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Iuzovka and Revolution, Volume I

Iuzovka and Revolution, Volume I: Life and Work in Russia's Donbass, 1869-1924

Theodore H. Friedgut
Copyright Date: 1989
Pages: 392
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  • Book Info
    Iuzovka and Revolution, Volume I
    Book Description:

    In 1870 the Welsh ironmaster John James Hughes left his successful career in England and settled in the barren and underpopulated Donbass region of the Ukrainian steppe to found the town of Iuzovka and build a large steel plant and coal mine. Theodore Friedgut tells the remarkable story of the subsequent economic and social development of the Donbass, an area that grew to supply seventy percent of the Russian Empire's coal and iron by World War I. This first volume of a planned two-volume study focuses on the social and economic development of the Donbass, while the second volume will be devoted to political analysis. Friedgut offers a fascinating picture of the heterogeneous population of these frontier settlements. Company-owned Iuzovka, for instance, was inhabited by British bosses, Jewish artisans and merchants, and Russian peasant migrants serving as industrial workers. All these were surrounded by Ukrainian peasants resentful of the intrusive new ways of industrial life. A further contrast was that between relatively settled, skilled factory workers and a more volatile and migratory population of miners. By examining these varied groups, the author reveals the contest between Russia's industrial revolution and the striving for political revolution.

    Originally published in 1989.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6040-1
    Subjects: Anthropology, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
    (pp. ix-ix)
    (pp. x-x)
    (pp. xi-xv)
    (pp. xvi-xviii)
  7. PART I The Rise of the Donbass, 1869–1914

    • CHAPTER 1 Introduction: The Donbass before Iuzovka
      (pp. 3-13)

      “The rare villages scattered in the steppe are composed of huts, thatched cottages resembling nothing so much as piles of straw, cupped in a fold of land, usually where a stream is flowing.”¹ This was how the French engineer Monin, sent to survey economic activity in the Donbass, described it in the year 1882. It was a barren, uninviting area. Though Donbass land is fertile, precipitation is infrequent and irregular. Summers are hot and dry, with strong winds that raise an “unbelievable dust.”² There is virtually no plant growth whatsoever. The result is that it is sparsely populated, a fact...

    • CHAPTER 2 The Genesis of Iuzovka
      (pp. 14-38)

      John James Hughes pioneered in creating the model for Donbass development: he brought three necessary elements of heavy industry—iron ore, coal, and rail transport—into a self-sufficient entity based on industrial enterprise to which both capital and labor could be attracted. There, where in 1870 he first settled in a lonely shepherd’s cottage, now stands the city of Donetsk, with its population of over a million. Although no monument to Hughes is to be found in the city, his impact is clear. An urban center built on coal and metallurgy, it has followed the path which he charted from...

    • CHAPTER 3 The New Russia Comes of Age: Economic Development to 1914
      (pp. 39-68)

      Certainly John Hughes must have resembled Pastukhov more closely than he did the majority of South Russia’s industrialists, native or foreign. What could have been the motivation for a man aged fifty-five, well-established professionally, and in a position of considerable independence and power as head of the Millwall Engineering Co., to uproot himself and start anew in a foreign country, and in a barren and remote corner of that country? “In this unpopulated steppe locality, with its unfavorable conditions, Hughes was faced with obstacles which for all his energy would have been hard to overcome even in a more civilized...

  8. PART II Life in the Donbass

    • CHAPTER 4 Iuzovka: The Settlement and Its Society
      (pp. 71-112)

      If Iuzovka’s economy was an almost unqualified success, the building of the town and the creation of a society presented a much more mixed picture. Coal mining and steelmaking being the type of heavy industry that they are, Iuzovka was an alien and ugly industrial scar on an idyllic pastoral landscape. This was so not only from the physical point of view, but also from the point of view of the Russian peasants, who formed the overwhelming majority of its labor force and population. It was even more true of the surrounding Ukrainian peasants, who found their traditional livelihood and...

    • CHAPTER 5 Housekeeping, Diets, and Budgets
      (pp. 113-136)

      Within the barracks, the dugouts, and the slowly growing numbers of family apartments and houses in the Donbass, ordinary human beings carried on their lives. Whether they were lone workers or family units, the forms they chose for living together, the way they organized their cooking and eating, how they spent their hard-earned wages, all influenced the formation of Donbass society. In turn, many of these institutions of daily life were molded by the norms and customs that were traditionally accepted or created outside the Donbass. The changes in living standards and housekeeping patterns are signposts on the tortuous road...

    • CHAPTER 6 Health, Hygiene, and Sanitation
      (pp. 137-168)

      Housing may be said to have been the most prominent element in the workers’ environment outside of their place of work. There were, however, other important elements that molded life in the Donbass. In an environment of dangerous professions and substandard living conditions, health care and hygiene were particularly sensitive issues. Equally salient as an influence on the life of workers and their families were the sanitation facilities provided in their communities. Examination of these elements gives us some insights into the values and expectations of employers and workers alike.

      On August 26, 1866, the Russian government passed a law...

    • CHAPTER 7 Education and Culture
      (pp. 169-190)

      The demand for education for children in Iuzovka was dictated by the structure of life there. At an age when in the village, they might already have been working, children in Iuzovka had no tasks. They lived in crowded, unsanitary conditions in the small dugout houses. Given the nature of its industries and population, the settlement was not one in which small children could roam freely with any degree of security. It was in the parents’ interest that the child spend some part of each day in school, where there was safety, warmth, companionship, and cleanliness. Many children were turned...

  9. PART III Working in the Donbass

    • CHAPTER 8 The Donbass Labor Force: Origins and Structure
      (pp. 193-258)

      In this chapter we will address ourselves to the origins of the labor force of the Donbass: the skilled and unskilled laborers, and the technical and supervisory staff of the coal mines and steel mills. We will also attempt to contribute to answering one of the most vexatious questions of the formation of the Donbass working class: how long did it take for these workers to become a stabilized labor force, and to what degree did they do so? An accurate understanding of this problem is of great importance to the later analysis of the behavior of Donbass workers during...

    • CHAPTER 9 Organization of Work, Physical Conditions, Wages, and Benefits
      (pp. 259-326)

      The organization of work began with the hiring of the mine or factory labor force. There were three main forms of hiring practiced: hiring by the artel’, hiring through contractors, and direct hiring of individuals by the employers. There was no clear-cut line in time or place separating the use of these forms. The proportion of each practiced in any place varied with the conditions in the locality, and often all three coexisted in a single group of mines or in a single factory. Before there was any considerable settled mine population, it was easiest to pay the migrant workers...

    • CHAPTER 10 The Growth of the Donhass Community: An Interim Summary
      (pp. 327-334)

      The physical growth of the Donbass was indisputable. It matched and at its best surpassed almost anything that the modern world had known or was to know in coming years. Where a traditional, semi-pastoral society had dominated, a modern industrial center arose. A quarter million workers lived almost solely from the wages they earned in steel mills and coal mines. The empty steppe was criss-crossed by railway lines on which hundreds of thousands of people moved greater distances in a day than their ancestors had travelled in a lifetime. These changes created enormous wealth, and although no one expected or...

    (pp. 335-336)
    (pp. 337-354)
  12. INDEX
    (pp. 355-362)
  13. Back Matter
    (pp. 363-367)