Galen

Galen: On Respiration and the Arteries

DAVID J. FURLEY
JAMES S. WILKIE
Copyright Date: 1984
Pages: 298
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zvkxz
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  • Book Info
    Galen
    Book Description:

    Professors Furley and Wilkie have provided a newly edited Greek text and a complete English translation with commentary of four of Galen's physiological treatises on respiration and the arteries. Their text is the first to make use of Arabic translations ofAn in arteriisandDe usu pulsuumbased on a Greek text that is earlier and better than the surviving tines. These translations have enabled them to make substantial improvements in the earlier editions of the treatises. Introducing the text are essays by Professors Furley and Wilkie on the history of theories of respiration and bloodflow in classical antiquity, the influence of Galen's work on Harvey, and Galen's experimentation and argument.

    Originally published in 1984.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5515-5
    Subjects: Health Sciences, Zoology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. PREFACE
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Introduction
    • I. THEORIES OF RESPIRATION BEFORE GALEN
      (pp. 3-39)
      D.J.F.

      Most of the work of the early Greekphysiologoiis lost. It must count, therefore, as a piece of good luck that one early theory of respiration was described in a surviving work of Aristotle, and that his description was supported by a direct quotation of twenty-five consecutive lines of hexameter verse. Empedocles was the author; Aristotle quotes him in hisDe respiratione, Ch. 7, 473 b 9 (fr. 100 of Empedocles, in Diels-KranzFragmente der Vorsokratiker). The date of Empedocles’ work cannot be determined exactly, but 450 b.c. is probably correct within a margin of ten or fifteen years....

    • II. GALEN AND THE LATER HISTORY OF THEORIES OF THE HEART, LUNGS, AND VESSELS
      (pp. 40-46)
      J.S.W.

      The three longer tracts here presented deal with problems in the physiology of the lungs and vascular system. At least since the time of Aristotle it had become clear that the lungs and heart are in some way intimately associated; and some special association between the activities of the lungs and those of the arteries was almost certainly accepted by Praxagoras, and was made by Erasistratus a fundamental postulate of his system of physiology.

      Our three tracts, therefore, would be seen to belong together, even had Galen not been at pains to connect them by explicit cross-references.

      Galen was obliged...

    • III. GALEN’S EXPERIMENTS AND THE ORIGIN OF THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
      (pp. 47-57)
      J.S.W.

      The tracts offered in text and translation should be of great interest to all historians of science, because they contain very clear evidence that the design and the logic of experiments, in the strictest sense of the word, were both well understood in antiquity.

      In this place I propose to discuss the experiments reported by Galen in these tracts, and then to point out that he was undoubtedly in possession of the logic necessary for a full understanding of the nature of arguments based upon experiment. Galen was unquestionably a superb anatomist, but from our discussion of some of his...

    • IV. “USE” AND “ACTIVITY”
      (pp. 58-70)
      J.S.W.

      In the last book of hisDe usu partiumGalen gives the following brief characterization of the two notions signified byχρείαandἐνέργεια: “Thus the activity (ἐνέργεια) of a part differs from its use (χρεία), as I have said,¹ in that the activity is an active motion (κίνησις δραστική), whereas the use is the same as what is commonly called ”utility“ (εὐχρηστία)” (XVII 1; K IV 346). (English translation is difficult here: we have regularly used the word “use” to translateχρείαin this book, and it is impossible to think of a more popular or common word to...

  5. DE USU RESPIRATIONIS
    (pp. 71-134)

    Galen often refers to this treatise under the title “Περὶ χρείας ἀναπνοῆς” (e.g.De placitis Hippocratis et PlatonisII 4; K V 240;De usu partiumVI 3; K III 441 and XVI 12; K IV 337).¹ It is translated into LatinDe usu respirationisin the version followed by Kühn, andDe utilitate respirationisin some others (these are not two different works, as might be suggested by their listing in Durling, “Census”).

    For the meaning of “χρεία,” see Introduction, Section IV, above.

    This work is preserved in three extant Greek manuscripts: Laurentius plut. 74,5 (fourteenth century) f. 94v–...

  6. AN IN ARTERIIS NATURA SANGUIS CONTINEATUR
    (pp. 135-184)

    Galen refers to this work in hisDe usu partiumIV 17 (K III 329): “The fact that blood is naturally contained in the arteries has been shown separately in another treatise” (αὐτο μέντοι τοῦθ’ ὅτι κατὰ ϕύσιν ἐν ἀρτηρίαις αἷμα περιέχεται, καθ’ ἕτερον λóγον ἰδίᾳ δέδεικται). He says something very similar inDe usu pulsuum5.

    The word “naturally” is an essential element in the title, because Erasistratus did not deny that blood could be in the arteries, but asserted that it was not present in the normal state of the body. In their natural state, “only pneuma is...

  7. DE USU PULSUUM
    (pp. 185-228)

    Galen refers to this work several times under the titleΠερὶ χρείας σϕυγμῶν(e.g.De plac. Hipp, et Plato. VI 3 (K V 572); and VIII 8 (K V 709);De usu partiumIV 12 (K III 300).

    There are two extant Greek manuscripts that preserve the whole of this work: Scorial. Φ III 11, of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, f.16r–20v, of which I have collated a photocopy (S); and Cantabrigensis, Caius Coll. 355, of the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, f.16–42, which I have collated in the original (C). Bound with C is a copy of the...

  8. DE CAUSIS RESPIRATIONIS
    (pp. 229-246)

    The following Greek manuscripts of this short work are known:

    A = Marcian. 276; s. xii. f. 268 (only as far as K IV 486.6)

    R = Rom. Reg. Suec. 175; s. xiv. f. 240v

    M = Marcian. App. CI. V 4; s. xv. f. 433

    P = Parisin. 2165; s. xvi. f. 187.

    Z = Modena. Mutinens 237 (III G 18); s. xvi. f. 247v

    I have collated all of these from microfilms kindly supplied by their respective librarians. I acknowledge gratefully the help of Mr. David Blank in the work of collation.

    No Arabic translations are known to...

  9. NOTES TO TRANSLATIONS
    (pp. 247-278)
  10. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 279-286)
  11. INDEX NOMINUM
    (pp. 287-287)
  12. INDEX OF PASSAGES CITED IN INTRODUCTION AND COMMENTARY
    (pp. 288-289)
  13. Back Matter
    (pp. 290-290)