The Reformation of Cathedrals

The Reformation of Cathedrals: Cathedrals in English Society

STANFORD E. LEHMBERG
Copyright Date: 1988
Pages: 336
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zvtdv
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    The Reformation of Cathedrals
    Book Description:

    Stanford Lehmberg, a noted authority on the Tudor period, examines the impact of the Reformation on the cathedrals of England and Wales. Based largely on manuscript materials from the cathedral archives themselves, this book is the first attempt to draw together information for all twenty-nine of the cathedrals that existed in the Tudor period. The author scrutinizes the major changes that took place during this era in the institutional structure, personnel, endowments, liturgy, and music of the cathedral and shows how the cathedrals, unlike the monasteries that were dissolved by Henry VIII, succeeded in adapting successfully to the Reformation. Forty-two illustrations depict sixteenth-century changes in cathedral buildings.

    Narrative chapters trace the changes that occurred during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, "Bloody" Mary, and Elizabeth I. Analytical sections are devoted to cathedral finance and cathedral music. The changing lives of cathedral musicians are described in some detail, and even greater attention is paid to the cathedral clergy, whose living conditions changed markedly when they were allowed to marry. Using a variety of sources, including such physical remains as tombs and monuments, the concluding chapter discusses the role of cathedrals in English society.

    Originally published in 1989.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5980-1
    Subjects: Religion, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. ILLUSTRATIONS
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. TABLES
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. PREFACE
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  6. NOTE ON SOURCES AND ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. xv-1)
  7. [Map]
    (pp. 2-2)
  8. 1 THE END OF THE OLD ORDER: THE SECULAR CATHEDRALS
    (pp. 3-37)

    By basic definition a cathedral is a large church where a bishop has his seat (in Latin,cathedra). The notion of a cathedral as the mother church of a diocese was implicit from the beginning but not fully articulated until modern times. During the Middle Ages cathedrals became centers for the arts—architecture, sculpture, music—and for learning and education as well as liturgy, but there is little theoretical writing about the significance of these roles.

    The oldest English cathedral, Canterbury, was founded as part of Augustine’s mission in a.d. 597 and was dedicated in 602.¹ Its neighbor, Rochester, followed...

  9. 2 THE END OF THE OLD ORDER: THE MONASTIC CATHEDRALS
    (pp. 38-66)

    Ten of the early Tudor cathedrals were monastic in organization. Canterbury, Durham, Winchester, Worcester, Ely, Norwich, Rochester, Bath, and Coventry were Benedictine priories, while the cathedral at Carlisle was staffed by Augustinian canons.¹ Cathedral and monastic functions and traditions were blended in these houses; the story of their last years forms one of the most interesting chapters in the history of English religious orders.

    The early development of these houses need concern us only briefly. Although monasticism was an important aspect of the Celtic church, cathedrals were not, and no institutions date back to that period. The idea of cathedral...

  10. 3 HENRY VIII: THE REFORMATION BEGINS
    (pp. 67-100)

    The earliest stages of the Reformation affected the cathedrals relatively little. Some of the clergy may have wished to read the writings of Luther and Tyndale, which were denounced as heretical and prohibited in England as early as 1528.¹ A few may have been included among the heretics, like those within the diocese of Lincoln (“no small number,” according to Henry VIII) whom Bishop Longland was ordered to suppress.² But the surviving records of the cathedrals themselves contain no trace of the coming religious upheaval.

    Even the earlier sessions of the Reformation Parliament had little direct impact. It is certainly...

  11. 4 EDWARD VI: THE PROTESTANT ASCENDANCY
    (pp. 101-122)

    The death of Henry VIII removed the chief obstacle to further reform in the church. His successor, the nine-year-old male heir whose birth he had so greatly desired, had been taught by Protestant tutors, including Richard Cox, and had become convinced that he was divinely destined to bring true religion to the land, sweeping away the last vestiges of popery and superstition. Surrounded by such Protestant churchmen as Archbishop Cranmer and such Protestant ministers as his uncle, Protector Somerset, Edward VI supported a Protestant ascendancy that soon ushered in the most drastic changes of the century for the

    The new...

