Private Academies of the Tokugawa Period

Private Academies of the Tokugawa Period

RICHARD RUBINGER
Copyright Date: 1982
Pages: 302
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zvmd5
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Private Academies of the Tokugawa Period
    Book Description:

    Widening the focus of previous studies of Japanese education during the Tokugawa period, Richard Rubinger emphasizes the role of the shijuku, or private academies of advanced studies, in preparing Japan for its modern transformation.

    Originally published in 1982.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5672-5
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-ix)
  3. LIST OF FIGURES
    (pp. x-x)
  4. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
    (pp. xi-xiii)
  5. LIST OF TABLES
    (pp. xiv-xiv)
  6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  7. PREFATORY NOTE
    (pp. xvii-1)
  8. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 3-14)

    In an effort to illuminate preconditions that may have contributed significantly to Japan’s modern development, a great deal of scholarly attention has been directed, in recent years, to the nature of society during the Tokugawa period—the roughly 250 years preceding the Meiji Restoration of 1868.¹ This reevaluation of Tokugawa society has led to a tendency to see continuities between Tokugawa feudalism and Meiji modernization and to deemphasize the harshness and “backward” character of the earlier period. It has focused attention on elements of change and growth behind the “feudal façade” in the final years of the period and on...

  9. I CULTURAL INTEGRATION AND EDUCATION — THE YŪGAKU SYSTEM
    (pp. 15-38)

    We begin with a brief outline of the nature of han autonomy and the restrictions placed on inter-han travel, for it will subsequently be argued that theshijuku, alone of Tokugawa educational institutions, contributed significantly to breaking down regional barriers and to the development of a more unified, integrated, and “national” culture. By integrated we mean a widened sense of shared experience and community beyond the family, local village, or province which might be manifested at different levels—intellectual, religious, and so forth. The concept of “national integration” has been used by scholars in a great many ways. James E....

  10. Case Studies Part One:: Chinese Studies Shijuku
    • II CHINESE STUDIES SHIJUKU OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES
      (pp. 41-59)

      Chinese studiesshijuku¹ were among the earliest to develop and, as records show, were the most numerousshijukutype of the Tokugawa period. The limited amount of materials on the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century schools permits us only to highlight significant trends, but these earlier developments form an important background for the more detailed discussion of the nineteenth-century Chinese studies schools in Chapter III.

      The focus by historians on the development of official schooling in the Tokugawa period has led many to overlook the much longer tradition of “private” schooling in Japan. At least as far back as the Heian period...

    • III NINETEENTH-CENTURY CHINESE STUDIES SHIJUKU: HIROSE TANSŌ’S KANGIEN
      (pp. 60-98)

      One of the foremost Chinese studiesshijukuof the Tokugawa period was Kangien, run by Hirose Tansō (1782–1856) from 1817 to 1856 and continued by members of his family until 1897. Although little known in the West, Kangien and its first headmaster have attracted extensive critical attention in Japan. Tansō has been praised highly as a Confucian scholar, poet, and school headmaster by local historians hoping to kindle regional pride. He has been regarded as an inspired teacher by writers of textbooks who hoped to influence future generations to follow his example. He has also been severely criticized as...

  11. Case Studies Part Two:: Dutch Studies Shijuku
    • INTRODUCTION: OVERVIEW OF DUTCH STUDIES IN TOKUGAWA JAPAN
      (pp. 101-105)

      As R. P. Dore has remarked, learning in the Tokugawa period came in “national packets”: first Chinese, then Dutch, and then the study of native Japanese traditions.¹ In the preceding chapter theshijukuof independent thinkers within the Confucian tradition were analyzed. Nakae Tōju, Itō Jinsai, Hirose Tansō, and others added heterodox interpretations of the Chinese classics to the officially sponsored Chu Hsi doctrine, and made important contributions to educational practice in theirshijuku. Another of the important intellectual developments of the period was Dutch studies,² and here too some of the most important institutional developments took place outside the...

    • IV DUTCH STUDIES SHIJUKU IN EDO AND NAGASAKI
      (pp. 106-125)

      Edo was the seat of the shōgunate and the site of alternate residences of the various daimyō.¹ It was thus dominated by officials of the bakufu and han, and the military classes. It was also the center of official scholarship, because the bakufu college (Shōheikō) that trained bakufu and han Confucian scholars was located there. Because numerous han physicians were attracted to the daimyō residences and had easy access to one another and to official patronage—in the form of grants for books and travel to Nagasaki²—Edo became the early center of Dutch scholarship in Japan.

      It was in...

    • V DUTCH STUDIES SHIJUKU IN OSAKA: OGATA KŌAN’S TEKI JUKU
      (pp. 126-152)

      In Edo Dutch studies had begun with a group of han physicians under official patronage; in Nagasaki they started with the Europeans and interpreters at the Dutch station on Dejima. In Osaka Dutch learning began under the patronage of wealthy merchants and was developed by commoner scholars and town physicians.

