction, or to infer results of environmental events in evolutionary time, such as competition or predation. Recently, clade diversity diagrams and their uses have been critically reexamined, in efforts to reduce the hazards inherent in the uncritical interpretation of such diagrams and to propose appropriate null hypotheses against which deterministic explanations may be tested (Raup et al., 1973; Raup and Gould, 1974; Gould et al., 1977; Schopf, 1979; Stanley et...

    • Chapter 14 BIOTIC DIVERSITY AND CLADE DIVERSITY
      (pp. 419-424)
      JAMES W. VALENTINE

      Many interesting themes recur in the preceding papers, and this is an attempt to relate one of them to the body of data and interpretation available in the literature at large. However, it is written from a certain point of view, and the assumptions and inferences offered here would certainly not be granted by all paleontologists, or even by all contributors to this volume.

      Some investigators who have considered the kinetics of diversity regulation on an evolutionary scale (MacArthur, 1969; Rosenzweig, 1975) have assumed a theoretical equilibrium value for species diversity which is controlled by a balance of speciation and...

  9. CONCLUDING REMARK
    (pp. 425-426)

    The papers in this volume have described unexpected patterns of biotic diversity, of clade diversity, and of some of the events which contribute to each. Some patterns are unexpected because they indicate that widely held hypotheses are likely to be incorrect; some because they were simply unknown previously; and some because they provide new perspectives from which to analyze an established pattern. That many of the new findings and interpretations concern global patterns of the history of life involving whole eras of geologic time suggests that we have only begun to realize the potential of Phanerozoic diversity studies. The symposium...

  10. AUTHOR INDEX
    (pp. 427-436)
  11. SUBJECT INDEX
    (pp. 437-441)
  12. Back Matter
    (pp. 442-442)