Diplomacy of Hope

Diplomacy of Hope: Canada and Disarmament, 1945-1988

Translated from the French by DEREK ELLINGTON
Copyright Date: 1992
Pages: 696
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  • Book Info
    Diplomacy of Hope
    Book Description:

    Setting their study in a broad international context, the authors present their account of the negotiations under the following thematic headings: the Atomic Energy Commission of the United Nations; the Commission for Conventional Armaments; the Disarmament Commission; talks on the Arctic and the de-nuclearization of Central Europe during the late 1950s and the early 1960s; the Ten-Nation Committee on Disarmament; the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament; the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; the negotiations on chemical and biological weapons, banning nuclear tests, and the prevention of an arms race in outer space; mutual and balanced force reductions; the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; and the Stockholm negotiations at the Conference on Disarmament in Europe. The authors refer to the major bilateral talks between the United States and the former Soviet Union wherever these negotiations have a bearing on the issues in which Canada was involved.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6350-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. Tables and Figures
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Foreword
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
    Peggy Mason

    Cynics have tended to regard the pursuit of arms control and disarmament agreements as the modern day equivalent of the search for the philosopher’s stone. Arms controllers have been derided as alchemists - fruitlessly engaged. For others, arms control and disarmament is a Holy Grail to be pursued single-mindedly. To them, Government arms control and disarmament policy and negotiators have failed fundamentally because they have succeeded in bureaucratizing the process while failing to achieve significant progress in reducing arms.

    Like all caricatures, these serve a rhetorical purpose more than they serve the truth which, as often is the case, lies...

  5. Preface
    (pp. xvii-xx)
    Albert Legault and Michel Fortmann
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxi-xxii)
    Albert Legault and Michel Fortmann
  7. Acronyms
    (pp. xxiii-2)
  8. 1 The Bees and the Ants
    (pp. 3-40)

    The world has witnessed a series of major disarmament talks over the past few decades. They were not conducted in a vacuum of isolation, but were closely coupled to the international climate prevailing at the time. Clearly, they must be viewed in that context. Only then is it possible to analyze the essentials of the various proposals and to understand and appreciate the several positions adopted by the Canadian Government.

    We would not pretend to be cognizant of all that has occurred during the development of Canada’s approach to the disarmament debate. Our perusal of the copious records has, however,...

  9. 2 Canada Caught in the Squall, 1945—1952
    (pp. 41-85)

    From 1945 until the time that the UN Disarmament Commission was created in 1952, the influence of Canadian policy was felt more through Canada’s involvement in the “cultural ferment” of the international system than through her disarmament proposalsper se. The system was experiencing profound upheaval; it was the period of the great squall.

    Transformations were occurring at all levels of the system. The major transformation was obviously the division of the world into two blocs, and this occurred for three reasons. First and foremost, there was a wide divergence of ideology. Western ecumenicalism, with all its traditions of freedom...

  10. 3 The Pilgrim’s Staffand the Blind Man’s Cane
    (pp. 86-149)

    For the Europeans, the problems posed by conventional forces and atomic weapons are inextricably intertwined. This is probably true for the Soviets also. It is less true for the Americans, who hardly feel threatened by the presence of military forces massed at their borders. When the question of negotiating the elimination of intermediate range nuclear forces arose in 1987, the good sense of the Europeans prevailed. There could be no question of eliminating INF without suitable provisions to neutralize, or compensate for, the significant numerical superiority of the Warsaw Pact conventional forces.

    It was in 1950, as the war raged...

  11. 4 Things Told and Things Untold
    (pp. 150-169)

    “Face the situation head-on”, so as not to be caught off-guard. That was exactly the philosophy adopted by the Americans in the late 1950s when they initiated reconnaissance missions over Soviet territory from Pakistan and elsewhere. These operations continued until 1 May 1960 at which time the U-2 flown by American pilot Francis Gary Powers was forced down by a SAM-2 missile, and Powers was exposed to world criticism by the Soviet Air Command. On 1 July, another U.S. aircraft was shot down over the Barents Sea. Two years earlier, in April 1958, Soviet Delegate Sobolev presented a formal complaint...

  12. 5 The Catechesis of Perseverance: Canada and the Ten-Nation Committee on Disarmament
    (pp. 170-194)

    World hope for general and complete disarmament was never more prevalent than during 1959 and 1960. On 17 September 1959, the United Kingdom presented a comprehensive proposal on general and complete disarmament to the General Assembly of the United Nations. This was followed on 18 September by a comparable proposal from the Soviet Union. At Camp David, the superpowers agreed that disarmament “was the most important issue facing the world today”. Several months before, in July 1959, at the Big Four Conference on Berlin, the foreign ministers decided to resume, on an equal representation basis, the disarmament talks that had...

  13. 6 The Nuclear Threat: From Dread to Denial
    (pp. 195-228)

    Events in Cuba in 1962 caused a threefold crisis: a crisis in the international system, a bipolar crisis and a nuclear crisis. The threat of nuclear war became immediate, and the world stood at the brink of nuclear annihilation. The two superpowers saved face through the compromise of aquid pro quo: the endurance of socialism in Cuba in exchange for the withdrawal of Soviet missiles.