      Some of the prosperous merchants of the town collected Western scientific apparatus and objects of art. Their interests were, for the most part, unscholarly and eclectic but they did occasionally support serious work. One of Sugita Gempaku’s books, for example, was written under the patronage of an Osaka merchant and...

  12. Case Studies Part Three:: Other Types of Shijuku
    • INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 155-157)

      In parts i and ii we presented case studies of the larger Confucian and Dutchshijukuwhich had developed certain “modern” functions of schools decades before the Meiji Restoration. In this final section we complete our presentation ofshijukuinstitutional types by looking atshijukuthat did not fit the pattern of highly organized, articulated schools but that nevertheless became important parts of theshijukulegacy. Some of theshijukuwe shall treat in this section, for example, were small and unsystematic; some concentrated on contemporary political issues rather than scholarship; some valued the close personal relationship between student and...

    • VI KOKUGAKU JUKU: MOTOORI NORINAGA’S SUZU NO YA
      (pp. 158-173)

      Kokugaku (or National Studies) refers to the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century revival of scholarly interest in the indigenous culture of Japan, in reaction to the intellectual predominance of China up to that time. It sought to purge Japanese thought and custom of what was believed to be the corrupting influence of Confucianism and Buddhism by seeking ethical and spiritual guidance from the beliefs and practices described in Japanese historical records and literary classics.

      Kokugaku thought was developed mainly by the efforts of four scholars. Kada no Azumamaro (1669–1736) created the term “Kokugaku” and began the revival when he proposed a...

    • VII SCHOOLS OF THE “PRACTICAL” ARTS: MILITARY JUKU, SCHOOLS OF CALLIGRAPHY AND CALCULATION
      (pp. 174-186)

      The schools discussed in this chapter are examples of those which were the most persistent in maintaining the tradition of exclusiveness in learning. They were characterized by a proliferation ofryūhaor “schools” (groups formed around a particular set of teachings) which appeared and disappeared with great frequency. The variousryūhawere passed from father to son or to selected students in thehidentradition; and a license was required at the completion of studies in order to become a recognized teacher. We have chosen the military, calligraphy, and calculation schools as representatives of this type.

      Military training had been...

    • VIII DIRECT ACTION JUKU
      (pp. 187-207)

      The preceding two chapters on thehidenschools dealt with ashijukutype through which ancient educational practices were maintained and, in some cases, strengthened during the Tokugawa period. This chapter focuses onshijukuthat performed a very new role—as organizational and ideological centers for direct action—beginning in the 1830s and peaking in the 1850s and 1860s. What we are calling “Direct ActionJuku,” for lack of a more felicitous label, were less a separate type ofshijukuthan the transmutation of other types under new circumstances brought on by economic and political turmoil. Our data are confined...

  13. IX CONCLUSION: SHIJUKU AND PATTERNS OF YŪGAKU IN THE CREATION OF A MODERNIZING ELITE
    (pp. 208-224)

    The case studies presented, in some detail, representativeshijukuacross a broad spectrum of types arranged, for the most part, around areas of learning. For each type the historical development of theshijukuinstitution and the curricula, administrations, fees, enrollments, etc. of selected schools were analyzed in order to suggest the kinds of social, intellectual, and educational environments experienced by students and to assess the general functions of each type in the wider world outside. For purposes of analysis the Chinese, Dutch, military, Kokugaku, and other schools were discussed as distinct and separate worlds. In fact, by late in the...

  14. Appendices
    • A. A HISTORIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON SCHOOLS IN THE TOKUGAWA PERIOD
      (pp. 227-228)
    • B. A NOTE ON THE “SHIJUKU-TERAKOYA CHART” IN NIHON KYŌIKU-SHI SHIRYŌ (NKSS)
      (pp. 229-230)
    • C. DEVELOPMENT OF THE KANGIEN COMPOUND
      (pp. 231-231)
    • D. A NOTE ON CURRENCY AND SHIJUKU FEES
      (pp. 232-232)
    • E. BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF SELECTED KANGIEN STUDENTS BY CAREER
      (pp. 233-238)
    • F. ENTRANCE FEES AT DUTCH SCHOOLS IN EDO
      (pp. 239-239)
    • G. BIOGRAPHIES OF SELECTED STUDENTS FROM OGATA KŌAN’S TEKI JUKU MENTIONED IN THE TEXT
      (pp. 240-241)
    • H. BIOGRAPHIES OF SELECTED STUDENTS AT SHŌKA SONJUKU
      (pp. 242-244)
    • I. OUTLINES OF EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS AND CAREERS OF SELECTED EARLY MEIJI LEADERS MENTIONED IN THE TEXT
      (pp. 245-254)
  15. GLOSSARY
    (pp. 255-265)
  16. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 266-274)
  17. INDEX
    (pp. 275-282)
  18. Back Matter
    (pp. 283-283)