Crisis in the Philippines

Crisis in the Philippines: The Marcos Era and Beyond. Preface by David D. Newsom

EDITED BY JOHN BRESNAN
Copyright Date: 1986
Pages: 300
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zvnsx
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  • Book Info
    Crisis in the Philippines
    Book Description:

    The book provides an overview of the history of the Philippines from the period of Spanish colonial domination to the present and analyzes the twenty-year Marcos record and the causes of the downfall of the Marcos regime. The essays will greatly aid the general reader in understanding the Philippine-American relationship.

    Originally published in 1986.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5810-1
    Subjects: History, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. FOREWORD
    (pp. vii-x)
    DAVID D. NEWSOM

    This volume by the Asia Society takes a close look at the Philippines today through both Philippine and American eyes. It explores the status and the importance of the relationship between these two nations, and in the process, examines the disturbing political and economic issues confronting the Philippines and its friends. The essays of this volume were written in large part before the dramatic events in the Philippines of February 1986. It is the more remarkable that they presaged so accurately the circumstances that precipitated those events, and required so little change in the light of them.

    The signs of...

  4. PREFACE
    (pp. xi-2)
    JOHN BRESNAN
  5. CHAPTER I PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN TENSIONS IN HISTORY
    (pp. 3-29)
    THEODORE FRIEND

    For many Filipinos the United States continues to have almost magical power as benefactor and exploiter. In popular mentality many Filipinos ascribe to America a nearly limitless capacity to shape and resolve, for good or for evil, Philippine destiny.

    In fact, the United States that once enjoyed nearly half the world’s gross national product now accounts for about one-fifth. And whereas a series of victories in wars, 1846 to 1945, tempted Americans to think of themselves as invincible, Vietnam changed that. We have learned caution about the tactical applicability of power in distant situations. The rise of the Soviet Union...

  6. CHAPTER II TRADITION AND RESPONSE
    (pp. 30-54)
    DAVID STEINBERG

    Recorded Philippine history has always taken place in the context of interaction with foreign peoples and cultures. Few countries have had the opportunity to draw upon so many wellsprings of culture—Chinese, Muslim, Spanish, Christian, American, Japanese. Yet in some ways the very richness of these sources has created a surfeit. The image of the melting pot is more attractive to Americans than to Filipinos still in search of a sense of peoplehood.

    The ways in which Philippine society has decided what to retain and what to discard from abroad have been anything but stereotypical, however; certainly the process has...

  7. CHAPTER III THE SOCIAL SITUATION
    (pp. 55-69)
    WILFREDO F. ARCE and RICARDO G. ABAD

    We often have occasion to travel in the provinces of the Philippines. And when we do we see the national society in ways that are very different from what one sees from the political heights of the capital. Here are two cases, paralleling many that we have encountered, that will give the reader a concrete sense of what we mean:

    1. The government has a program to buy rice at prices that are designed to assure the rice farmer that he can sell his produce at a profit, or at least without a loss. However, the poor tenant farmer finds it...

  8. CHAPTER IV POLITICS IN THE MARCOS ERA
    (pp. 70-113)
    LELA GARNER NOBLE

    In June 1983, Congressman Stephen Solarz, as chairman of the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, held a series of hearings on U.S.-Philippine relations. Among those testifying was former Philippine Senator and Governor Benigno Aquino, who used the occasion to explain why he had decided it was time to return to the Philippines, at the risk of imprisonment or death.

    Senator Aquino’s essential points were these: The Philippines was facing an ever-deepening economic and political crisis. Repression, rampant military abuses, runaway corruption in the highest places and the gross...

  9. CHAPTER V THE POLITICAL CRISIS
    (pp. 114-144)
    CARL H. LANDE

    A political crisis erupted visibly after the assassination of former Philippine Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., on August 21, 1983. That event triggered widespread public demands for President Marcos’ resignation. It set off a rapid decline in business confidence, leading to a massive flight of capital and to the inability of the Philippine government to service its foreign debt. It stimulated an outburst of organizational activity by the democratic opposition and an expansion of the scale of military and political action by the revolutionary opposition. For President Marcos, it brought a precipitous decline in legitimacy and authority and in his ability...

  10. CHAPTER VI THE ECONOMIC CRISIS
    (pp. 145-175)
    BERNARDO VILLEGAS

    The Philippine economy was one of the worst victims of the world recession that resulted from the second oil shock in 1979. Faced with increased costs of oil imports, declining world prices of its major export crops, and a steep rise in the interest on its foreign borrowings, the country experienced its worst balance of payments crisis at the end of 1982.

    Before the Philippines could respond favorably to the economic recovery in 1983 of its major trading partner—the United States—the country suffered great political turbulence when former Senator Benigno Aquino was assassinated on August 21, 1983. The...

  11. CHAPTER VII RECONSTITUTING THE POLITICAL ORDER
    (pp. 176-199)
    CAROLINA G. HERNANDEZ

    On February 25, 1986, Corazon Aquino was acclaimed president of the Philippines. Her accession to power had the support of an extraordinary coalition of forces. She quite evidently was the choice of a large majority of the citizens who voted or tried to vote in the election of February 7. She had the support of the citizen’s watchdog group, the National Movement for Free Elections NAMFREL, led by business executives and Catholic clergy, who mobilized 400,000 volunteers to police the voting and who found the official count in favor of Ferdinand Marcos patently and massively fraudulent. She had the support...

  12. CHAPTER VIII ECONOMIC RELATIONS
    (pp. 200-227)
    JESUS P. ESTANISLAO

    Economic relations between the Philippines and the United States, like those between most peoples, have been dynamic and changing over time. They transcend simple models of exploitation of the weak by the strong. American motives have often been less than idealistic. But there has been ample self-interest displayed on the Philippine side as well. Moreover, the wider environment has changed over the decades, so that neither party could claim all the bargaining chips all the time. There has often been an imperative for some give and take. It has been a process that has produced results that are at best...

  13. CHAPTER IX POLITICAL AND SECURITY RELATIONS
    (pp. 228-258)
    WILLIAM J. BARNDS

    United States political and security relations with the Philippines are a product of many factors, some of them arising out of the interests and history of the countries as they have evolved over time, and others that need to be seen against a wider canvas. The geographic location of the Philippines and the strategic importance of the U.S. naval and air bases at Subic Bay and Clark Field make it particularly desirable that we should begin by recalling some of the major features of the broader setting.

    The United States has a major national interest in preventing any hostile power...

  14. SELECTED READINGS
    (pp. 259-268)
  15. ABOUT THE AUTHORS
    (pp. 269-270)
  16. INDEX
    (pp. 271-284)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 285-285)