    From 1962 to 1969, East-West relations felt the brunt of this major crisis. Means had to be found to ease bipolar relations and to stabilize the situation in Europe. Steps had to be taken...

  14. 7 Canada and the Non-Proliferation Treaty
    (pp. 229-280)

    Few subjects in the area of arms control have caused so much ink to flow as that of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which was signed on 1 July 1968. The Treaty entered into force on 5 March 1970, and since then three Conferences have been convened to review its operation. These Review Conferences were held in 1975, 1980 and 1985. A fourth Review Conference will be held in 1990. In 1995, twentyfive years after the entry into force of the Treaty, a conference will be convened “to decide whether the Treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended...

  15. 8 Canada’s Position on Chemical and Biological Weapons
    (pp. 281-313)

    Debate on the control of chemical and biological weapons was pursued with increased vigour in the late 1960s. The main factors which led the international community to intensify efforts to prohibit these weapons included the presumed use of chemical weapons by the United Arab Republic (UAR) in the civil war in Yemen (1963-67), the 1969 report of the Secretary General of the United Nations on biological and chemical weapons, the increased use by U.S. forces in Vietnam of “defoliants” and “incapacitating gases”, and the new difficulties that arose in interpreting the 1925 Geneva Protocol.

    The issues that preoccupied the international...

  16. 9 A Comprehensive Test Ban: In Search of the Grail
    (pp. 314-374)

    Since 1957, no single issue has so preoccupied the Disarmament and Arms Control Division of the Department of External Affairs as that of a global nuclear test ban. The superpowers have long argued that nuclear weapons must be tested if deterrence is to remain credible. Even as the world enters the 1990s, many contest this conventional wisdom. The banning of nuclear tests has always been viewed as the most effective means of “choking the oxygen supply” from the major defence research laboratories and industries which are developing the weapons of tomorrow. All nations, including the superpowers, seek a Comprehensive Test...

  17. 10 Canada and Outer Space
    (pp. 375-421)

    The economic, military, strategic and legal implications of the use of outer space (os) came to light with the spectacular launch of the first Soviet satellite, Sputnik, in October 1957. The Soviet Union was the first nation to orbit, in turn, a dog, a man and then a woman. In 1958, the first International Conference on Space Law was held at The Hague.¹ That same year, following an initiative of U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, the UN General Assembly passed Resolution 1348 (XIII) which called for the creation of anAd HocCommittee on the Peaceful Uses of...

  18. 11 Of Turtles and Tanks: Canada and the MFBR Negotiations
    (pp. 422-465)

    From an arms control standpoint, Europe is a paradoxical place. Regarded since the start of the Cold War as the seat of East-West confrontation, the European peninsula - especially the central zone – boasts a concentration of military equipment and personnel unparalleled in the world. In monetary terms, this concentration accounts for roughly half of the world’s total military expenditures. Yet war central Europe is unthinkable both because of the unacceptable devastation it would cause and because of its likely escalation to nuclear proportions.

    The situation in Europe is thus less of a military confrontation or aggressive encounter than a techno-strategic...

  19. 12 A Matter of Confidence: Canada and the Military Aspects of the CSCE
    (pp. 466-524)

    As we have seen in Chapter 11, the MBFR talks were only a diplomatic exercise of limited scope that served mainly to discipline the Atlantic Alliance for 15 years in the matter of conventional arms control. The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), which has now concluded its fourth Review Conference — Helsinki-Geneva, Belgrade, Madrid and Vienna — is a richer and more evolutionary exercise (see Tables 15 and 16).

    Fifteen years after the process started in Helsinki in the fall of 1972, the CSCE has produced significant agreements in areas that are as diverse as human rights, economic cooperation,...

  20. 13 From the Megaphone to the Boudoir Canada and the Stockholm Conference (1983—1986)
    (pp. 525-563)

    On 23 November 1983, scarcely two months after the close of the Madrid marathon and a few weeks before the Stockholm Conference opened (see Table 18), East-West relations hit an icy low. NATO had just deployed the first Pershing II missiles in Europe. For the Soviets it was a significant defeat because NATO had held fast to its decision of December 1979. Also, the Soviet “withdrawal” from the negotiations in Geneva and Vienna proved to be a gross miscalculation. As J. Dean notes:

    The public could not understand why the Soviet Union, since its establishment the most consistent proponent of...

  21. Conclusion
    (pp. 564-576)

    The foregoing thematic chapters are aimed at providing the reader with an understanding of the essential elements of arms control and disarmament and the related decision-making process. We shall, therefore, restrict discussion here to a few general observations on nature of the process, on problems of decision-making, and on political power and influence.

    In an article published in 1989¹, we have focused attention on the premises of the two predominant schools of thought on the theory international relations, specifically those that subscribe to the ideas “peace through force” and “peace through law”. The first derives from scientific positivism and the...

  22. Appendix A
    (pp. 577-579)
  23. Appendix B
    (pp. 580-588)
  24. Appendix C Texts and Documents submitted by Canada before the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee, the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, the Committee on Disarmament and the Conference on Disarmament (1962-1985).
    (pp. 589-592)
  25. Notes
    (pp. 593-628)
  26. Bibliography
    (pp. 629-636)
  27. Index
    (pp. 637-663)