Facial Growth in the Rhesus Monkey

Facial Growth in the Rhesus Monkey: A Longitudinal Cephalometric Study

EMET D. SCHNEIDERMAN
Copyright Date: 1992
Pages: 232
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zvmtz
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    Facial Growth in the Rhesus Monkey
    Book Description:

    For a wide spectrum of scientists from biomedical and dental researchers to primatologists and physical anthropologists, Emet Schneiderman offers the most accurate and up-to-date presentation of the normal growth of the lower facial skeleton in a primate species. His study is based on a sample of thirty-five captive rhesus monkeys, whose facial growth was traced over a ten-year period spanning from infancy to adulthood. The author identifies the relative contribution of various sites of growth, quantifies the relative roles of different types of development--such as appositional and condylar--and sheds light on several long-standing controversies as to how the primate face grows. Unlike many of the traditional cephalometric measurements, the ones included in this work were chosen to reflect the positional, dimensional, and localized remodeling changes that occur during ontogeny. Using a new statistical approach designed for longitudinal data, Schneiderman avoids the misleading information that has often resulted from older, cross-sectional statistical methods. This book serves as a foundation for future experimental and normal studies in the rhesus monkey and, from a methodological standpoint, as a general model for future longitudinal growth studies.

    Originally published in 1992.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6282-5
    Subjects: Biological Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. LIST OF FIGURES
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. LIST OF STATISTICAL TABLES (APPENDIX C)
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xiii-2)
  6. 1 INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 3-18)

    The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) has been widely used for more than three decades as an experimental animal in the study of craniofacial growth. Despite its widespread use, adequate standards of normal craniofacial growth for the full range of chronological ages for this species are not available. This study seeks to alleviate this deficiency by applying statistically rigorous methods to a relatively large collection of longitudinal cephalometric radiographs of rhesus monkeys in order to provide a coherent description of the growth and maturation of the facial skeleton of this long-lived primate.

    The specific purpose of this investigation is to describe...

  7. 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
    (pp. 19-64)

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto) from two laboratory colonies were used in this study. The primary longitudinal sample consists of thirty-five animals, twenty males and fifteen females, studied at The University of Michigan between 1968 and 1984. Over this time period, numerous serial radiographs were taken on this sample, bringing the number of serial the films used in the present study to 374. All of the animals were unaltered in terms of experimental intervention and served as controls in various experimental studies conducted over the years by the Craniofacial Biology Group at The University of Michigan’s Center for Human Growth and...

  8. 3 AGE ESTIMATION
    (pp. 65-74)

    A means of estimating chronological age in the rhesus monkey was required for placing the craniofacial growth and development of this species in a more precise temporal framework than is currently available. The resolution of this problem depended on the prior development of the cephalometric methods and measurements outlined in chapter 2. Because of the unique position that this issue occupies vis-à-vis the other problems addressed in this work and because age estimation techniques were developed on a separate cross-sectional sample of rhesus monkeys, this topic is considered separately in this chapter.

    Solutions to the age estimation problem in the...

  9. 4 RESULTS
    (pp. 75-120)

    Evaluation of the horizontal component of maxillary displacement (xmxdspl1, fig. 4.1 A), indicates that the maxilla displaces anteriorly at a strong and relatively constant rate of about 2.4 mm per half-year from infancy to about 3.5 years of age. During the 3.5- to 6-year span there is a significant deceleration in anterior displacement; the average deceleration is 0.41 mm per half-year² and the vector of decelerations differs significantly from zero (p = 0.0007). By six years the rate of displacement has diminished to about 0.7 mm per half-year. The remainder of the velocity curve, for xmxdspl1 between 6 and 7.5...

  10. 5 DISCUSSION
    (pp. 121-142)

    A number of studies on normal craniofacial growth have been conducted on the rhesus monkey over the years using a variety of techniques and sampling designs, leading to a somewhat disjointed picture. Most of these studies have been limited to short periods of the lifespan, and have had to combine sexes due to small sample size. Furthermore, the sex of animals used in these studies has frequently been unreported or ignored.

    The following discussion attempts to integrate information from these earlier studies with the present findings and address the subtleties of age and sex related changes. The various components of...

  11. 6 CONCLUSIONS
    (pp. 143-156)

    In the 1979Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, Sirianni and Swindler made a strong case for the need for standards of craniofacial growth based on longitudinal data, generated using the most sophisticated multivariate statistical approaches available. They stressed the importance of using long-term longitudinal rather than mixed-longitudinal data, as only from the former can one construct accurate distance and velocity curves. Furthermore, the former type of design, when used in conjunction with the radiopaque bone-implant technique, permits the construction of a temporally refined picture of local changes in morphology due to remodeling (Sirianni and Swindler 1979). The application of a suitable...

  12. APPENDIX A COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE
    (pp. 159-160)
  13. APPENDIX B AGE PREDICTION EQUATIONS
    (pp. 161-164)
  14. APPENDIX C STATISTICAL TABLES
    (pp. 165-200)
  15. REFERENCES
    (pp. 201-208)
  16. AUTHOR INDEX
    (pp. 209-210)
  17. SUBJECT INDEX
    (pp. 211-217)