  12. 5 MARY TUDOR: THE CATHOLIC REACTION
    (pp. 123-138)

    As he lay dying Edward VI had accepted the so-called device for the succession presented to him by Northumberland and Cranmer. This would have guaranteed the continuation of Protestant practices by excluding both of Edward’s half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, from succession and passing the throne instead to his cousin, Lady Jane Grey. But Lady Jane was scarcely known outside the closed circle of ministers and courtiers, while Mary was remembered as the older daughter of Henry VIII and the next in line for the crown according to Henry’s will and an act of Parliament, as well as normal hereditary right....

  13. 6 THE ELIZABETHAN SETTLEMENT
    (pp. 139-163)

    Pageants enacted on the eve of Elizabeth’s coronation gave dramatic visual form to the realization that her accession would bring a reversal of religious policy. Naturally enough those who prepared the displays favored change. Thus the queen was greeted, as she rode along her route near St. Paul’s Cathedral, with a living tableau showing the Virtues trampling on Vices: “Pure religion,” we are told, “did tread vppon Superstition and Ignoraunce.” Another pageant contrasted Mary’s “ruinous Republic,” where the “decayed common weale” was characterized by “want of the feare of God,” with the “well instituted Republic” or flourishing common weal, where...

  14. 7 ELIZABETHAN CATHEDRAL FINANCE
    (pp. 164-181)

    The matter of finance in the Elizabethan cathedrals presents problems of two sorts. It is clear that difficulties were perceived during the period itself: revenues were inadequate in most places, and arrangements for collecting them were complex. In addition, problems face the modern historian who seeks to unravel the mysteries of cathedral finance, for full documentation does not exist and even those papers which remain are little studied and not easy to understand. In this chapter I will attempt to lay out the chief issues and main lines of interpretation without claiming to offer a definitive examination of a topic...

  15. 8 CATHEDRAL MUSIC AND MUSICIANS
    (pp. 182-225)

    Because sung services formed such a prominent part of the work of the cathedrals, musicians were important members of the cathedral establishments. Those who loved church music might have been prepared, as many of their twentieth-century counterparts would be, to argue that the cathedrals existed mainly for the purpose of singing the praises of God and nurturing the finest music that can be made by man. The Puritans, as has been shown, disagreed vehemently with this sense of priorities and would have been glad if they could have shifted the emphasis from singing to preaching, even to the point of...

  16. 9 CANONS, PREBENDARIES, AND DEANS
    (pp. 226-266)

    The higher-ranking cathedral clergy—canons, prebendaries, and deans—are an exceptionally interesting group for historical study. They form a clearly defined elite professional class; their lives are exceptionally well documented, and analysis of the surviving records can tell us a good deal about social and geographical mobility, educational qualifications, marriage and family, and life expectancy. Such issues as pluralism, nonresidency, and appointment of laymen to ecclesiastical positions can also be addressed by the techniques of prosopography, or collective biography.

    In order to examine these matters, I have created a computerized data bank based upon Le Neve’sFasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, a...

  17. 10 CATHEDRALS IN ENGLISH SOCIETY
    (pp. 267-306)

    What was the actual role of cathedrals in Tudor England? Were they important parts of society in England and Wales, interacting in significant ways with the lives of lay people, or were they isolated pockets of privilege, havens for lazy rich clerics who had little concern for outsiders? If they did have a valuable contribution to make, where did it lie and what were its dimensions? What difference would it have made if the cathedrals, like the monasteries, had been dissolved during the Henrician Reformation?

    Fundamental questions of this sort are the ultimate ones that any study of sixteenth-century cathedrals...

  18. INDEX
    (pp. 307-319)