Essays on Roman Satire

Essays on Roman Satire

William S. Anderson
Copyright Date: 1982
Pages: 512
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  • Book Info
    Essays on Roman Satire
    Book Description:

    Irvine Anderson carefully reconstructs the years between 1933 and 1950 and provides a case study of the evolution of U.S. foreign oil policy and of the complex relationships between the U.S. government and the business world.

    Originally published in 1982.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5315-1
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-xvi)
    (pp. xvii-2)
    (pp. 3-10)

    On april 9, 1778, Boswell dined with Samuel Johnson at the home of Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the august company of such people as Bishop Shipley, the painter Allan Ramsay, and Edward Gibbon. With Johnson present, it was inevitable that any dinner would develop into a symposium and that the conversation would range over the widest spaces. On this occasion, the diners began to discuss Horace. I now quote Boswell: “The Bishop said, it appeared from Horace’s writings that he was a cheerful contented man. Johnson: ‘We have no reason to believe that, my Lord. Are we to think Pope...

      (pp. 13-49)

      The Romans, according to the great rhetorician Quintilian, invented satire, and they generally agreed that the man who deserved the title of ‘inventor’ was Lucilius. Nevertheless, had not Lucilius been succeeded by Horace, who gave the rather amorphous poetry left by Lucilius an entirely new form, it is difficult to imagine how Roman satire would ever have developed a tradition and survived antiquity to exercise its marked influence on Renaissance literature. So important is Horace’s place in the history of satire that one eminent scholar, G. L. Hendrickson, found reasons to describe Horace as the first to use the Latin...

    • Autobiography and Art in Horace
      (pp. 50-73)

      One of the chief developments of Roman literature involved the creation of genres in which the writer spoke forth in the first person, most notably, poetic satire and love elegy. At the same time that some writers were creating these personal or subjective genres, others were also modifying the once-impersonal genres and producing epic with the subjective qualities of Vergil’sAeneid orof in an even more marked fashion—Ovid’sMetamorphoses.It is obvious that Romans of the first century B.C. found it very natural to talk of themselves and to hear others speak of themselves and that egoism was...

      (pp. 74-83)

      When a scholar has immersed himself for so many years in Roman history, archaeology, and literature, it is only appropriate to offer him an essay on some aspect of Rome. Inasmuch as Henry Rowell’s studies have ranged widely from Naevius to Ammianus Marcellinus, there is still a wide choice of apt material. However, it seems to me that he has repeatedly returned to topics concerned with Augustan Rome: Vergil, Horace, and the Forum of Augustus. With that in mind, I have chosen to discuss the amusing, but usually ignored, HoratianSatireI, 8, a poem which records one of the...

      (pp. 84-102)

      In his monumental study of the influence of Lucilius upon Horace, G. C. Fiske brought the question as close to a definite answer as the fragmentary nature of Lucilius would permit. Considering these few remnants and the well-known scruples of Horace against extended verbal imitation, one must admit that Fiske emerged with an impressive list of similar motifs and expressions between the two satirists.¹ To be sure, similarities in detail are not always an exact indication of the individual method of treatment,² and the latitude, which a poet might require, was never denied Horace.³ When he came to considerS.,...

    • I. Venusina lucerna: The Horatian Model for Juvenal
      (pp. 103-114)

      Juvenal inherits a tradition in satire to which belong Lucilius, Horace and Persius; and like his predecessors he exploits a program poem in order to define his place in that tradition. Horace had thought it so important to establish his relation to Lucilius that he wrote three program satires. Persius did not challenge Horace and restricted his programmatic theories toSatire1 and to the beginning ofSatire5. Therefore, when Juvenal cites first Lucilius, then Horace as models, it is natural to think that, just as he can only mean Lucilius theinventorofsatura, so he must refer...

      (pp. 115-150)

      Some Greek and Latin poetry abounds in figurative passages and lends itself readily to the modern interpretative technique of analysis through imagery. In this respect, one immediately thinks of Aeschylus, Pindar, and of Vergil. There are other types of poetry where imagery plays a less obvious, though still important, role. I shall concern myself in this paper with the latter class of poetry and attempt to define the general nature of imagery as employed by Horace and Juvenal in their Satires. Studies of the metaphors and similes in Horace’s works and of the metaphors in Juvenal do exist; which, however,...

    • Part versus Whole in Persius’ Fifth Satire
      (pp. 153-168)

      In recent years two major German studies have attempted to reinterpret the verbal technique of Persius as a step towards removing the current prejudice against his Satires.¹ Concentrating on the structure of phrases, imitation, and transitions, they have succeeded in eliciting general principles according to which Persius seems to act even in his most outrageous verses. The problem next arises of relating the verbal technique to the general theme of each Satire, and here, I believe, the satirist’s defender faces his most severe test; for Persius’ excessive emphasis on verbal manipulation produces a conflict between part and whole, between phrase...

    • Persius and the Rejection of Society
      (pp. 169-194)

      Although to some it may seem that I have slightly overstated the case, my title, I feel quite sure, surprises nobody. Persius did turn his back on what we and the Romans think of as Society, and in so doing he abandoned part of the tradition passed down to him from Horace and Lucilius. When we imagine for ourselves Lucilius, we picture a man who sets himself in the center of Roman Society, who criticizes it because he belongs to it and appreciates both its values and its defects. To judge from the fragments of his poetry and from the...

      (pp. 197-254)

      Scholars have long recognized that one of the principal difficulties in Juvenal springs from his methods of composition, but they have expressed various discordant attitudes toward these methods. Some have condemned them outright; others have sought their causes, while also spurning them; still others, and particularly in more recent times, have attempted to understand Juvenal’s technique as a whole, in which compositional principles play a positive part and contribute to Juvenal’s success, such as it is. We cannot honestly blink these difficulties, that is certain; yet we can, perhaps, along with those striving to understand Juvenal’s composition, define his methods...

      (pp. 255-276)

      The central problem of Juvenal’sSatire6 is the relation of structure to contents.¹ Scholars have been divided in their proposed solutions: the brave have assumed a coherent organization; the prudent have abandoned what seemed a thankless and futile effort, denying any structural unity.² Failure, however, to attain a positive goal should be an inspiration to further efforts. Hence, in the latest study of Juvenal, Professor Highet is to be commended for defying the negative view and positing a definite pattern of organization.³ In Highet’s view, this is a “satire on marriage”;⁴ its structure can be reduced to four large...

      (pp. 277-292)

      It is conventional to describe , Juvenal’s First Satire as a “program poem,” and for good reasons. Not only does the satirist explain his attitude toward his genre, but he does so according to the traditional methods of his predecessors, Lucilius, Horace, and Persins. However, not all students remember the chronological order of the poems, and consequently one will meet again and again statements about Juvenal’s satires in general, which spring from the tacit assumption that the program of Satire 1 applies with equal validity to the poems of the later books. For example, Scaliger’s phrase aboutsaeva indignatiowas...

      (pp. 293-361)

      In a recent book entitledThe Cankered Muse: Satire of the English Renaissance, Professor Kernan has developed the most elaborate, all-inclusive, and accurate theory of satire which is known to me.¹ The most useful portion of his theory for the Classicist would probably be his discussion of the satirist. By “the satirist,” Kernan means not the writer of satire, but the voice speaking in the satires; by careful use of this term he skillfully avoids the error into which we all tend to plunge, namely that of attributing to the writer every idea expressed by the speaker, the writer’s creation....

    • Lascivia vs. ira: Martial and Juvenal
      (pp. 362-395)

      Sandwiched between two lighthearted epigrams on the dubious physical attractions of a Galla and a Chloe, there appear in Martial’s Third Book the following four elegiac lines:

      empta domus fuerat tibi, Tongiliane, ducentis:

      abstulit hanc nimium casus in urbe frequens.

      conlatum est deciens. rogo, non potes ipse videri

      incendisse tuam, Tongiliane, domum? (3.52)

      Martial has so contrived his development that each line begins with a crucial verb, each marking an important stage in the total situation, and the final one driving home the witty point. The first couplet establishes the situation in general terms: the cost of the house, then...

    • Juvenal and Quintilian
      (pp. 396-486)

      It has always been a tantalizing pursuit to attempt to establish relations between individual ancient writers, especially because so many of the connections ultimately depend upon conjecture. In some cases, a writer will facilitate the task by at least mentioning a contemporary or close predecessor; although even here a brief allusion may lead to divergent interpretations. When Horace refers to Catullus, he does so in such a way that commentators disagree as to his precise opinion of the poet. In other cases, a writer will borrow liberally from a predecessor and thereby reveal his high estimate of his source. So...

  9. INDEX
    (pp. 487-494)